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Bhagavad Gita Chapter 9 Verse 12

भगवद् गीता अध्याय 9 श्लोक 12

मोघाशा मोघकर्माणो मोघज्ञाना विचेतसः।
राक्षसीमासुरीं चैव प्रकृतिं मोहिनीं श्रिताः।।9.12।।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी ( भगवद् गीता 9.12)

।।9.12।।जिनकी सब आशाएँ व्यर्थ होती हैं? सब शुभकर्म व्यर्थ होते हैं और सब ज्ञान व्यर्थ होते हैं अर्थात् जिनकी आशाएँ? कर्म और ज्ञान सत्फल देनेवाले नहीं होते? ऐसे अविवेकी मनुष्य आसुरी? राक्षसी और मोहिनी प्रकृतिका आश्रय लेते हैं।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी तेजोमयानंद

।।9.12।। वृथा आशा? वृथा कर्म और वृथा ज्ञान वाले अविचारीजन राक्षसों के और असुरों के मोहित करने वाले स्वभाव को धारण किये रहते हैं।।

हिंदी टीका - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी

।।9.12।। व्याख्या --  मोघाशाः -- जो लोग भगवान्से विमुख होते हैं? वे सांसारिक भोग चाहते हैं? स्वर्ग चाहते हैं तो उनकी ये सब कामनाएँ व्यर्थ ही होती हैं। कारण कि नाशवान् और परिवर्तनशील वस्तुकी कामना पूरी होगी ही -- यह कोई नियम नहीं है। अगर कभी पूरी हो भी जाय? तो वह टिकेगी नहीं अर्थात् फल देकर नष्ट हो जायगी। जबतक परमात्माकी प्राप्ति नहीं होती? तबतक कितनी ही सांसारिक वस्तुओंकी इच्छाएँ की जायँ और उनका फल भी मिल जाय तो भी वह सब व्यर्थ ही है (गीता 7। 23)।मोघकर्माणः -- भगवान्से विमुख हुए मनुष्य शास्त्रविहित कितने ही शुभकर्म करें? पर अन्तमें वे सभी व्यर्थ हो जायँगे। कारण कि मनुष्य अगर सकामभावसे शास्त्रविहित यज्ञ? दान आदि कर्म भी करेंगे? तो भी उन कर्मोंका आदि और अन्त होगा और उनके फलका भी आदि और अन्त होगा। वे उन कर्मोंके फलस्वरूप ऊँचेऊँचे लोकोंमें भी चले जायँगे? तो भी वहाँसे उनको फिर जन्ममरणमें आना ही पड़ेगा। इसलिये उन्होंने कर्म करके केवल अपना समय बरबाद किया? अपनी बुद्धि बरबाद की और मिला कुछ नहीं। अन्तमें रीतेकेरीते रह गये अर्थात् जिसके लिये मनुष्यशरीर मिला था? उस लाभसे सदा ही रीते रह गये। इसलिये उनके सब कर्म व्यर्थ? निष्फल ही हैं।तात्पर्य यह हुआ कि ये मनुष्य स्वरूपसे साक्षात् परमात्माके अंश हैं? सदा रहनेवाले हैं और कर्म तथा उनका,फल आदिअन्तवाला है अतः जबतक परमात्माकी प्राप्ति नहीं होगी? तबतक वे सकामभावपूर्वक कितने ही कर्म करें और उनका फल भोंगे? पर अन्तमें दुःख और अशान्तिके सिवाय कुछ नहीं मिलेगा।जो शास्त्रविहित कर्म अनुकूल परिस्थिति प्राप्त करनेकी इच्छासे सकामभावपूर्वक किये जाते हैं? वे ही कर्म व्यर्थ होते हैं अर्थात् सत्फल देनेवाले नहीं होते। परन्तु जो कर्म भगवान्के लिये? भगवान्की प्रसन्नताके लिये किये जाते हैं और जो कर्म भगवान्के अर्पण किये जाते हैं? वे कर्म निष्फल नहीं होते अर्थात् नाशवान् फल देनेवाले नहीं होते? प्रत्युत सत्फल देनेवाले हो जाते हैं -- कर्म चैव तदर्थीयं सदित्येवाभिधीयते (गीता 17। 27)।सत्रहवें अध्यायके अट्ठाईसवें श्लोकमें भी भगवान्ने कहा है कि जिनकी मेरेमें श्रद्धा नहीं है अर्थात् जो मेरेसे विमुख हैं? उनके द्वारा किये गये यज्ञ? दान? तप आदि सभी कर्म असत् होते हैं अर्थात् मेरी प्राप्ति करानेवाले नहीं होते। उन कर्मोंका इस जन्ममें और मरनेके बाद भी (परलोकमें) स्थायी फल नहीं मिलता अर्थात् जो कुछ फल मिलता है? विनाशी ही मिलता है। इसलिये उनके वे सब कर्म व्यर्थ ही हैं।मोघज्ञाना -- उनके सब ज्ञान व्यर्थ हैं। भगवान्से विमुख होकर उन्होंने संसारकी सब भाषाएं सीख लीं? सब लिपियाँ सीख लीं? तरहतरहकी कलाएँ सीख लीं? तरहतरहकी विद्याओंका ज्ञान प्राप्त कर लिया? कई तरहके आविष्कार कर लिये? अनन्त प्रकारके ज्ञान प्राप्त कर लिये? पर इससे उनका कल्याण नहीं होगा? जन्ममरण नहीं छूटेगा। इसलिये वे सब ज्ञान निष्फल हैं। जैसे? हिसाब करते समय एक अंककी भी भूल हो जाय तो हिसाब कभी सही नहीं आता? सब गलत हो जाता है? ऐसे ही जो भगवान्से विमुख हो गये हैं? वे कुछ भी ज्ञानसम्पादन करें? वह सब गलत होगा और पतनकी तरफ ही ले जायगा।विचेतसः -- उनको सारअसार? नित्यअनित्य? लाभहानि? कर्तव्यअकर्तव्य? मुक्तिबन्धन आदि बातोंका ज्ञान नहीं है।राक्षसीमासुरीं चैव प्रकृतिं मोहिनीं श्रिताः -- ऐसे वे अविवेकी और भगवान्से विमुख मनुष्य आसुरी? राक्षसी और मोहिनी प्रकृति अर्थात् स्वभावका आश्रय लेते हैं।जो मनुष्य अपना स्वार्थ सिद्ध करनेमें? अपनी कामनापूर्ति करनेमें? अपने प्राणोंका पोषण करनेमें ही लगे रहते हैं? दूसरोंको कितना दुःख हो रहा है? दूसरोंका कितना नुकसान हो रहा है -- इसकी परवाह ही नहीं करते? वे आसुरी स्वभाववाले होते हैं।जिनके स्वार्थमें? कामनापूर्तिमें बाधा लग जाती है? उनको गुस्सा आ जाता है और गुस्सेमें आकर वे अपना स्वार्थ सिद्ध करनेके लिये दूसरोंका नुकसान कर देते हैं? दूसरोंका नाश कर देते हैं? वे राक्षसी स्वभाववाले होते हैं।जिसमें अपना न स्वार्थ है? न परमार्थ है और न वैर है? फिर भी बिना किसी कारणके जो दूसरोंका नुकसान कर देते हैं? दूसरोंको कष्ट देते हैं (जैसे? उड़ते हुए पक्षीको गोली मार दी? सोते हुए कुत्तेको लाठी मार दी और फिर राजी हो गये)? वे मोहिनी स्वभाववाले होते हैं।परमात्मासे विमुख होकर केवल अपने प्राणोंको रखनेकी अर्थात् सुखपूर्वक जीनेकी जो इच्छा होती है? वह आसुरी प्रकृति है। ऊपर जो तीन प्रकारकी प्रकृति (आसुरी? राक्षसी और मोहिनी) बतायी गयी है? उसके मूलमें आसुरी प्रकृति ही है अर्थात् आसुरी सम्पत्ति ही सबका मूल है। एक आसुरी सम्पत्तिके आश्रित होनेपर राक्षसी और मोहिनी प्रकृति भी स्वाभाविक आ जाती है। कारण कि उत्पत्तिविनाशशील पदार्थोंका ध्येय होनेसे सब अनर्थपरम्परा आ ही जाती है। उसी आसुरी सम्पत्तिके तीन भेद यहाँ बताये गये हैं -- कामनाकी प्रधानतावालोंकी आसुरी? क्रोधकी प्रधानतावालोंकी राक्षसी और मोह(मूढ़ता) की प्रधानतावालोंकी मोहिनी प्रकृति होती है। तात्पर्य है कि कामनाकी प्रधानता होनेसे आसुरी प्रकृति आती है। जहाँ कामनाकी प्रधानता होती है? वहाँ राक्षसी प्रकृति -- क्रोध आ ही जाता है -- कामात्क्रोधोऽभिजायते (गीता 2। 62) और जहाँ क्रोध आता है? वहाँ मोहिनी प्रकृति (मोह) आ ही जाता है -- क्रोधाद्भवति सम्मोहः (2। 63)। यह सम्मोह लोभसे भी होता है और मूर्खतासे भी होता है। सम्बन्ध --  चौथे श्लोकसे लेकर दसवें श्लोकतक भगवान्ने अपने प्रभाव? सामर्थ्य आदिका वर्णन किया। उस प्रभावको न माननेवालोंका वर्णन तो ग्यारहवें और बारहवें श्लोकमें कर दिया। अब उस प्रभावको जानकर भजन करनेवालोंका वर्णन आगके श्लोकमें करते हैं।

हिंदी टीका - स्वामी चिन्मयानंद जी

।।9.12।। See commentary under 9.13

English Translation - Swami Gambirananda

9.12 Of vain hopes, of vain actions, of vain knowledge, and senseless, they become verily possessed of the deceptive disposition of fiends and demons.

English Translation - Swami Sivananda

9.12 Of vain hopes, of vain actions, of vain knowledge and senseless, they verily are possessed of the deceitful nature of demons and undivine beings.

English Translation - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

9.12. [They] are of futile aspirations, futile actions, futile knowledge and wrong intellect; and they take recourse only to the delusive nature that is demoniac and also devilish.

English Commentary - Swami Sivananda

9.12 मोघाशाः of vain hopes? मोघकर्माणः of vain actions? मोघज्ञानाः of vain knowledge? विचेतसः senseless? राक्षसीम् devilish? आसुरीम् undivine? च and? एव verily? प्रकृतिम् nature? मोहिनीम् deceitful? श्रिताः (are) possessed of.Commentary They entertain vain hopes? for there can be no hope in perishable forms. It is vain hope because they run after transient objects and miss the Eternal. It is vain action? because it is not performed by them as sacrifice unto the Lord. The Agnihotra (a ritual) and other actions performed by them are fruitless? because they insult the Lord. They are senseless. They have no,discrimination. They have no idea of the eternal Self. They worship their body only. They behold no self beyond the body. They neglect their own Self. They do atrocious crimes and cruel actions. They rob others property and murder people. They partake of the nature of the demons and the undivine beings.The Rakshasa are Tamasic and the Asuras are Rajasic.Prakriti means here Svabhava (ones own nature).They see the external human body only. They have no knowledge of the Self that dwells within the body. They do not behold God in the universe. They life for eating and drinking only.He who entertains hope of getting the rewards of actions through mere Karma alone? without the grace of the Lord is one of empty hope and empty deed. Karmas are insentient. They cannot give rewards independently. The omniscient Lord Who knows the relationship between Karmas and their fruits can dispense them. He who has obtained knowledge from books which do not admit of the existence of the Self and which do not speak of the Self is one of empty knowledge. This will not give any reward. That knowledge obtained through the study of spiritual books which treat of Brahman alone can give the reward. (Cf.VII.15XVI.6?20)

English Translation of Sanskrit Commentary By Sri Shankaracharya's

9.12 Moghasah, of vain hopes. So also, mogha-karmanah, of vain actions: their rites, such as Agnihotra etc. which are undertaken by them, verily become vain, fruitless actions, because of dishonouring the Lord, disregarding Him who is their own Self. In this way they are of vain actions. Similarly, mogha-jnanah, of vain knowledge: of fruitless knowledge; even their knowledge verily becomes useless. And vicetasah, senseless: i.e., they lose their power of discrimination. Besides, [Besides, in the next birth৷৷.] they become sritah, possessed of; the mohinim, self-deceptive, self-delusive; prakritim, disposition; raksasim, of fiends; and asurim, of demons-according to which the body is the Self; i.e., they become habitually inclined to act cruelly, saying, cut, break, drink, eat, steal others wealth, etc. [The habit to cut, break, drink, eat, etc. is characteristic of fiends. The habit of stealing others wealth, etc. is characteristic of demons.] This is stated in the Sruti, Those worlds of devils (are covered by blinding darkness) (Is. 3).

English Translation of Commentary - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

9.12 Mogha-etc. Their action, knowledge and aspirations are all futile, as these are concerned with the unreal. The demoniac and devilish nature etc. They are of the nature of excessive desire and ignorance.

English Translation of Ramanuja's Sanskrit Commentary

9.12 Men yielding to the deluding nature characteristics of Asuras and Raksas and not aware of My higher nature like compassion etc. When I am in a human form, are possessed of vain hopes, i.e, their hopes remain fruitless, and their knowledge also is vain, i.e., is fruitless. They are so because of their erroneous understanding which fails to know that all things, mobile and immobile, belong to Me. They are ignorant on account of their being devoid of knowledge of truth everywhere. Whatever they do regarding Me, the Lord of all, is done with an attitude that I am an ordinary mortal. So their efforts go in vain. All this springs from their partaking of the nature of Raksasas and Asuras.

Commentary - Chakravarthi Ji

What is the destination of those you do not accept you, Krishna as the Lord and think that you have a human material body? Even if devotees are in this condition, their aspirations are in vain (moghasah). They do not achieve salokya or whatever else they have desired. If they are karmis, they do not attain the results of their actions such as svarga (mogha karmanah). If they are jnanis they do not attain the results of knowledge, liberation (mogha jnana). Then what do they attain? They assume the nature (prakrtim) of raksasas.

Rudra Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Deluded fools full of vain hopes and dreams entertain the futile misconception that the lesser gods whom they worship can bequeath results more efficiently than the Supreme Lord and therefore such fools turn away from Lord Krishna and are often even inimical towards Him. All of their hopes and dreams are in vain and to no avail because their fundamental knowledge is not based on the reality presented in the Vedic scriptures; but rather on a concocted conglomeration of fallacious speculations. Consequently they follow flawed and misdirected concepts and hypothesis which are deceptive and devoid of proper discrimination which lead to raja guna or the mode of passion characterized by ostentatious arrogance and unwarranted pride. From there they sink even lower to tama guna or the mode of ignorance which gradually degrades itself into demoniac natures predominating in cruelty and heinous activities against oneself and others. Such unfortunates greatly disrespect and deride Lord Krishna as well. This verse is the conclusion of the previous verse and should be understood in this light.

Brahma Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The results of delusion are explained here by Lord Krishna. Vain hopes, ineffectual desires and unobtainable dreams. These are the rewards for all those who disrespect and disregard the Supreme Lord. There is no success in their efforts. The actions which they undertake are useless to them as even whatever knowledge they possess is worthless and of no avail. Even the efforts they make to insure a pleasant destination in the next life have no value and will not bear any results because such miscreants and offenders who disrespect and disregard the Supreme Lord Krishna are hurled from the platform of humanity into the lower species of life such as reptile and insect to revolve in samsara or the endless cycle of birth and death. The Moksa Dharma specifically states that anyone who derides, disrespects or detests the Supreme Lord Krishna by thought, by speech or by actions are sentenced to eternal perdition in hell along with all their ancestors. How can such unfortunates who are inimical to the very Supreme Being who resides within them as paramatma or the Supreme Soul in all created beings not deserve such a censure along with all their corrupted line. In the Shandilya section of the Sama Veda it is even stated that those who detest and disrespect the excellent devotees of the Supreme Lord who mercifully distribute knowledge of His glories to all the conditioned jivas or embodied souls, such offenders are not only the lowest of all but are not even equal to the despicable beings who perform abortions being killers of embryos. In the Vedic scriptures are mentioned the stories of kings who were liberated even by hatred of the Supreme Lord. How is this to be understood? Such kings as Sishupala, Paundra, Salva and others while harbouring animosity against the Supreme Lord still received sayuja moksa or liberation by nearness to Him and thus able to assimilate His look, His gait, His smile, His style etc. So if liberation is awarded even to those who were inimical to Him then needless to say that those who are totally devoted to Him will surely attain moksa as well. All these pastimes are for the purpose of eulogising the Supreme Lords compassion for those devotees that have continuous remembrance of Him. For His devotees in any life who due to the powerful influence of being cursed can only constantly remember Him in a mood of antagonism, Lord Krishna still bequeaths upon them the reward of their devotion. Thus devotees from previous lives such as Sishupala who were so cursed in this manner that they were unable to be affectionate to the Supreme Lord. They were full of so much animosity and antagonism due to the influence of curses. The same holds true for Jaya and Vijaya who later became Hiranyakasipu and Hiranyagarbha as well as Ravana and Kumbakarna. Therefore by mentioning various incidents those who detested the Supreme Lord and were awarded moksa is explained. Otherwise why would there be any reference to such non-consequential events. It is only to remind the doubters that the Supreme Lord is equally compassionate to those who disparage and deride Him after taking into consideration their past life services of devotion. Lord Krishna confirms this Himself in verse 31 of this chapter where He proclaims kaunteya pratijanahi na me bhaktah pranasyati which translates: Declare it boldly O Arjuna that My devotee is never vanquished. Still there may be some doubt that remembrance in any manner could be seen as a contradiction. It is quite natural that those who cherish hatred will always hate, in which case it could be erroneously surmised that by hating ones teacher one will also gain the greatness of the teacher. But there is no such contradiction in the Supreme Lord by accepting both the worshipper and the detractor giving identical rewards to their actions due to His being instantly omniscient and able to perceive their past life service to Him. Great devotees in past lives like Hiranakasipu who became inimical to the Supreme Lord Krishnas incarnation of Narasimhadeva and was slain and liberated by Him and released from the effects of the curse due to his sons great devotion and his praying for the Supreme Lords grace to redeem his father. Yet these are special instances that correspond to the Supreme Lord performing some specific lila or divine pastime and they are the exception and not the rule. Animosity to the Supreme Lord and antagonism against Him is absolutely not the means or achieving moksa by any means and it should not be construed as such. The Supreme Lord is of course always free to liberate whomsoever He desires but because those who hate cannot reciprocate love and affection towards Him they can never be situated in a state of normal devotion and hence are unable to experience Him in a loving devotee relationship. It has already been stated by Lord Krishna that he considers those who hate the Supreme Lord as asuric not divine and raksasas or demoniac and very evil minded. Therefore it is established and should be understood that it is never possible for the demoniac and satanic to ever attain moksa or liberation from the material existence.

Shri Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The natures of the fiendish asuras or the not divine and the hellish raksasas or the demoniac is very inveigling and shuts out from view the superior nature and qualities of infinite mercy and compassion that are concealed under Lord Krishnas anthropomorphic exterior which appears human and this they espouse thinking He is also perishable. Such thinking causes them to become: moghasa of vain appetites having desires that will remain unfulfilled, mogha-karmano pursuing vain endeavours, mogha-jnana possessing vain knowledge that has no value inasmuch as it is based on false conceptions of Lord Krishna on the fundamental level and vicetasah or mentally fractured and confused about the Supreme Lord. By accepting the Supreme Lord of all to resemble and be equated with any other ordinary human, by such mentality whatever effort and endeavour is embarked upon with any goal in view shall all be done in vain for such actions will reap no fruition.

Kumara Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The natures of the fiendish asuras or the not divine and the hellish raksasas or the demoniac is very inveigling and shuts out from view the superior nature and qualities of infinite mercy and compassion that are concealed under Lord Krishnas anthropomorphic exterior which appears human and this they espouse thinking He is also perishable. Such thinking causes them to become: moghasa of vain appetites having desires that will remain unfulfilled, mogha-karmano pursuing vain endeavours, mogha-jnana possessing vain knowledge that has no value inasmuch as it is based on false conceptions of Lord Krishna on the fundamental level and vicetasah or mentally fractured and confused about the Supreme Lord. By accepting the Supreme Lord of all to resemble and be equated with any other ordinary human, by such mentality whatever effort and endeavour is embarked upon with any goal in view shall all be done in vain for such actions will reap no fruition.

Transliteration Bhagavad Gita 9.12

Moghaashaa moghakarmaano moghajnaanaa vichetasah; Raakshaseemaasureem chaiva prakritim mohineem shritaah.

Word Meanings Bhagavad Gita 9.12

mogha-āśhāḥ—of vain hopes; mogha-karmāṇaḥ—of vain actions; mogha-jñānāḥ—of baffled knowledge; vichetasaḥ—deluded; rākṣhasīm—demoniac; āsurīm—atheistic; cha—and; eva—certainly; prakṛitim—material energy; mohinīm—bewildered; śhritāḥ—take shelter