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Bhagavad Gita Chapter 6 Verse 20

भगवद् गीता अध्याय 6 श्लोक 20

यत्रोपरमते चित्तं निरुद्धं योगसेवया।
यत्र चैवात्मनाऽऽत्मानं पश्यन्नात्मनि तुष्यति।।6.20।।

English Translation - Swami Gambirananda

6.20 At the time when the mind restrained through the practice of Yoga gets withdrawn, and just when by seeing the Self by the self one remains contented in the Self alone [A.G. construes the word eva (certainly) with tusyati (remains contented).-Tr.];

English Translation - Swami Sivananda

6.20 When the mind, restrained by the practice of Yoga attains to ietude and when seeing the Self by the self, he is satisfied in hiw own Self.

English Translation - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

6.20. Where the mind, well-restrained through Yoga-practice, remains iet; again where, observing, by the self, nothing but the Self, he (Yogi) is satisfied in the Self;

English Commentary - Swami Sivananda

6.20 यत्र where? उपरमते attains ietude? चित्तम् mind? निरुद्धम् restrained? योगसेवया by the practice of Yoga? यत्र where? च and? एव only? आत्मना by the Self? आत्मानम् the Self? पश्यन् seeing? आत्मनि in the Self? तुष्यति is satisfied.Commentary The verses 20? 21? 22 and 23 must be taken together.When the mind is completely withdrawn from the objects of the senses? supreme peace reigns within the heart. When the mind becomes ite steady by constant and protracted practice of concentration the Yogi beholds the Supreme Self by the mind which is rendered pure and onepointed and attains to supreme satisfaction in the Self within.

English Translation of Sanskrit Commentary By Sri Shankaracharya's

6.20 Yatra, at the time when; cittam, the mind; niruddham, restrained, entirely prevented from wandering; uparamate, gets withdrawn; yoga-sevaya, through the practice of Yoga; ca, and; yatra eva, just when, at the very moment when; pasyan, by seeing, by experiencing; atmanam, the Self, which by nature is the supreme light of Consciousness; atmana, by the self, by the mind purified by concentration; tusyati, one remains contented, gets delighted; atmani eva, in ones own Self alone-. [Samadhi is of two kinds, Samprajnata and Asamprajnata. The concentration called right knowledge (Samprajnata) is that which is followed by reasoning, discrimination, blisss and unalified egoism. Asamprajnata is that which is attained by the constant practice of cessation of all mental activity, in which the citta retains only the unmanifested impressions.-Cf. C. W., Vol. I, 1962, pp. 210, 212. According to A.G. the verses upto 6.20 state in a general way the characteristics of samadhi. From the present verse to the 25th, Asamprajnata-samadhi is introduced and defined.-Tr.] Besides,

English Translation of Commentary - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

6.20 See Comment under 6.23

English Translation of Ramanuja's Sanskrit Commentary

6.20 - 6.23 Where, through the practice of Yoga, the mind, which is subdued everywhere by such practice, rejoices, i.e., rejoices in surpassing felicity; and where, perceiving through Yoga the self (Atman) by the mind (Atman) one is delighted by the self and indifferent to all other objects; and where, through Yoga, one knows, i.e., experiences that infinite happiness which can be grasped only by the intellect contemplating on the self, but is beyond the grasp of the senses; where, remaining in that Yoga, one does not swerve from that state, because of the overwhelming happiness that state confers; having gained which, he desires for it alone, even when he is awakened from Yoga, and does not hold anything else as a gain; where one is not moved even by the heaviest sorrow caused by any berevaement like that of a virtuous son - let him know that disunion from all union with pain, i.e., which forms the opposite of union with pain, is called by the term Yoga. This Yoga must be practised with the determination of its nature as such from the beginning with a mind free from despondency, i.e., with zestful exaltation.

Commentary - Chakravarthi Ji

In verse 16 and the verses following, the word yoga referred to being situated in samadhi. Samadhi is of two types: samprajnata and asamprajnata. Samprajnata samadhi has many types according to differences of savicara and savitarka. What is asamprajnata samadhi like? Three and a half verses answer. In that state of asamprajnata samadhi, the consciousness does not touch any objects at all (cittam uparamate), because of complete stoppage (niruddham). As Patanjali’s sutra says: yogas citta-vrtti-nirodhah : yoga means stopping the functions of the consciousness. (Yoga Sutra 1.2) The word yatra (in which state) extends its meaning to verse 23. In that samadhi, the yogi, seeing the self by his consciousness (atmana) in the form of paramatma, is satisfied in the self. In that state of samadhi, he then experiences extreme bliss, which is  comprehended  by  intelligence  in   the  form  of  the  soul (buddhya), devoid of contact with material senses and sense objects. Then, in that state he does not move from the true state of the atma, his true form (tattvatah). Having attained that state, he does not consider attaining anything else. In that state, he is separated from all contact with suffering. One should know that state of samadhi as yoga. “Though I cannot attain it quickly, certainly I can attain this yoga.” By such certainty one should practice. One should not be discouraged, saying, “After such a long time, I have not achieved perfection. What is the use of all this hard work?” (anirvinna cetasa). One should practice with mind convinced, “What is it to me? Let me attain perfection in this life or in the next.” Gaudapada has given an example: utseka udadher yadvat kusagreaika-binduna manaso nigrahas tadvad bhaved aparikhedatah One should gradually control the mind without complaining, though it is like taking drops of water from the ocean to dry it up with a tip of a kusa. There is a story to explain this. The ocean stole with its strong waves the eggs of a bird which were situated on the ocean’s shore. Determined to dry up the ocean, the bird took one drop of water at a time using its beak. The ocean, being emptied of many drops by the bird’s beak, was not at all affected. Though discouraged by Narada, who happened to come there, the bird again made the promise in front of him. “In this life or the next, I will dry up the ocean.” Then merciful Narada, by the will of the Lord, send Garuda to help the bird, saying “The ocean has disrespected you by offending your relative, this small bird.” The ocean, becoming dried up by the wind coming from Garuda’s flapping wings, became frightened, and then returned the eggs to the bird. Thus one should be convinced that the Lord will bestow his mercy on the resolute person who enthusiastically begins yoga, jnana or bhakti with faith in the words of scripture.

Rudra Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The meaning of yoga is the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness. The primary meaning to be discerned here is the perfection of attainment by focused meditation in the etheric heart resulting in atma tattva or realisation of the soul which automatically connects one to the Supreme Lord. This is the primary meaning of the word yoga in these four verses. That superior level of consciousness wherein a purified mind is guided to perpetually meditate upon the atma or soul is designated as yoga and is defined by its result as the primary characteristic of yoga.The Yoga Sutras by Pantajali state that: Yoga is controlling the modifications of ones mentality. The same is defined for meditation by its result being the attainment of what was desired to be achieved. That superior level of consciousness where one perceives the atma alone within but distinct from the physical body and becoming completely satisfied and content no longer infatuated by the delusion of sense gratification is known as this yoga. The word yatra in the first three verses meaning which and the word tam in the fourth verse meaning that are both used to refer to this yoga. The reason for satisfaction in the atma exclusively is also being stated by Lord Krishna. Referring to that superior level of consciousness where one experiences absolute, unsurpassed and everlasting. Bliss. At this time there is no relationship with the senses and no contact with sense objects yet one experiences bliss. How is this to understand. Lord Krishna reveals that it is transcendental and independent of material nature and is only perceived by spiritual intelligence that has realised the reality of the atma. Established thus one never wavers from the eternal truth which is the reality of the atma. The steadiness and non wavering on the atma is being validated as well by the statements that there is nothing greater than attaininment of the atma which is itself of the nature of infinite bliss. Being thus established in atma tattva one is not affected, influenced or overcome by the dualities of heat and cold or pleasure and pain. It must be noted that a result of this is the cessation of all inauspicious things and by this yoga is also defined. The word dukhena means suffering and refers also to the pleasure derived from sense objects as they are mixed with suffering also. That superior level of consciousness which is completely untouched by any contact with any type of pain or suffering should be known as yoga. The science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness is called yoga. The application of the word yoga to mean action as in karma yoga is only figurative being that by performing prescribed Vedic activities such actions constitute a method of achieving yoga. Since yoga bequeaths such phenomenal results it should be exclusively practised with diligence and determination which is fortified by the conviction and commitment derived from the knowledge of the Vedic scriptures taught by the bonafide spiritual preceptor in the authorised parampara or disciplic succession. Although the results from this assuredly reach fruition in due course of time it should be engaged in with enthusiasm. One should be patient and hopeful and not be subjected to a lackadaisical attitude. A lackadaisical attitude in practise is considered a sickness of spirit.

Brahma Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

In verse twenty Lord Krishna uses the word atmani to indicate the body and the word atmana to indicate the mind and atmanam refers to the resplendent Supreme Lord. In verse twenty-one the word tattvatah means the form of the Supreme Lord. In verse twenty-four the compound words dukha-samyoga-viyogam means that which severs the connection to misery. The word samyoga insures that not only all connection to misery is severed but also the possibility of misery arising in the future is severed as well. The words niscayena yoktavyo means practised with firm determination. Now begins the summation. The word atmanam means the Supreme Lord and atmana is indicative to the Supreme Lords grace experienced through the mind.

Shri Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Lord Krishna is revealing the superior meditation wherein as a result of dedicated effort one completely immerses their mind in the delight of spiritual transcendence, wherein as the mind perceiving the atma or soul receives the greatest satisfaction and contentment realising there is nothing else to be desired for, wherein the consciousness experiences that sublime and ineffable bliss beyond the scope of the senses to comprehend, wherein once established one never for a moment has the desire to relinquish the exquisite bliss experienced, wherein perfection of meditation is even once achieved one desires nothing else even in the times of not meditating, and wherein once established whether immersed in meditation or on the way to perfection one does not become shaken by adversity or disturbed by afflictions even as grave and devastating as the premature death of a beloved family member, One should learn this superior meditation which severs all connection with sorrow and misery. Knowing the intrinsic nature of meditation to be thus one should perform meditation with full trust and faith, free from all doubts with the mind happy and content.

Kumara Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Lord Krishna is revealing the superior meditation wherein as a result of dedicated effort one completely immerses their mind in the delight of spiritual transcendence, wherein as the mind perceiving the atma or soul receives the greatest satisfaction and contentment realising there is nothing else to be desired for, wherein the consciousness experiences that sublime and ineffable bliss beyond the scope of the senses to comprehend, wherein once established one never for a moment has the desire to relinquish the exquisite bliss experienced, wherein perfection of meditation is even once achieved one desires nothing else even in the times of not meditating, and wherein once established whether immersed in meditation or on the way to perfection one does not become shaken by adversity or disturbed by afflictions even as grave and devastating as the premature death of a beloved family member, One should learn this superior meditation which severs all connection with sorrow and misery. Knowing the intrinsic nature of meditation to be thus one should perform meditation with full trust and faith, free from all doubts with the mind happy and content.

Transliteration Bhagavad Gita 6.20

Yatroparamate chittam niruddham yogasevayaa; Yatra chaivaatmanaa’tmaanam pashyannaatmani tushyati.

Word Meanings Bhagavad Gita 6.20

yatra—when; uparamate—rejoice inner joy; chittam—the mind; niruddham—restrained; yoga-sevayā—by the practice of yog; yatra—when; cha—and; eva—certainly; ātmanā—through the purified mind; ātmānam—the soul; paśhyan—behold; ātmani—in the self; tuṣhyati—is satisfied