अज्ञश्चाश्रद्दधानश्च संशयात्मा विनश्यति।
नायं लोकोऽस्ति न परो न सुखं संशयात्मनः।।4.40।।
।।4.40।।विवेकहीन और श्रद्धारहित संशयात्मा मनुष्यका पतन हो जाता है। ऐसे संशयात्मा मनुष्यके लिये न यह लोक है न परलोक है और न सुख ही है।
4.40 Ajnah, one who is ignorant, who has not known the Self; and asradda-dhanah, who is faithless; [Ast. adds here: guruvakya-sastresu avisvasavan, who has no faith in the instructions of the teacher and the scriptures.-Tr.] and samsaya-atma, who has a doubting mind; vinasyati, perishes. Although the ignorant and the faithless get ruined, yet it is not to the extent that a man with a doubting mind does. As for one with a doubting mind, he is the most vicious of them all. How? Na ayam lokah, neither this world which is familiar; na, nor also; parah, the next world; na sukham, nor happiness; asti, exist; samsaya-atmanah, for one who has a doubting mind. For doubt is possible even with regard to them! Therefore one should not entertain doubt. Why?
4.39-40 Sraddhavan etc. Ajnah etc. Here the idea of the passage is this : The incoming of faith and the performance of activities intending this [knowledge], both spring up soon no doubt, if one, being a believer, entertains no doubt. Therefore, one should remain being favoured by the preceptors and the scriptures, and not entertaining any doubt. For, the doubt is a destroyer of everything [good]. Indeed a person with doubt knows nothing, because he does not have faith. Hence one should remain without doubt. The subject matter that has been elaborated in this entire chapter is now summarised by a pair of the [following] verses :
4.40 The ignorant, i.e., one devoid of knowledge received through instruction, the faithless or one who has no faith in developing this knowledge taught to him, i.e., who does not strive to progress ickly, and the doubting one, i.e., one who is full of doubts in regard to the knowledge taught - such persons perish, are lost. When this knowledge taught to him about the real nature of the self is doubted, then he loses this material world as also the next world. The meaning is that the ends of man, such as Dharma, Artha and Karma which constitute the material ends or fulfilments, are not achieved by such a doubting one. How then can mans supreme end, release be achieved by such a doubting one? For all the ends of human life can be achieved through the actions which are prescribed by the Sastras, but their performance reires the firm conviction that the self is different from the body. Therefore, even a little happiness does not come to the person who has a doubting mind concerning the self.
Ajnashchaashraddhadhaanashcha samshayaatmaa vinashyati; Naayam loko’sti na paro na sukham samshayaatmanah.
ajñaḥ—the ignorant; cha—and; aśhraddadhānaḥ—without faith; cha—and; sanśhaya—skeptical; ātmā—a person; vinaśhyati—falls down; na—never; ayam—in this; lokaḥ—world; asti—is; na—not; paraḥ—in the next; na—not; sukham—happiness; sanśhaya-ātmanaḥ—for the skeptical soul