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Bhagavad Gita Chapter 18 Verse 44

भगवद् गीता अध्याय 18 श्लोक 44

कृषिगौरक्ष्यवाणिज्यं वैश्यकर्म स्वभावजम्।
परिचर्यात्मकं कर्म शूद्रस्यापि स्वभावजम्।।18.44।।

English Translation - Swami Gambirananda

18.44 The natural duties of the Vaisyas are agriculture, cattle-rearing and trade. Of the Sudras, too, the natural duty is in the form of service.

English Translation - Swami Sivananda

18.44 Agriculture, cattle-rearing and trade are the duties of the Vaisya (merchant), born of (their own) nature; and action consisting of service is the duty of the Sudra (servant-class), born of (their own) nature.

English Translation - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

18.44. Ploughing, cattle-tending and trading are the actions of the Vaisyas, born of their nature. The action, in the form of service, is of the Sudras, born of their nature.

English Commentary - Swami Sivananda

18.44 कृषिगौरक्ष्यवाणिज्यम् agriculture? cattlerearing and trade? वैश्यकर्म the duties of Vaisya? स्वभावजम् born of nature? परिचर्यात्मकम् consisting of service? कर्म action? शूद्रस्य of the Sudra? अपि also? स्वभावजम् born of nature.Commentary When a man performs his duties rightly according to his caste and order of life his heart is purified and he goes to heaven. Apastambha Dharma Sutra declares? Men of severla,castes and orders? each devoted to his respective duties? reap the fruits of their actions after death? and then by the residual Karma attain to births in superior Dharma? span of life? learning? conduct? wealth? happiness and intelligence (2?2?2?3). There is a vivid description in the Puranas also of the different results and worlds which men of the four castes and orders obtain by discharging their respective duties.

English Translation of Sanskrit Commentary By Sri Shankaracharya's

18.44 Svabyavajam, the natural; vaisya-karma, duties of the Vaisyas, of the Vaisya caste; are krsi-gauraksyavanijyam, agriculture, cattle rearing and trade: Krsi is tilling of land. Orre who rears cattle (go) is goraksa; the abstract form of that word is gauraksyam, animal-huandry. Vanijyam means the occupation of a trader, consisting of buying and selling. Sudrasya, of the Sudra; api, too; svabhavajam, the natural; karma, duty; is paricaryatmakam, in the form of service. When rightly pursued, the natural result of these duties enjoined for the castes is the attainment of heaven-which act is evident from such Smrti texts as, People belonging to the castes and stages of life, who are true to their own duties, experience after death the fruit of their actions. And after that, as a result of the remnants of their merits they are born in some excellent region, caste and family, with greater piety, longevity, learning, conduct, wealth, happiness and intelligence (Ap. Dh. Su. 2.2.2.3), etc. And in the Puranas also it is particularly mentioned that poeple belonging to the (different) castes and stages of life come to have specific results in the form of different worlds. But this result that is going to be stated follows from a different cause:

English Translation of Commentary - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

18.44 See Comment under 18.60

English Translation of Ramanuja's Sanskrit Commentary

18.44 Agriculture is cultivation to produce crops. The meaning of cattle breeding is the protection and rearing of cattle. Trade is the activity causing the amassing of wealth through buying and selling. This is the duty of Vaisya born of his inherent nature. The duty of a Sudra, born of his inherent nature, is service to the three Orders mentioned earlier. All these have been described to stress that the occupational activities of the four stations are auxiliary to the performance of sacrifices etc., which are ordained by the Sastra. Sacrifices etc., are common to the first three stations. Control of the senses etc., are common to those who, among the first three stations, are anxious for release. As a Brahmana possesses preponderance of Sattva, and as the control of the senses, mind etc., can be performed by him easily and naturally, control of the senses etc., have been prescribed as his duty. As control of the mind, senses etc., can be performed only with difficulty by the Ksatriyas and the Vaisyas owing to the preponderance of Rajas and Tamas respectively in them, these have not been stated as their duty. The occupation of a Brahmana is officiating as priest in sacrifices, teaching the Vedas and receiving gifts. The occupation of a Ksatriya is protecting the people and that of the Vaisyas is farming etc., as mentioned before. The duty and occupation of the Sudra is service to the three stations.

Commentary - Chakravarthi Ji

This verse describes the actions of the vaisyas predominated by rajas with tamas as secondary guna. Protecting the cows and commerce are the activities of the vaisya. One who protects the cows called go raksah. The state of protecting the cows is called go raksyam. The verse also speaks of the sudras in whom tamas predominates and rajas is secondary. Serving the vaisyas, ksatriyas and brahmanas (paricaryatmikam) is the activity of the sudra.

Rudra Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The duties of both the vaisyas or mercantile agricultural class and the sudras or servant class is explained by Lord Krishna. Cow raising and protecting and agricultural cultivation as well engaging in buying and selling of products and goods are duties of vaisyas born of the nature of raja guna or mode of passion mixed with tama guna or mode of ignorance. The duties of sudras is loyal service to the other three classes and receiving sustenance for their livelihood from them and is born of the nature of tama guna.

Brahma Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

There is no commentary for this verse.

Shri Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The natural duties allocated to the vaisyas or agricultural, mercantile class are: 1) krishi or farming. 2) go-raksa or cow raising and cow protecting 3) vanijyam or acts of commerce and trade endorsed by the Vedic scriptures. The natural duties of sudras or worker class are amenable service to the upper 3 classes. Thus by defining the duties of the four classes in Vedic culture the necessary performance of prescribed Vedic activities and the appropriate participation of each of the four classes is implied. For example in yagna or ritualistic performance of propitiation and worship the Brahmins will perform the ceremony, the ksatriya will donate wealth, the vaisyas will supply the ingredients such as ghee or clarified butter and cow products, the sudras will serve the ksatriyas and vaisyas. The Brahmins being naturally endowed with sattva guna the mode of goodness are allotted with samah or self control of the mind which bestows the purity required to perform Vedic rituals and ceremonies. Although qualified for initiation this was not allocated to ksatriya and vaisyas due to they having a preponderance of raja guna mode of passion and tama guna mode of ignorance which is not compatible with samah. The Brahmins exemplify by example the teachings of the Vedic scriptures instructing others the proper way to live a human existence according to the status of life they are in. The ksatriyas duty is to righteously govern and protect the citizens of the country. The vaisyas duty is cow protection and cultivating food for the population. The sudras duty is to do all the menial services for a fair compensation, necessary for the upper three classes to discharge their duties expediently and efficiently.

Kumara Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The natural duties allocated to the vaisyas or agricultural, mercantile class are: 1) krishi or farming. 2) go-raksa or cow raising and cow protecting 3) vanijyam or acts of commerce and trade endorsed by the Vedic scriptures. The natural duties of sudras or worker class are amenable service to the upper 3 classes. Thus by defining the duties of the four classes in Vedic culture the necessary performance of prescribed Vedic activities and the appropriate participation of each of the four classes is implied. For example in yagna or ritualistic performance of propitiation and worship the Brahmins will perform the ceremony, the ksatriya will donate wealth, the vaisyas will supply the ingredients such as ghee or clarified butter and cow products, the sudras will serve the ksatriyas and vaisyas. The Brahmins being naturally endowed with sattva guna the mode of goodness are allotted with samah or self control of the mind which bestows the purity required to perform Vedic rituals and ceremonies. Although qualified for initiation this was not allocated to ksatriya and vaisyas due to they having a preponderance of raja guna mode of passion and tama guna mode of ignorance which is not compatible with samah. The Brahmins exemplify by example the teachings of the Vedic scriptures instructing others the proper way to live a human existence according to the status of life they are in. The ksatriyas duty is to righteously govern and protect the citizens of the country. The vaisyas duty is cow protection and cultivating food for the population. The sudras duty is to do all the menial services for a fair compensation, necessary for the upper three classes to discharge their duties expediently and efficiently.

Transliteration Bhagavad Gita 18.44

Krishigaurakshyavaanijyam vaishyakarma swabhaavajam; Paricharyaatmakam karma shoodrasyaapi swabhaavajam.

Word Meanings Bhagavad Gita 18.44

kṛiṣhi—agriculture; gau-rakṣhya—dairy farming; vāṇijyam—commerce; vaiśhya—of the mercantile and farming class; karma—work; svabhāva-jam—born of one’s intrinsic qualities; paricharyā—serving through work; ātmakam—natural; karma—duty; śhūdrasya—of the worker class; api—and; svabhāva-jam—born of one’s intrinsic qualities