अधिष्ठानं तथा कर्ता करणं च पृथग्विधम्।
विविधाश्च पृथक्चेष्टा दैवं चैवात्र पञ्चमम्।।18.14।।
18.14 The locus as also the agent, the different kinds of organs, the many and distinct activities, and, the divine is here the fifth.
18.14 - 18.15 For all actions, performed through body, words or mind, whether they be authorized by the Sastras or not, the causes are these five. (1) The body, which is a conglomeration of the great elements, is known as the seat, since it is governed by the individual self. (2) The agent is the individual self. That this individual self is the knower and the agent is established in the Vedanta-Sutras: For this reason, (the individual self) is the knower (2.3.18) and The agent, on account of the scripture having a purport (2.3.33.). (3) The organs of various kinds are the five motor organs like that of speech, hands, feet etc., along with the mind. They are of various kinds, viz., they have different functions in completing an action. (4) The different and distinctive functions of vital air - here the expression functions (Cesta) means several functions. Distinctive are the functions of this fivefold vital air which sustains the body and senses through its divisions of Prana, Apana etc. (5) Divinity is the fifth among these causes. The purport is this: Among these, which constitute the conglomeration of causes of work the Divinity is the fifth. It is the Supreme Self, the Inner Ruler, who is the main cause in completing the action. It has been already affirmed: I am seated in the hearts of all. From Me are memory, knowledge and their removal also (15.15), and He will say further: The Lord, O Arjuna, lives in the heart of every being casuing them to spin round and round by His power as if set on a wheel (18.61). The agency of the individual self is dependent on the Supreme Self as established in the aphorism: But from the Supreme, because the scripture says so (B. S., 2.3.41). Now an objection may be raised in this way: If the agency of the individual self is dependent on the Supreme Self and the individual self cannot be charged with moral responsibility, then the scriptures containing injunctions and prohibitions become useless, as the individual self cannot be enjoined to act in regard to any action. The objection is disposed off by the author of the Vedanta-Sutras in the aphorism: But with a view to the effects made on account of the purposelessness of injunctions and prohibitions (2.3.42). The purport is this: By means of his senses, body etc., granted by the Supreme Self - having Him for their support, empowered by Him, and thus deriving power from Him - the individual self begins, of his own free will, the effort for directing the senses etc., for the purpose of performing actions conditioned by his body and organs. The individual self Itself, of Its own free will, is responsible for activity, since the Supreme Self, abiding within, causes It to act only by granting His permission, just as works such as moving heavy stones and timber are collectively the labour of many persons and they are together responsible for the effect. But each one of them (severally) also is responsible for it. In the same way each individual is answerable to Natures law in the form of positive and negative ?ndments.
Adhishthaanam tathaa kartaa karanam cha prithagvidham; Vividhaashcha prithakcheshtaa daivam chaivaatra panchamam.
adhiṣhṭhānam—the body; tathā—also; kartā—the doer (soul); karaṇam—senses; cha—and; pṛithak-vidham—various kinds; vividhāḥ—many; cha—and; pṛithak—distinct; cheṣhṭāḥ—efforts; daivam—Divine Providence; cha eva atra—these certainly are (causes); pañchamam—the fifth