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Bhagavad Gita Chapter 17 Verse 23

भगवद् गीता अध्याय 17 श्लोक 23

तत्सदिति निर्देशो ब्रह्मणस्त्रिविधः स्मृतः।
ब्राह्मणास्तेन वेदाश्च यज्ञाश्च विहिताः पुरा।।17.23।।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी ( भगवद् गीता 17.23)

।।17.23।।? तत् और सत् -- इन तीनों नामोंसे जिस परमात्माका निर्देश किया गया है? उसी परमात्माने सृष्टिके आदिमें वेदों? ब्राह्मणों और यज्ञोंकी रचना की है।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी तेजोमयानंद

।।17.23।। ? तत् सत् ऐसा यह ब्रह्म का त्रिविध निर्देश (नाम) कहा गया है उसी से आदिकाल में (पुरा) ब्राहम्ण? वेद और यज्ञ निर्मित हुए हैं।।

हिंदी टीका - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी

।।17.23।। व्याख्या --   तत्सदिति निर्देशो ब्रह्मणस्त्रिविधः स्मृतः -- ? तत् और सत् -- यह तीन प्रकारका परमात्माका निर्देश है अर्थात् परमात्माके तीन नाम हैं (इन तीनों नामोंकी व्याख्या भगवान्ने आगे के चार श्लोकोंमें की है)। ब्राह्मणास्तेन वेदाश्च यज्ञाश्च विहिताः पुरा -- उस परमात्माने पहले (सृष्टिके आरम्भमें) वेदों? ब्राह्मणों और यज्ञोंको बनाया। इन तीनोंमें विधि बतानेवाले वेद हैं? अनुष्ठान करनेवाले ब्राह्मण हैं और क्रिया करनेके लिये यज्ञ हैं। अब इनमें यज्ञ? तप? दान आदिकी क्रियाओंमें कोई कमी रह जाय? तो क्या करें परमात्माका नाम लें तो उस कमीकी पूर्ति हो जायगी। जैसे रसोई बनानेवाला जलसे आटा सानता (गूँधता) है? तो कभी उसमें जल अधिक पड़ जाय? तो वह क्या करता है आटा और मिला लेता है। ऐसे ही कोई निष्कामभावसे यज्ञ? दान आदि शुभकर्म करे और उनमें कोई कमी -- अङ्गवैगुण्य रह जाय? तो जिस भगवान्से यज्ञ आदि रचे गये हैं? उस भगवान्का नाम लेनेसे वह अङ्गवैगुण्य ठीक हो जाता है? उसकी पूर्ति हो जाती है।

हिंदी टीका - स्वामी चिन्मयानंद जी

।।17.23।। ? तत् सत् जिस शब्द के द्वारा किसी वस्तु को इंगित किया जाता है उसे निर्देश कहते हैं। इस प्रकार? तत्सत् ब्रह्म का त्रिविध निर्देश माना गया है अर्थात् इनमें से प्रत्येक शब्द ब्रह्म का ही संकेतक है। प्राय कर्मकाण्ड के विधान में कर्म करते समय इस प्रकार के निर्देश के स्मरण और उच्चारण का उपदेश दिया जाता है? जिसके फलस्वरूप कर्मानुष्ठान में रह गयी अपूर्णता या दोष की निवृत्ति हो जाती है। प्रत्येक कर्म अपना फल देता है? परन्तु वह फल केवल कर्म पर ही निर्भर न होकर कर्त्ता के उद्देश्य की शुद्धता की भी अपेक्षा रखता है। कोई व्यक्ति कितने ही परिश्रमपूर्वक किसी प्रकार का धार्मिक अनुष्ठान क्यों न करे? यदि उसका उद्देश्य हीनस्तर का है तो वह अनुष्ठान उस कर्ता को श्रेष्ठ फल प्रदान करने में असमर्थ होता है। हम सबके कर्म एक समान प्रतीत हो सकते हैं? तथापि एक व्यक्ति को प्राप्त फल दूसरे से भिन्न होता है। इसका कारण कर्ता के उद्देश्य का गुणधर्म ही हो सकता है।ईश्वर के स्मरण के द्वारा हम अपने उद्देश्यों की आभा को और अधिक तेजस्वी बना सकते हैं। अनात्म उपाधियों से तादात्म्य को त्यागने से ही हम अपने परमात्म स्वरूप में स्थित हो सकते हैं। जिस मात्रा में हमारे कर्म निस्वार्थ होंगे उसी मात्रा में प्राप्त पुरस्कार भी शुद्ध होगा। अहंकार के नाश के लिए साधक को अपनी आध्यात्मिक प्रतिष्ठा का बोध होना आवश्यक है। उस आत्मतत्त्व का प्रतीक है जो अजन्मा? अविनाशी? सर्व उपाधियों के अतीत और शरीरादि उपाधियों का अधिष्ठान है। तत् शब्द परब्रह्म का सूचक है। उपनिषदों के प्रसिद्ध महावाक्य तत्त्वमसि में? तत् उस परम सत्य को इंगित करता है? जो सम्पूर्ण विश्व की उत्पत्ति? स्थिति और लय का स्थान है। अर्थात् जगत्कारण ब्रह्म तत् शब्द के द्वारा इंगित किया गया है। सत् का अर्थ त्रिकाल अबाधित सत्ता। यह सत्स्वरूप सर्वत्र व्याप्त है। इस प्रकार? तत्सत् इन तीन शब्दों के द्वारा विश्वातीत? विश्वकारण और विश्व व्यापक परमात्मा का स्मरण करना ही उसके साथ तादात्म्य करना है।ईश्वर स्मरण से हमारे कर्म शुद्ध हो जाते हैं। तत्सत् द्वारा निर्दिष्ट ब्रह्म से ही समस्त वर्ण? धर्म? वेद और यज्ञ उत्पन्न हुए हैं। अध्यस्त सृष्टि का कारण उसका अधिष्ठान ही होता है। अब? आगामी श्लोकों में इन तीन शब्दों के प्रयोग के विधान को बताते हैं

English Translation - Swami Gambirananda

17.23 Om-tat-sat [Om, That, Existence: Om iti brahma, Om is Brahman (Tai. 1.8.1); Tattvamasi, Thou art That (Ch. 6.8.7); and Sadeva somya idamagra asit, This was Existence alone in the beginning, O amiable one (Ch. 6.2.1)-in these texts Brahman is indicated by the words Om, tat, sat.]-this is considered to be the threefold designation of Brahman. The Brahmanas and Vedas and the sacrifices were ordanined by that in the days of yore.

English Translation - Swami Sivananda

17.23 Om Tat Sat: This has been declared to be the triple designation of Brahman. By that were created formerly, the Brahmanas, the Vedas and the sacrifices.

English Translation - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

17.23. OM TAT SAT : This is held to be the three-fold indication of the Brahman. By means of that, the Vedas, and also the sacrifices had been fashioned formerly by Brahma.

English Commentary - Swami Sivananda

17.23 तत्सत् Om Tat Sat? इति thus? निर्देशः designation? ब्रह्मणः of Brahman? त्रिविधः threefold? स्मृतः has been declared? ब्राह्मणाः Brahmanas? तेन by that? वेदाः Vedas? च and? यज्ञाः sacrifices? च and? विहिताः created? पुरा formerly.Commentary Om Tat Sat is the root of the entire universe. Om is the Akshara Brahman. Tat means Thath? the indefinable. Sat means Reality.Para Brahman? that Supreme Being? the abiding place of all that lives and moves? is beyond name and class. The Vedas have ventured to give a name to Him. A new born child has no name but no,receiving one he will answer to it. Men who are troubled by the afflictions of this world run to the Deity for refuge and call Him by the name. When Brahman is invoked through the name that which is hidden is revealed to the aspirant.These three words have a divine power of their own. The vibrations that they produce in one are such as to arouse the latent divinity and also to secure the necessary response from the Cosmic Being Whom they connote.When a sacrificial rite or the like is found defective? it will be rendered perfect by the utterance of the powerful Mantra Om Tat Sat or one of the three designations in the end. With Om or Om Tat Sat all acts of sacrifice? study of sacred scriptures? spiritual discipline and meditation are commenced. If the doer of sacrifices remembers either of these Mantras all obstacles that stand in the way of success of the sacrifices are removed.Om Tat Sat has been declared to be the triple designation of Brahman in the Vedanta by the knowers of Brahman. The power of creation that lies in the Creator emanates from this Mantra. When He meditated inwardly on the meaning of this Mantra and repeated the threefold word? He acired the power to create. Then He created the Brahmanas? gave them the Vedas to be their guide and directed them to perform sacrifices and other rites.Puraa Of old At the beginning of creation by the Prajapati.Brahman here means the Veda.

English Translation of Sanskrit Commentary By Sri Shankaracharya's

17.23 Om, tat, sat-iti, this; is smrtah, considered, regarded, in the Vedanta, by the knowers of Brahman; to be the trividhah, threefold; nirdesah, designation, mention by name-nirdesa is that by which a thing is specified; brahmanah, of Brahman. The Brahmanas and the Vedas and the sacrifices were vihitah, ordainded, [When some defect arises in sacrifice etc., then this is corrected by uttering one of these words-Om, tat, sat.] created; tena, by that threefold designation; pura, in the days of yore [In the beginning of creation by Prajapati.]-this is said by way of eulogizing the designation.

English Translation of Commentary - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

17.23 See Comment under 17.27

English Translation of Ramanuja's Sanskrit Commentary

17.23 Here Brahman means the Veda. It is the secondary meaning of the expression, especially of the ritualistic portion of the Veda. The three-fold expression Om Tat Sat is connected with the Brahman or the Veda. Sacrifices and similar rituals are prescribed in the Vedas. These expressions Om Tat Sat are used in these Vedic rites. The connection of Om is that it should be invariably used at the commencement of the recitation of Vedic hymns. The syllable Tat and Sat indicate that these rituals are worthy of honour. The Brahmanas are those who are to preserve Vedic study as also the Vedas and the sacrificial rites ordained in them. All these were created by Me in the past. Sri Krsna elaborates in the next verses the nature of the connection of these syllables with the Vedic rituals, beginning first with Om.

Commentary - Chakravarthi Ji

Please see text 24 for Sri Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakur’s combined commentary to texts 23 and 24.

Rudra Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

OM TAT SAT is renowned by the spiritually cognizant as the three fold manifestation of the brahman the spiritual substratum that pervades all existence representing potencies of the Supreme Lord Krishna. This is well established from the Vedic scriptures such as Taittiriya Upanisad I:VIII:I beginning om iti brahman om iti sarvam states: OM is synonymous with the Brahman. OM is understood to be the vibratory cause and spiritual substance of existence. OM is the transcendental sound vibration chanted before commencing every Vedic activity. TAT also is synonymous with the brahman as it signifies infallible, perfection and auspiciousness. SAT is as well synonymous with the brahman for it denotes the ultimate reality containing all realities. These three designations OM TAT SAT are profusely praised to exemplify that the have the potency to redeem and rectify any defects made while performing yagnas or acts of propitiation and worship to the Supreme Lord Krishna or any of His incarnations and expansions as revealed in Vedic scriptures. These threefold designations were manifested by the Supreme Lord to represent the Brahmanas, the Vedas and Vedic yagnas. OM represented the Brahmanas, TAT represents the Vedic scriptures and SAT represents the performance of Vedic yagnas for the satisfaction of the Supreme Lord. Therefore the three words OM TAT SAT are paramount in creation and eternally praiseworthy.

Brahma Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Once again the Supreme Lord Krishna discourses on the modalities of performance of prescribed duties and the activities that are required to be performed by mentioning OM TAT SAT which is veritably the transcendental sound vibration and names of the Supreme Lord in His abstract form. In all creation His transcendental sound vibration OM is the root of all sounds and all pervasively always vibrating within and without. Since all the Vedic scriptures refer to the Supreme Lord with such veneration and reverence He is TAT and because the Supreme Lord is perfect without any defect and always auspicious He is SAT. In the subsidiary chapter of the Rig Veda the word OM is referred to His potency of the brahman which is the spiritual substratum pervading all existence. TAT refers to Himself as the source of the Brahman and SAT denotes that He is the original creator of all existence. The elevated Vaisnavas and Brahmins from one of the four sampradayas or authorised channel of disciplic succession as revealed in Vedic scriptures are ordained to vibrate these transcendental sound vibrations when commencing, executing and concluding all Vedic rites.

Shri Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Up until this time Lord Krishna has elaborated upon the distinctions between yagna or propitiation, tapah or austerities and dana or charity and how they are categorised in the three gunas or modes of material nature. Now the Supreme Lord will illustrate how yagna, tapah and dana become spiritualised by being unified with the pranava OM. The term pranava refers to first breath which is first vibrated as OM commencing all Vedic rites. It is derived from the root word prana meaning breath and is properly pronounced AAH with mouth open OOH with lips puckered and MMMM by pursing them together. The triplicate formula OM TAT SAT is used in reference to the brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence which is the impersonal aspect of the Supreme Lord. The brahman also refers to the Vedas which also originally emanated from the Supreme Lords prana. The Vedas denote Vedically ordained activities of which yagna, tapah and dana are essential. All Vedically ordained yagnas, rituals and ceremonies are only bonafide and valid if prefaced with the pranava OM at its commencement accompanied by its auxiliaries TAT and SAT. The absence of the transcendental sound of OM vibrating from the very inception of any Vedic activity automatically disqualifies it and renders it invalid even if subsequent rituals are performed perfect and perfunctory. The pranava OM is an eternal prerequisite for every expiatory rite prescribed in the Vedic scriptures and thus indispensable. The pranava OM is the transcendental sound vibration personally representing the Supreme Lord Krishna. The auxiliary TAT denotes complete perfection and auspiciousness and the auxiliary SAT denotes the source of all creation. The Vaisnavas and the brahmanas are those who have the sole right and exclusive authority to vibrate these transcendental sound vibrations audibly and inaudibly during all rituals prescribed in the Vedic scriptures. Brahmanas are those seminally born in India in the topmost caste of Brahmin families. Vaisnavas are devotees of the Supreme Lord Krishna or any of His authorised incarnations and expansions as revealed in Vedic scriptures, who are born in any caste, in any country, in any planetary system and who are so attracted to the Supreme Lord Krishna that they make themselves available to receive twice born Brahmin initiation from a Vaisnava acarya or bonafide spiritual master from one of the four authorised sampradaya or bonafide channel of disciplic succession. Only duly initiated Vaisnavas and Brahmins are ordained to perform Vedic rites, no others have this authority and in this matter there is no exception. The Brahmins and the Vaisnavas were originally created by the Supreme Lord along with the Vedas and yagnas to harmoniously evolve and perfect all creation.

Kumara Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Up until this time Lord Krishna has elaborated upon the distinctions between yagna or propitiation, tapah or austerities and dana or charity and how they are categorised in the three gunas or modes of material nature. Now the Supreme Lord will illustrate how yagna, tapah and dana become spiritualised by being unified with the pranava OM. The term pranava refers to first breath which is first vibrated as OM commencing all Vedic rites. It is derived from the root word prana meaning breath and is properly pronounced AAH with mouth open OOH with lips puckered and MMMM by pursing them together. The triplicate formula OM TAT SAT is used in reference to the brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence which is the impersonal aspect of the Supreme Lord. The brahman also refers to the Vedas which also originally emanated from the Supreme Lords prana. The Vedas denote Vedically ordained activities of which yagna, tapah and dana are essential. All Vedically ordained yagnas, rituals and ceremonies are only bonafide and valid if prefaced with the pranava OM at its commencement accompanied by its auxiliaries TAT and SAT. The absence of the transcendental sound of OM vibrating from the very inception of any Vedic activity automatically disqualifies it and renders it invalid even if subsequent rituals are performed perfect and perfunctory. The pranava OM is an eternal prerequisite for every expiatory rite prescribed in the Vedic scriptures and thus indispensable. The pranava OM is the transcendental sound vibration personally representing the Supreme Lord Krishna. The auxiliary TAT denotes complete perfection and auspiciousness and the auxiliary SAT denotes the source of all creation. The Vaisnavas and the brahmanas are those who have the sole right and exclusive authority to vibrate these transcendental sound vibrations audibly and inaudibly during all rituals prescribed in the Vedic scriptures. Brahmanas are those seminally born in India in the topmost caste of Brahmin families. Vaisnavas are devotees of the Supreme Lord Krishna or any of His authorised incarnations and expansions as revealed in Vedic scriptures, who are born in any caste, in any country, in any planetary system and who are so attracted to the Supreme Lord Krishna that they make themselves available to receive twice born Brahmin initiation from a Vaisnava acarya or bonafide spiritual master from one of the four authorised sampradaya or bonafide channel of disciplic succession. Only duly initiated Vaisnavas and Brahmins are ordained to perform Vedic rites, no others have this authority and in this matter there is no exception. The Brahmins and the Vaisnavas were originally created by the Supreme Lord along with the Vedas and yagnas to harmoniously evolve and perfect all creation.

Transliteration Bhagavad Gita 17.23

Om tatsaditi nirdesho brahmanas trividhah smritah; Braahmanaastena vedaashcha yajnaashcha vihitaah puraa.

Word Meanings Bhagavad Gita 17.23

om tat sat—syllables representing aspects of transcendence; iti—thus; nirdeśhaḥ—symbolic representatives; brahmaṇaḥ—the Supreme Absolute Truth; tri-vidhaḥ—of three kinds; smṛitaḥ—have been declared; brāhmaṇāḥ—the priests; tena—from them; vedāḥ—scriptures; cha—and; yajñāḥ—sacrifice; cha—and; vihitāḥ—came about; purā—from the beginning of creation