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Bhagavad Gita Chapter 16 Verse 20

भगवद् गीता अध्याय 16 श्लोक 20

असुरीं योनिमापन्ना मूढा जन्मनि जन्मनि।
मामप्राप्यैव कौन्तेय ततो यान्त्यधमां गतिम्।।16.20।।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी ( भगवद् गीता 16.20)

।।16.20।।हे कुन्तीनन्दन वे मूढ मनुष्य मेरेको प्राप्त न करके ही जन्मजन्मान्तरमें आसुरी योनिको प्राप्त होते हैं? फिर उससे भी अधिक अधम गतिमें अर्थात् भयङ्कर नरकोंमें चले जाते हैं।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी तेजोमयानंद

।।16.20।। हे कौन्तेय वे मूढ़ पुरुष जन्मजन्मान्तर में आसुरी योनि को प्राप्त होते हैं और ( इस प्रकार) मुझे प्राप्त न होकर अधम गति को प्राप्त होते है।।

हिंदी टीका - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी

।।16.20।। व्याख्या --   आसुरीं योनिमापन्ना ৷৷. मामप्राप्यैव कौन्तेय -- पीछेके श्लोकमें भगवान्ने आसुर मनुष्योंको बारबार पशुपक्षी आदिकी योनियोंमें गिरानेकी बात कही। अब उसी बातको लेकर भगवान् यहाँ कहते हैं कि मनुष्यजन्ममें मुझे प्राप्त करनेका दुर्लभ अवसर पाकर भी वे आसुर मनुष्य मेरी प्राप्ति न करके पशु? पक्षी आदि आसुरी योनियोंमें चले जाते हैं और बारबार उन आसुरी योनियोंमें ही जन्म लेते रहते हैं।मामप्राप्यैव पदसे भगवान् पश्चात्तापके साथ कहते हैं कि अत्यन्त कृपा करके मैंने जीवोंको मनुष्यशरीर देकर इन्हें अपना उद्धार करनेका मौका दिया और यह विश्वास किया कि ये अपना उद्धार अवश्य कर लेंगे परन्ते ये नराधम इतने मूढ़ और विश्वासघाती निकले कि जिस शरीरसे मेरी प्राप्ति करनी थी? उससे मेरी प्राप्ति न करके उलटे अधम गतिको चले गयेमनुष्यशरीर प्राप्त हो जानेके बाद वह कैसा ही आचरणवाला क्यों न हो अर्थात् दुराचारीसेदुराचारी क्यों न हो? वह भी यदि चाहे तो थो़ड़ेसेथोड़े समयमें (गीता 9। 30 -- 31) और जीवनके अन्तकालमें (गीता 8। 5) भी भगवान्को प्राप्त कर सकता है। कारण कि समोऽहं सर्वभूतेषु (गीता 9। 29) कहकर भगवान्ने अपनी प्राप्ति सबके लिये अर्थात् प्राणिमात्रके लिये खुली रखी है। हाँ? यह बात हो सकती है कि पशुपक्षी,आदिमें उनको प्राप्त करनेकी योग्यता नहीं है परन्तु भगवान्की तरफसे तो किसीके लिये भी मना नहीं है। ऐसा अवसर सर्वथा प्राप्त हो जानेपर भी ये आसुर मनुष्य भगवान्को प्राप्त न करके अधम गतिमें चले जाते हैं? तो इनकी इस दुर्गतिको देखकर परम दयालु प्रभु दुःखी होते हैं।ततो यान्त्यधमां गतिम् -- आसुरी योनियोंमें जानेपर भी उनके सभी पाप पूरे नष्ट नहीं होते। अतः उन बचे हुए पापोंको भोगनेके लिये वे उन आसुरी योनियोंसे भी भयङ्कर अधम गतिको अर्थात् नरकोंको प्राप्त होते हैं।यहाँ शङ्का हो सकती है कि आसुरी योनियोंको प्राप्त हुए मनुष्योंको तो उन योनियोंमें भगवान्को प्राप्त करनेका अवसर ही नहीं है और उनमें वह योग्यता भी नहीं है? फिर भगवान्ने ऐसा क्यों कहा कि वे मेरेको प्राप्त न करके उससे भी अधम गतिमें चले जाते हैं इसका समाधान यह है कि भगवान्का ऐसा कहना आसुरी योनियोंको प्राप्त होनेसे पूर्व मनुष्यशरीरको लेकर ही है। तात्पर्य है कि मनुष्यशरीरको पाकर? मेरी प्राप्तिका अधिकार पाकर भी वे मनुष्य मेरी प्राप्ति न करके जन्मजन्मान्तरमें आसुरी योनियोंको प्राप्त होते हैं। इतना ही नहीं? वे उन आसुरी योनियोंसे भी नीचे कुम्भीपाक आदि घोर नरकोंमें चले जाते हैं।विशेष बातभगवत्प्राप्तिके अथवा कल्याणके उद्देश्यसे दिये गये मनुष्यशरीरको पाकर भी मनुष्य कामना? स्वार्थ एवं अभिमानके वशीभूत होकर चोरीडकैती? झूठकपट? धोखा? विश्वासघात? हिंसा आदि जिन कर्मोंको करते हैं? उनके दो परिणाम होते हैं -- (1) बाहरी फलअंश और (2) भीतरी संस्कारअंश। दूसरोंको दुःख देनेपर उनका (जिनको दुःख दिया गया है) तो वही नुकसान होता है? जो प्रारब्धसे होनेवाला है परन्तु जो दुःख देते हैं? वे नया पाप करते हैं? जिसका फल नरक उन्हें भोगना ही पड़ता है। इतना ही नहीं? दुराचारोंके द्वारा जो नये पाप होनेके बीज बोये जाते हैं अर्थात् उन दुराचारोंके द्वारा अहंतामें जो दुर्भाव बैठ जाते हैं? उनसे मनुष्यका बहुत भयंकर नुकसान होता है। जैसे? चोरीरूप कर्म करनेसे पहले मनुष्य स्वयं चोर बनता है क्योंकि वह चोर बनकर ही चोरी करेगा और चोरी करनेसे अपनेमें (अहंतामें) चोरका भाव दृढ़ हो जायगा (टिप्पणी प0 827.1)। इस प्रकार चोरीके संस्कार उसकी अहंतामें बैठ जाते हैं। ये संस्कार मनुष्यका बड़ा भारी पतन करते हैं -- उससे बारबार चोरीरूप पाप करवाते है और फलस्वरूप नरकोंमें ले जाते हैं। अतः जबतक वह मनुष्य अपना कल्याण नहीं कर लेता अर्थात् जबतक वह अपनी अहंतामें बैठाये हुए दुर्भावोंको नहीं मिटाता? तबतक वे दुर्भाव जन्मजन्मान्तरतक दुराचारोंको बल देते रहेंगे? उकसाते रहेंगे और उनके कारण वे आसुरी योनियोंमें तथा उससे भी भयङ्कर नरक आदिमें दुःख? सन्ताप? आफत आदि पाते ही रहेंगे।उन आसुरी योनियोंमें भी उनकी प्रकृति और प्रवृत्तिके अनुसार यह देखा जाता है कि कई पशुपक्षी? भूतपिशाच? कीटपतंग आदि सौम्यप्रकृतिप्रधान होते हैं और कई क्रूरप्रकृतिप्रधान होते हैं। इस तरह उनकी प्रकृति(स्वभाव) में भेद उनकी अपनी बनायी हुई शुद्ध या अशुद्ध अहंताके कारण ही होते हैं। अतः उन योनियोंमें अपनेअपने कर्मोंका फलभोग होनेपर भी उनकी प्रकृतिके भेद वैसे ही बने रहते हैं। इतना ही नहीं सम्पूर्ण योनियोंको और नरकोंको भोगनेके बाद किसी क्रमसे अथवा भगवत्कृपासे उनको मनुष्यशरीर प्राप्त हो भी जाता है? तो भी उनकी अहंतामें बैठे हुए कामक्रोधादि दुर्भाव पहलेजैसे ही रहते हैं (टिप्पणी प0 827.2)। इसी प्रकार जो स्वर्गप्राप्तिकी कामनासे यहाँ शुभ कर्म करते हैं? और मरनेके बाद उन कर्मोंके अनुसार स्वर्गमें जाते हैं? वहाँ उनके कर्मोंका फलभोग तो हो जाता है? पर उनके स्वभावका परिवर्तन नहीं होता अर्थात् उनकी अहंतामें परिवर्तन नहीं होता (टिप्पणी प0 827.3)। स्वभावको बदलनेका? शुद्ध बनानेका मौका तो मनुष्यशरीरमें ही है। सम्बन्ध --   पूर्वश्लोकमें भगवान्ने कहा कि ये जीव मनुष्यशरीरमें मेरी प्राप्तिका अवसर पाकर भी मुझे प्राप्त नहीं करते? जिससे मुझे उनको अधम योनिमें भेजना पड़ता है। उनका अधम योनिमें और अधम गति(नरक) में जानेका मूल कारण क्या है -- इसको भगवान् आगेके श्लोकमें बताते हैं।

हिंदी टीका - स्वामी चिन्मयानंद जी

।।16.20।। इस श्लोक का तात्पर्य यह है कि जब तक मनुष्य अपनी आसुरी प्रवृत्तियों के वश में उनका दास बना रहता है तब तक वह उसी प्रकार के हीन जन्मों को प्राप्त होता रहता है। वह आत्मा के परमानन्द स्वरूप का अनुभव नहीं कर पाता है।अब तक दैवी और आसुरी सम्पदाओं का स्पष्ट एवं विस्तृत विवेचन किया गया है। बहुसंख्यक लोगों की न्यूनाधिक मात्रा में असुरों की श्रेणी में ही गणना की जा सकती है। परन्तु एक आध्यात्मिक साधक को केवल ऐसे वर्णनों से सन्तोष नहीं होता। वह अपनी पतित अवस्था से स्वयं का उद्धार करना चाहता है। अत? अब भगवान् श्रीकृष्ण अर्जुन के माध्यम से मानवमात्र के आत्मविकास का पथ प्रदर्शन करते हैं। कोई भी व्यक्ति नित्य निरन्तर नारकीय यातनाओं का ही भागीदार नहीं हो सकता है शाश्वत नरक प्राप्ति का मत अयुक्तियुक्त और अदार्शनिक है।भगवान् कहते हैं

English Translation - Swami Gambirananda

16.20 Being born among the demoniacal species in births after births, the foods, without ever reaching Me, O son of Kunti, attain conditions lower than that.

English Translation - Swami Sivananda

16.20 Entering into demoniacal wombs and deluded, birth after birth, not attaining Me, they thus fall, O Arjuna, into a condition still lower than that.

English Translation - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

16.20. Having come to the demoniac womb, birth after birth, and not attaining Me at all, these deluded persons, therefore, pass to the lowest state, O son of Kunti !

English Commentary - Swami Sivananda

16.20 असुरीम् demoniacal? योनिम् womb? आपन्नाः entering into? मूढाः deluded? जन्मनि जन्मनि in birth after birth? माम् Me? अप्राप्य not attaining? एव still? कौन्तेय O son of Kunti (Arjuna)? ततः than that? यान्ति (they) fall into? अधमाम् lower? गतिम् condition (path or goal).Commentary These degraded Asuras are cast into the demoniacal wombs. They are reduced to the very lowest condition or the most appalling state. They are cast into utter darkness. They fall into lower and yet lower wombs in response to their own satanic desires and actions and their extreme Tamasic nature. From the birth of a tiger? they will get the birth of a serpent from a serpents they will get the birth of a wormfrom that they will get the birth of a tree? etc. In Sanskrit the suffix Tara denotes comparative degree and Tama is superlative degree. These people get Nikrishtatama Yonis (the lowest wombs).They do not reach Me as their minds are filled with impurities? as they do not tread the path of righteousness in accordance with the injunctions of the scriptures. The diabolical nature is inimical to spiritual progress. Therefore? you will have to annihilate the evil tendencies by cultivating divine alities and the practice of regular meditation. Then and only then will you attain liberation.

English Translation of Sanskrit Commentary By Sri Shankaracharya's

16.20 Apannah, being born, having acired; (births) asurim, among the demoniacal; yonim, species; janmani janmani, in births after births; the mudhah, fools, non-discriminating ones; being born in every birth into species in which tamas prevails, and going downwards, aprapya eva, without ever reaching, approaching; mam, Me, who am God; O son of Kunti, yanti, they attain; gatim, conditions; tatah adhamam, lower even than that. Since there is not the least possibility of attaining Me, what is implied by saying, without ever reachin Me, is, by not attaining the virtuous path enjoined by Me. This is being stated as a summary of all the demoniacal alities. The triplet-under which are comprehended all the different demoniacal alities though they are infinite in number, (and) by the avoidance of which (three) they (all the demaniacal alities) become rejected, and which is the root of all evils- is being stated:

English Translation of Commentary - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

16.17-20 Atmasambhavitah etc. upto gatim. They pretend to perform sacrifices : The meaning is that their sacrifice is fruitless. Indeed all is ruined because of their anger. Or, namayjna [may mean] the sacrifices which are in name only. Or, it [may denote] those sacrifices that are performed for ones name sake i.e., for ones reputation, because of which one gets the appellation as He is performer of [such and such] sacrifices These sacrifices, performed out of hypocricy alone, do not , however fetch any fruit. Becasue these persons are rugged with anger etc., they hate people and by that they hate Me only [in fact]. For, I, the Vasudeva (the Universal Soul), dwell every-where. Entertaining hatred towards their own Soul, they perform action, that is hostile to themselves, and responsible for their own fall into the hells. These persons I hurl into nothing but the demoniac wombs.

English Translation of Ramanuja's Sanskrit Commentary

16.20 These deluded men, viz., those entertaining perverse knowledge about Me, attain repeatedly births that tend them to be antagonistic to Me. Never attaining Me, viz., never arriving at the knowledge that Vasudeva, the Lord and the ruler of all, truly exists, they go farther and farther down, from that birth, to the lowest level. Sri Krsna proceeds to explain the root-cause of the ruin to the self of demoniac nature:

Commentary - Chakravarthi Ji

Not attaining me, the asuras attain low births. However, those asuras in the form of Kamsa and others attained me, Krishna, who appeared at the end of dvapara yuga in the twenty eighth cycle of Vaivasvata Manu’s reign. Though hating me, they attained me in the form of liberation. Because I am an ocean of mercy, I give even such sinful asuras liberation, which is only attained by the perfection of bhakti and jnana. The Personified Vedas say: nibhrta-marun-mano’ksa drdha-yoga-yujo hrdi yan munaya upasate tad-arayo’pi yayuh smaranat Simply by constantly thinking of Him, the enemies of the Lord attained the same Supreme Truth whom sages fixed in yoga worship by controlling their breath, mind and senses. SB 10.87.23 This widens the scope of my supreme attractive position which I mentioned previously. But as the Bhagavatamrta Karika says: mam krsna-rupinam yavan napnuvanti mama dvisah tavad evadhamam yonim prapnuvantiti hi sphutam In as much as those who hate me do not attain me in my form as Krishna, it is clear that they attain the lowest births.

Rudra Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Those who take birth possessing the demoniac nature are obstructed by their own mentalities from ever approaching the path of righteousness that leads to association of the devotees of the Supreme Lord Krishna and thus it is impossible for them to ever attain the mercy of the Supreme Lord or any of His authorised incarnations and expansions except when they are occasionally eradicated. Otherwise the demoniac continue their descent into lower and more degraded life forms such as worms and maggots as a just reward for their abominable and sinful activities.

Brahma Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Shri Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The words asurim yonim means demoniac wombs and refers to birth of those jivas or embodied beings and even subtle existences that are diametrically opposed to the divine will of the Supreme Lord Krishna. Those of a demoniac nature never have an affinity or even tolerance for the path of righteousness and so they spawn and are hurled into wombs of lower and lower degraded demoniac forms as their reward to increase their venomous delusion. As such the words aprapya eva means that the demoniac can never attain the Supreme Lord and denotes that they are never imbued with the intelligence to have the consciousness to seek the association of the Vaisnavas or exclusive devotees of Lord Krishna and learn the ultimate truth submissively from them. Where after by receiving the mercy of the Vaisnavas devotees they would gradually become sanctified and after many births eventually achieve the qualifications necessary to be accepted as a disciple of a Vaisnava devotee who guides them on the path to the Supreme Lord. Otherwise without this eternal process it is impossible for the demoniac to ever receive the opportunity to attain Lord Krishna and thus they slip deeper and deeper into the darkness of ignorance birth after birth after birth after birth. The root cause by which those of a demoniac nature lose their paramount position as human beings imbued with free will and self-determination and instead sink into the instinctive consciousness of animal and reptiles, descending further into insects, worms and maggots is revealed next.

Kumara Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The words asurim yonim means demoniac wombs and refers to birth of those jivas or embodied beings and even subtle existences that are diametrically opposed to the divine will of the Supreme Lord Krishna. Those of a demoniac nature never have an affinity or even tolerance for the path of righteousness and so they spawn and are hurled into wombs of lower and lower degraded demoniac forms as their reward to increase their venomous delusion. As such the words aprapya eva means that the demoniac can never attain the Supreme Lord and denotes that they are never imbued with the intelligence to have the consciousness to seek the association of the Vaisnavas or exclusive devotees of Lord Krishna and learn the ultimate truth submissively from them. Where after by receiving the mercy of the Vaisnavas devotees they would gradually become sanctified and after many births eventually achieve the qualifications necessary to be accepted as a disciple of a Vaisnava devotee who guides them on the path to the Supreme Lord. Otherwise without this eternal process it is impossible for the demoniac to ever receive the opportunity to attain Lord Krishna and thus they slip deeper and deeper into the darkness of ignorance birth after birth after birth after birth. The root cause by which those of a demoniac nature lose their paramount position as human beings imbued with free will and self-determination and instead sink into the instinctive consciousness of animal and reptiles, descending further into insects, worms and maggots is revealed next.

Transliteration Bhagavad Gita 16.20

Aasureem yonimaapannaa moodhaa janmani janmani; Maamapraapyaiva kaunteya tato yaantyadhamaam gatim.

Word Meanings Bhagavad Gita 16.20

tān—these; aham—I; dviṣhataḥ—hateful; krūrān—cruel; sansāreṣhu—in the material world; nara-adhamān—the vile and vicious of humankind; kṣhipāmi—I hurl; ajasram—again and again; aśhubhān—inauspicious; āsurīṣhu—demoniac; eva—indeed; yoniṣhu—in to the wombs; āsurīm—demoniac; yonim—wombs; āpannāḥ—gaining; mūḍhāḥ—the ignorant; janmani janmani—in birth after birth; mām—me; aprāpya—failing to reach; eva—even; kaunteya—Arjun, the son of Kunti; tataḥ—thereafter; yānti—go; adhamām—abominable; gatim—destination