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Bhagavad Gita Chapter 15 Verse 3

भगवद् गीता अध्याय 15 श्लोक 3

न रूपमस्येह तथोपलभ्यते
नान्तो न चादिर्न च संप्रतिष्ठा।
अश्वत्थमेनं सुविरूढमूल
मसङ्गशस्त्रेण दृढेन छित्त्वा।।15.3।।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी ( भगवद् गीता 15.3)

।।15.3।।इस संसारवृक्षका जैसा रूप देखनेमें आता है? वैसा यहाँ (विचार करनेपर) मिलता नहीं क्योंकि इसका न तो आदि है? न अन्त है और न स्थिति ही है। इसलिये इस दृढ़ मूलोंवाले संसाररूप अश्वत्थवृक्षको दृढ़ असङ्गतारूप शस्त्रके द्वारा काटकर --

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी तेजोमयानंद

।।15.3।। इस (संसार वृक्ष) का स्वरूप जैसा कहा गया है वैसा यहाँ उपलब्ध नहीं होता है? क्योंकि इसका न आदि है और न अंत और न प्रतिष्ठा ही है। इस अति दृढ़ मूल वाले अश्वत्थ वृक्ष को दृढ़ असङ्ग शस्त्र से काटकर ৷৷৷৷।।

हिंदी टीका - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी

।।15.3।। व्याख्या --   न रूपमस्येह तथोपलभ्यते -- इसी अध्यायके पहले श्लोकमें संसारवृक्षके विषयमें कहा गया है कि लोग इसको अव्यय (अविनाशी) कहते हैं और शास्त्रोंमें भी वर्णन आता है कि सकामअनुष्ठान करनेसे लोकपरलोकमें विशाल भोग प्राप्त होते हैं। ऐसी बातें सुनकर मनुष्यलोक तथा स्वर्गलोकमें सुख? रमणीयता और स्थायीपन मालूम देता है। इसी कारण अज्ञानी मनुष्य काम और भोगके परायण होते हैं और इससे बढ़कर कोई सुख नहीं है -- ऐसा उनका निश्चय हो जाता है (गीता 2। 42 16। 11)। जबतक संसारसे तादात्म्य? ममता और कामनाका सम्बन्ध है? तबतक ऐसा ही प्रतीत होता है। परन्तु भगवान् कहते हैं कि विवेकवती बुद्धिसे संसारसे अलग होकर अर्थात् संसारसे सम्बन्धविच्छेद करके देखनेसे उसका जैसा रूप हमने अभी मान रखा है? वैसा उपलब्ध नहीं होता अर्थात् यह नाशवान् और दुःखरूप प्रतीत होता है।नान्तो न चादिर्न च सम्प्रतिष्ठा -- किसी वस्तुके आदि? मध्य और अन्तका ज्ञान दो तरहका होता है -- देशकृत और कालकृत। इस संसारका कहाँसे आरम्भ है? कहाँ मध्य है और कहाँ इसका अन्त होता है -- इस प्रकारसे संसारके देशकृत आदि? मध्य? अन्तका पता नहीं और कबसे इसका आरम्भ हुआ है? कबतक यह रहेगा और कब इसका अन्त होगा -- इस प्रकारसे संसारके कालकृत आदि? मध्य? अन्तका भी पता नहीं।मनुष्य किसी विशाल प्रदर्शनीमें तरहतरहकी वस्तुओंको देखकर मुग्ध हुआ घूमता रहे? तो वह उस प्रदर्शनीका आदिअन्त नहीं जान सकता। उस प्रदर्शनीसे बाहर निकलनेपर ही वह उसके आदिअन्तको जान सकता है। इसी तरह संसारसे सम्बन्ध मानकर भोगोंकी तरफ वृत्ति रखते हुए इस संसारका आदिअन्त कभी जाननेमें नहीं आ सकता।मनुष्यके पास संसारके आदिअन्तका पता लगानेके लिये जो साधन (इन्द्रियाँ? मन और बुद्धि) हैं? वे सब संसारके ही अंश हैं। यह नियम है कि कार्य अपने कारणमें विलीन तो हो सकता है? पर उसको जान नहीं सकता। जैसे मिट्टीका घड़ा पृथ्वीको अपने भीतर नहीं ला सकता? ऐसे ही व्यष्टि इन्द्रियाँमनबुद्धि समष्टि,संसार और उसके कार्यको अपनी जानकारीमें नहीं ला सकते। अतः संसारसे (मन? बुद्धि? इन्द्रियोंसे भी) अलग होनेपर संसारका स्वरूप (स्वयंके द्वारा) ठीकठीक जाना जा सकता है।वास्तवमें संसारकी स्वतन्त्र सत्ता (स्थिति) है ही नहीं। केवल उत्पत्ति और विनाशका क्रममात्र है। संसारका यह उत्पत्तिविनाशका प्रवाह ही स्थितिरूपसे प्रतीत होता है। वास्तवमें देखा जाय तो उत्पत्ति भी नही है? केवल नाशहीनाश है। जिसका स्वरूप एक क्षण भी स्थायी न रहता हो? ऐसे संसारकी प्रतिष्ठा (स्थिति) कैसी संसारसे अपना माना हुआ सम्बन्ध छोड़ते ही उसका अपने लिये अन्त हो जाता है और अपने वास्तविक स्वरूप अथवा परमात्मामें स्थिति हो जाती है।विशेष बातइस संसारके आदि? मध्य और अन्तका पता आजतक कोई वैज्ञानिक नहीं लगा सका और न ही लगा सकता है। संसारसे सम्बन्ध रखते हुए अथवा सांसारिक भोगोंको भोगते हुए संसारके आदि? मध्य और अन्तको ढूँढ़ना चाहें? तो कोल्हूके बैलकी तरह उम्रभर रहनेपर भी कुछ हाथ आनेका नहीं।वास्तवमें इस संसारके आदि? मध्य और अन्तका पता लगानेकी जरूरत भी नहीं है। जरूरत संसारसे अपने माने हुए सम्बन्धका विच्छेद करनेकी ही है।संसार अनादिसान्त है या अनादिअनन्त है अथवा प्रतीतिमात्र है? इत्यादि विषयोंपर दार्शनिकोंमें अनेक मतभेद हैं परन्तु संसारके साथ हमारा सम्बन्ध असत् है? जिसका विच्छेद करना आवश्यक है -- इस विषयपर सभी दार्शनिक एकमत हैं।संसारसे सम्बन्धविच्छेद करनेका सुगम उपाय है -- संसारसे प्राप्त (मन? बुद्धि? इन्द्रियाँ? शरीर? धन? सम्पत्ति आदि) सम्पूर्ण सामग्रीको अपनी और अपने लिये न मानते हुए उसको संसारकी ही सेवामें लगा देना।सांसारिक स्त्री? पुत्र? मान? बड़ाई? धन? सम्पत्ति? आयु? नीरोगता आदि कितने ही प्राप्त हो जायँ यहाँतक कि संसारके समस्त भोग एक ही मनुष्यको मिल जायँ? तो भी उनसे मनुष्यको तृप्ति नहीं हो सकती क्योंकि जीव स्वयं अविनाशी है और सांसारिक भोग नाशवान् हैं। नाशवान्से अविनाशी कैसे तृप्त हो सकता हैअश्वत्थमेनं सुविरूढमूलम् -- संसारको सुविरूढमूलम् कहनेका तात्पर्य यह है कि तादात्म्य? ममता और कामनाके कारण यह संसार (प्रतिष्ठारहित होनेपर भी) दृढ़ मूलोंवाला प्रतीत हो रहा है।व्यक्ति? पदार्थ? क्रिया आदिमें राग? ममता होनेसे सांसारिक बन्धन अधिकसेअधिक दृढ़ होता चला जाता है। जिन पदार्थों? व्यक्तियोंमें राग? ममताका घनिष्ठ सम्बन्ध हो जाता है? उनको मनुष्य अपना स्वरूप ही मानने लग जाता है। जैसे? धनमें ममता होनेसे उसकी प्राप्तिमें मनुष्यको बड़ी प्रसन्नता होती है और मैं बड़ा धनवान् हूँ -- ऐसा अभिमान हो जाता है। धनके नाशसे वह अपना नाश मानने लग जाता है। लोभ बढ़नेसे धनकी प्राप्तिके लिये वह अन्याय? पाप आदि न करनेलायक काम भी कर बैठता है। फिर इतना लोभ बढ़ जाता है कि उसके भीतर यह दृढ़ निश्चय हो जाता है कि झूठ? कपट? बेईमानी आदिके बिना धन कमाया ही नहीं जा सकता। उसे यह विचार ही नहीं होता कि पापसे धन कमाकर मैं यहाँ कितने दिन ठहरूँगा पापसे कमाया धन तो शरीरके साथ यहीँ छूट जायगा किंतु धनके लिये किये झूठ? कपट? बेईमानी? चोरी आदि पाप तो मेरे साथ जायँगे (टिप्पणी प0 748)? जिससे परलोकमें मेरी कितनी दुर्गति होगी आदि। इतना ही नहीं? वह दूसरोंको भी प्रेरणा करने लग जाता है कि धन कमानेके लिये पाप करनेमें कोई खराबी नहीं यह तो व्यापार है? इसमें झूठ बोलना? ठगना आदि सब उचित है इत्यादि। इस दुर्भावका होना ही तादात्म्य? ममता और कामनारूप मूलोंका दृढ़ होना है। इस प्रकारके दूषित भावोंके दृढ़मूल होनेसे मनुष्य वैसा ही बन जाता है (गीता 17। 3)।ये तादात्म्य? ममता और कामनारूप मूल अन्तःकरणमें इतनी दृढ़तासे जमे हुए हैं कि पढ़ने? सुनने तथा विचारविवेचन करनेपर भी सर्वथा नष्ट नहीं होते। साधक प्रायः कहा करते हैं कि सत्सङ्गचर्चा सुनते समय तो इन दोषोंके त्यागकी बात अच्छी और सुगम लगती है परन्तु व्यवहारमें आनेपर ऐसा होता नहीं। इनको छोड़ना तो चाहते हैं? पर ये छूटते नहीं। इन दोषोंके न छूटनेमें खास कारण है -- सांसारिक सुख लेनेकी इच्छा। साधकसे भूल यह होती है कि वह सांसारिक सुख भी लेना चाहता है और साथ ही दोषोंसे भी बचना चाहता है। जैसे लोभी व्यक्ति विषयुक्त लड्डुओंकी मिठासको भी लेना चाहे और साथ ही विषसे भी बचना चाहे ऐसा कभी सम्भव नहीं है। संसारसे कभी किञ्चिन्मात्र भी सुखकी आशा न रखनेपर इसका दृढ़मूल स्वतः नष्ट हो जाता है।दूसरी बात यह है कि तादात्म्य? ममता और कामनाका मिटना बहुत कठिन है -- साधककी यह मान्यता ही इन दोषोंको मिटने नहीं देती। वास्तवमें तो ये स्वतः मिट रहे हैं। किसी भी मनुष्यमें ये दोष सदा नहीं रहते उत्पन्न और नष्ट होते रहते हैं किंतु अपनी मान्यताके कारण ये स्थायी दीखते हैं। अतः साधकको चाहिये कि वह इन दोषोंके मिटनेको कभी कठिन न माने।असङ्गशस्त्रेण दृढेन छित्त्वा -- भगवान् कहते हैं कि यद्यपि इस संसारवृक्षके अवान्तर मूल बहुत दृढ़ हैं? फिर भी इनको दृढ़ असङ्गतारूप शस्त्रके द्वारा काटा जा सकता है। किसी भी स्थान? व्यक्ति? वस्तु? परिस्थिति आदिके प्रति मनमें आकर्षण? सुखबुद्धिका होना और उनके सम्बन्धसे अपनेआपको बड़ा तथा सुखी मानना पदार्थोंके प्राप्त होने अथवा संग्रह होनेपर प्रसन्न होना -- यही सङ्ग कहलाता है। इसका न होना ही असङ्गता अर्थात् वैराग्य है। वैराग्यके दो प्रकार हैं -- (1) साधारण वैराग्य और (2) दृढ़ वैराग्य। दृढ़ वैराग्यको उपरति अथवा पर वैराग्य भी कहते हैं।वैराग्यसम्बन्धी विशेष बात वैराग्यके अनेक रूप हैं? जो इस प्रकार हैं -- पहला वैराग्य धन? मकान? जमीन आदि पदार्थोंसे होता है। इन पदार्थोंका स्वरूपसे त्याग कर देनेपर भी अगर मनमें उनका महत्त्व बना हुआ है और मैं त्यागी हूँ -- ऐसा अभिमान है? तो वास्तवमें यह वैराग्य नहीं है। अन्तःकरणमें जडपदार्थोंका किञ्चिन्मात्र भी महत्त्व और आकर्षण न रहे -- यही वैराग्य है। दूसरा वैराग्य अपने कहलानेवाले माता? पिता? स्त्री? पुत्र? भाई? भौजाई आदि(परिवार)से होता है। उनकी सेवा करने या उनको सुख पहुँचानेके लिये ही उनसे अपना सम्बन्ध मानना चाहिये। अपने सुखके लिये उनसे किञ्चिन्मात्र भी अपना सम्बन्ध न मानना ही बन्धुबान्धवोंसे वैराग्य है।तीसरा और वास्तविक वैराग्य अपने शरीरसे होता है। अगर शरीरसे सम्बन्ध बना हुआ है तो सम्पूर्ण संसारसे सम्बन्ध बना हुआ है क्योंकि शरीर संसारका ही बीज अथवा अंश है। शरीरसे तादात्म्य न रहना ही शरीरसे वैराग्य है।तादात्म्य (शरीरके साथ मानी हुई एकता अर्थात् अहंता) का नाश करनेके लिये साधकको पहले मान? प्रतिष्ठा? पूजा? धन आदिकी कामनाका त्याग करना चाहिये। इनकी कामनाका त्याग करनेपर भी (शऱीरके) नाम में ममता रहनेके कारण यश? कीर्ति? बड़ाई आदिकी कामना रह जाती है। इसके कारण मरनेके बाद,भी अपने नामकी कीर्ति? अपना स्मारक बननेकी चाह आदि सूक्ष्म कामनाएँ रह जाती हैं। इन सब कामनाओंका नाश करना आवश्यक है। कहींकहीं साधकके भीतर दूसरोंकी प्रशंसा सुनकर? दूसरेकी बड़ाई देखकर ईर्ष्याका भाव जाग्रत् हो जाता है। अतः इसका भी नाश करना आवश्यक है।उपर्युक्त कामनाओंका नाश करनेके बाद शरीरमें ममता रह जाती है। यह ममताका सम्बन्ध मृत्युके बाद भी बना रहता है। इसी कारण मृत शरीरको जला देनेके बाद भी हड्डियोंको गङ्गाजीमें डालनेसे जीव(जिसने शरीरमें ममता की है)की आगे गति होती है। विवेक (जडचेतन? प्रकृतिपुरुष अथवा शरीरशरीरीकी भिन्नताका ज्ञान) जाग्रत् होनेपर ममताका नाश हो जाता है। कामना और ममता -- दोनोंका नाश होनेके बाद तादात्म्य (अहंता) नष्टप्राय हो जाता है अर्थात् बहुत सूक्ष्म रह जाता है। तादात्म्यका अत्यन्ताभाव भगवत्प्रेमकी प्राप्ति होनेपर होता है।जब मनुष्य स्वयं यह अनुभव कर लेता है कि मैं शरीर नहीं हूँ शरीर मेरा नहीं है? तब कामना? ममता और तादात्म्य -- तीनों मिट जाते हैं। यही वास्तविक वैराग्य है।,जिसके भीतर दृढ़ वैराग्य है उसके अन्तःकरणमें सम्पूर्ण वासनाओँका नाश हो जाता है। अपने स्वरूपसे विजातीय (जड) पदार्थ -- शरीर? इन्द्रियाँ? मन? बुद्धि? आदिसे किञ्चिन्मात्र भी अपना सम्बन्ध न मानकर -- सबका कल्याण हो? सब सुखी हों? सब नीरोग हों? कभी किसीको किञ्चिन्मात्र भी दुःख न हो (टिप्पणी प0 750.1) -- इस भावका रहना ही दृढ़ वैराग्यका लक्षण है।यह(इदम्) रूपसे जाननेमें आनेवाले स्थूल? सूक्ष्म और कारणशरीरसहित सम्पूर्ण संसारको जाननेवाला,मैं? (अहम्) कहलाता है। यह? (जाननेमें आनेवाला दृश्य) और मैं (जाननेवाला द्रष्टा) कभी एक नहीं हो सकते -- यह नियम है। इस प्रकार संसार और शरीर नष्ट होनेवाले हैं और मैं (स्वयं) अविनाशी है -- इस विवेकका आदर करते हुए अपनेआपको संसार और शरीरसे सर्वथा अलग अनुभव करना ही असङ्गशस्त्रके द्वारा संसारवृक्षका छेदन करना है। इस विवेकको महत्त्व न देनेके कारण ही संसार दृढ़ मूलोंवाला प्रतीत होता है।सांसारिक वस्तुओंका अत्यन्ताभाव अर्थात् सर्वथा नाश तो नहीं हो सकता? पर उनमें रागका सर्वथा अभाव हो सकता है। अतः छेदन का तात्पर्य सांसारिक वस्तुओंका नाश करना नहीं? प्रत्युत उनसे अपना राग हटा लेना है। संसारसे सम्बन्धविच्छेद होनेपर संसारका अपने लिये सर्वथा अभाव हो जाता है? जिसे,आत्यन्तिक प्रलय भी कहते हैं। जो हमारा स्वरूप नहीं है तथा जिसके साथ हमारा वास्तविक सम्बन्ध नहीं है? उसीका त्याग (छेदन) होता है। हम स्वरूपतः चेतन और अविनाशी हैं एवं संसार जड और विनाशी है अतः संसारसे हमारा सम्बन्ध अवास्तविक और भूलसे माना हुआ है। स्वरूपसे हम संसारसे असङ्ग ही हैं। पहलेसे ही जो असङ्ग है? वही असङ्ग होता है -- यह नियम है। अतः संसारसे हमारी असङ्गता स्वतःसिद्ध है -- इस वास्तविकताको दृढ़तासे मान लेना चाहिये। संसार कितना ही सुविरूढमूल क्यों न हो? उसके साथ अपना सम्बन्ध न माननेसे वह स्वतः कट जाता है क्योंकि संसारके साथ अपना सम्बन्ध है नहीं? केवल माना हुआ है। अतः संसारके साथ अपना सम्बन्ध न माननेसे उसका छेदन हो जाता है -- इसमें साधकको सन्देह नहीं करना चाहिये चाहे (आरम्भमें) व्यवहारमें ऐसा दिखायी दे या न दे।जीवने अपनी भूलसे शरीरसंसारसे सम्बन्ध माना था। इसलिये इसका छेदन करनेकी जिम्मेवारी भी जीवपर ही है। अतः भगवान् इसे ही छेदन करनेके लिये कह रहे हैं। संसारसे सम्बन्धविच्छेदके कुछ सुगम उपाय(1) कुछ भी लेनेकी इच्छा न रखकर संसारसे प्राप्त सामग्रीको संसारकी सेवामें ही लगा देना।(2) सांसारिक सुख(भोग और संग्रह) की कामनाका सर्वथा त्याग करना।(3) संसारके आश्रयका सर्वथा त्याग करना।(4) शरीरसंसारसे मैं और मेरापनको बिलकुल हटा लेना।(5) मैं भगवान्का हूँ भगवान् मेरे हैं -- इस वास्तविकतापर दृढ़तासे डटे रहेना।(6) मुझे एक परमात्माकी तरफ ही चलना है -- ऐसे दृढ़ निश्चय(व्यवसायात्मिका बुद्धि) का होना।(7) शास्त्रविहित अपनेअपने कर्तव्यकर्मों(स्वधर्म) का तत्परतापूर्वक पालन करना (टिप्पणी प0 750.2) (गीता 18। 45)।(8) बचपनमें शरीर? पदार्थ? परिस्थिति? विद्या? सामर्थ्य आदि जैसे थे? वैसे अब नहीं हैं अर्थात् वे सबकेसब बदल गये? पर मैं स्वयं वही हूँ? बदला नहीं -- अपने इस अनुभवको महत्त्व देना।(9) संसारसे माने हुए सम्बन्धका सद्भाव (सत्ताभाव) मिटाना। सम्बन्ध --   संसारवृक्षका छेदन करनेके बाद साधकको क्या करना चाहिये -- इसका विवेचन आगेके श्लोकमें करते हैं।

हिंदी टीका - स्वामी चिन्मयानंद जी

।।15.3।। See Commentary under 15.4

English Translation - Swami Gambirananda

15.3 Its form is not perceived here in that way; nor its end, nor beginning, nor continuance, After felling this Peepul whose roots are well developed, with the strong sword of detachment-;

English Translation - Swami Sivananda

15.3 Its form is not perceived here as such, neither its end nor its origin, nor its foundation nor resting place: having cut asunder this firmly rooted peepul tree with the strong axe of non-attachment.

English Translation - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

15.3. The nature of this is not perceived in that manner, nor its end, nor its beginning and nor its centre (the middle). Cutting this holy Fig-tree-with its firmly and variedly grown roots-by means of the sharp (or strong) exe of non-attachment;

English Commentary - Swami Sivananda

15.3 न not? रूपम् form? अस्य its? इह here? तथा as such? उपलभ्यते is perceived? न not? अन्तः (its) end? न not? च and? आदिः (its) origin? न not? च and? संप्रतिष्ठा foundation or resting place? अश्वत्थम् Asvattha? एनम् this? सुविरूढमूलम् firmrooted? असङ्गशस्त्रेण with the axe of nonattachment? दृढेन strong? छित्त्वा having cut asunder.Commentary The idea is continued in the next verse.So long as one is under the sway of ignorance? he cannot understand the form of this tree? its end? origin and foundation (middle). O Arjuna Thou mayest perhaps consider that such a huge tree cannot be uprooted by any means whatever. It is not so. However firmly rooted it may be? it can be cut by the powerful axe of nnattachment or dispassion within the twinkling of an eye.After cutting this tree you will have to look within? meditate on the Self and behold the Supreme.Tatha As such As described above. Is it necessary to pull down castles in the air or to break the horns of a hare or to pluck a flower growing in the sky or to get butter from the milk of a tortoise or oil from stone Similarly? O Arjuna? there is no reality in this tree. Therefore why should you entertain any fear as to whether it may be uprooted or not Its form as such is not perceived by anybody here it is like a dream or a mirage or an imaginary city in the sky formed by the clouds or caused by a juggler. It appears and disappears. This tree has DrishtaNashtaSvarupa like the mirage. That object which is destroyed when one beholds it is DrishtaNashta. Nobody has perceived the end? the origin or the foundation of this illusory tree. No one can say that it has arisen from such and such a place or point.Samsara or the peepul tree is inveterately deeprooted. You will have to struggle hard to uproot it with its seed or the selfreproducing deep root.Asanga Dispassion? freedom from attachment to children? wealth and the world.Dridhena Strong. You will have to cut the tree with a strong axe which is sharpened again and again on the whetstone of the practice of discrimination. Further your mind should be turned towards the Supreme Being with the strong determination that you can attain eternal bliss only in Him and that He is the ony Reality.The desire for sensual pleasure is Sanga. Its opposite (dispassion) is Asanga. Renunciation of the three kinds of Eshanas (desires)? viz.? children? wealth and the world (PutraVittaLokeshana) is Asanga. Just as the axe cuts the tree? so also dispassion cuts this tree of Samsara. Hence dispassion is termed an axe. Cutting the tree of Samsara is annihilation of egoism? ignorance? latent tendencies? and renunciation of the fruits of all actions? through the practice of dispassion? control of the mind and the senses? etc. (Cf.VII.14)

English Translation of Sanskrit Commentary By Sri Shankaracharya's

15.3 But, asya, its-of this Tree of the World which has been described; rupam, form, as it has been presented; na, is not at all; upalabhyate, perceived; iha, here; tatha, in that way. For, being like a dream, water in a mirage, jugglery, an imaginary city seen in the sky, it is by nature destroyed no sooner than it is seen. Therefore, na, there exists neither; its antah, end, limit, termination; so also, neither; its beginning. It is not comprehended by anyone that it comes into existence beginning from any definite point. Its sampratistha, continuance, the middle state, too, is not perceived by anyone. Chittva, after felling, uprooting, together with its seeds; enam, this, above described; asvattham, Peepul, the Tree of the World; suvirudha-mulam, whose roots (mula) are well (su) developed (virudham); drdhena, with the strong-hardened by a resolute mind directed towards the supreme Self, and sharpened on the stone of repeated practice of discrimination; asanga-sastrena, sword of detachment-detachment means turn ing away from the desire for progeny, wealth and the worlds; with that sword of detachment-.

English Translation of Commentary - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

15.3 See Comment under 15.5

English Translation of Ramanuja's Sanskrit Commentary

15.3 - 15.4 The form of this tree, having its origin above, i.e., in the four-faced Brahma and branches below in the sense that man forms the crest through continual lineage therefrom, and also having its branches extended above and below by actions done in the human state and forming secondary roots - that form of the tree is not understood by people immersed in Samsara. Only this much is perceived: I am a man, the son of Devadatta, the father of Yajnadatta; I have property appropriate to these conditions. Likewise, it is not understood that its destruction can be brought about by detachment from enjoyments which are based on Gunas. Similarly it is not perceived that attachment to the Gunas alone is the beginning of this (tree). Again, it is not perceived that the basis of this tree is founded on ignorance which is the misconception of self as non-self. Ignorance alone is the basis of this tree, since in it alone the tree is fixed. This Asvattha, described above, firm-rooted, i.e., the roots of which are firm and manifold, is to be cut off by the strong axe of detachment, namely, detachment from the sense objects composed of the three Gunas. This can be forged through perfect knowledge. As one gains detachment from sense-objects, one should seek and find out the goal from which nobody ever returns. How does this attachment to sense-objects, which consists of the Gunas and erroneous knowledge forming its cause, cease to exist? Sri Krsna now answers: One should seek refuge (Prapadyet) in the Primal Person alone in order to overcome this ignorance. One should seek refuge (Prapadyeta) in Him who is primal, namely, the beginning of all entities, as stated in the following text: With Me as the Lord, the Prakrti gives birth to all that which moves, and that which does not move (9.10), I am the origin of all; from Me proceed everything (10.8), and There is nothing higher than Me, O Arjuna (7.7). From Me, the creator of everything, has streamed forth this ancient activity, continuing from time immermorial, of attachment to sense-objects consisting of Gunas. This has been declared already by Me: For this divine Maya of Mine consisting of the Gunas is hard to break through. But those who take refuge in me alone shall pass beyond this Maya (7.14). Or a variant of this stanza is prapadya iyatah pravrttih (in place of prapadyet yatah pravrittih). This gives the sense that this discipline of taking refuge in the Supreme Person for dispelling of ignorance has continued from a distant past. The tendencies of ancient persons seeking liberation are also ancient. The purport is this: The ancient liberation-seekers, taking refuge in Me alone, were released from bondage. [This can be taken to mean that Prapatti or taking refuge in the Lord had originated in the Bhakti tradition of the Sri-Vaisnavites from ancient sages i.e., from the Alvars who preceded Ramanuja by several centuries. It is not a creation of Ramanuja].

Commentary - Chakravarthi Ji

Moreover, the real form of the tree cannot be perceived in the world of men. This is because of the great variety of opinions such as “The world is real. The world is false. The world is eternal.” It has no end, no termination (na antah), and because it is unlimited, it has no beginning as well. Because it has no beginning, it has no shelter (sampratistha), or support. One cannot understand what it is, because of lack of real knowledge. In any case, knowing that detachment is the weapon to cut down the tree, which is the only cause of the suffering of all jivas, cutting down the tree with that detachment, one should look for the treasure situated at the base of the root. The word asangah here means detachment, or complete renunciation. Having cut it down with the axe (sastrena) of complete detachment, separating it from oneself, one should then search (parimargitavyam) for the object (tat padam), brahman, the great treasure, existing at the root. What type of thing is that? One should look for that object which having attained (yasmin gatah), one does not return. He then explains the method of searching. I worship (prapadye) that original person from whom the long standing (purani) action of samsara (pravrttih) has spread out: one should search by the process of bhakti.

Rudra Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The reality of this asvattha or ancient banyan tree having its roots above and branches below is not perceivable by jivas or embodied beings habitating material existence in samsara or the perpetual cycle of birth and death for 43,200,000 lifetimes that transpire for a human in one day of Brahma. Neither can its end be discerned or its beginning determined. It is unlimited and its continuity and how it exists is unknown. Since this tree is extremely difficult to uproot and surmount and is also the actual cause of all suffering, a spiritually knowledegable living entity should sever all ties from this tree by the weapons of nonattachment and dispassion and strive for attaining atma tattva or realisation of their immortal soul. Enunciated clearly having severed all ties to this deep rooted and all encompassing tree with the powerful discriminative weapon of renunciation which consists of relinquishing all concepts of ego such as I and mine and instead see oneself as belonging fully to the Supreme Lord Krishna in complete communion with Him, who is the ultimate source from where this tree has arisen. Upon realising the Supreme Lord one achieves moksa or liberation from material existence and is no longer subject to samsara the perpetual cycle of birth and death. In conclusion one must wholeheartedly seek communion with the Supreme Lord and take full shelter of Him by bhakti or exclusive loving devotion.

Brahma Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

This ancient asvattha or banyan tree represents material existence but it is not perceivable yet it is seen to have been established. The word adi means beginning and anta means the end which refer to the Supreme Lord. The Bhagavad Purana states: The Supreme Lord is the beginning, the end and the middle as well. The Moksa Dharma states: The Supreme Lord has neither beginning nor ending, more the demigods and seers cannot penetrate. The compound word asanga-sastrena means the wisdom of non-attachment arising from association with Vaisnava devotees of the Supreme Lord. With the sword of detachment sharpened by meditation on the wisdom of renunciation. By this method the world does not become a place of bondage. By knowledge of the Vedic scriptures and practice the knowledge of the brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence will be revealed to one. It is confirmed in the Vedic scriptures that: Meditation verily is the way and the means for discrnment and detachment. Such a one will not be bound although others will. The purport is that with the weapon of detachment one should sever ties with everything except the Supreme Lord Krishna and His authorised avatars or divine incarnations and expansions. The Moksa Dharma states: When on surrenders unto the Supreme Lord one does not suffer or grieve. Neither is one born, nor does one die. Such a one is verily situated in the brahman. Only one who has been graced by the blessing of the Supreme Lord can be elligible to become qualified to attain this. The describibng of the means of severing attachment have been given for the sake of an aspirant receiving the Supreme Lord grace. No other shelter or refuge exists in all creation other than the Supeme Lord Krishna and this fundamental understanding must be realised. Since this material existence is like a horse with an unstable gait it is known as unsteady. That it is immutable is because samsara or the perpetual cycle of birth and death is like a stream and endless until one achieves moksa or liberation from material existence. This liberation is determined by detachment. The firm conviction that the Supreme Lord is transcendental to everything in the physical existence is the knowledge gained from the destruction of this ancien banyan tree. The Vedic aphorism neti neti meaning it is not this, it is not that clarifies what is the unmanifest. Realising that the Supreme Lord Krishna is the seperate and distinct from all else is what makes Him clearly superior and paramount. He is the primal Supreme Lord, the only progenitor. All created beings including Brahma, Shiva, Indra and all the 300 million demigods are nothing but emantions from Him like rays of sunlight from the sun.

Shri Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The jivas or embodied beings immersed in samsara or the perpetual cycle of birth and death are unable to comprehend this asvattha or banyan tree and its symbolism. It is impossible for them to understand that this tree symbolising material existence has its root above in Satyloka with Brahma and its branches descending downwards are all the innumerable jivas or embodied beings throughout all of creation and that humans are its terminals from where there are branches spreading upwards as well determined by karma or reactions to actions based upon following or ignoring the injunctions and prohibitions of the Vedic scriptures which apply when one finally achieves a human form out of the millions of different plants, birds, fish and animal species. As a human one is quickly indoctrinated into samsara with the conceptions of I am. I am a man. I am a king. I am the son of this person. I am the wife of that person. I am beautiful. I am great, etc., etc. Such I am conceptions keeps one locked in samsara and causes one to be fully occupied with mundane concerns and worldly affairs appropriate to such conceptions. Such persons look upon their bodily conceptions as there very self and are completely oblivious that they are factually eternal beings possessing an atma or immortal soul. They perceive not that they can gradually wean themselves from this ancient tree by renuciation of the three gunas or modes of material nature and detachment from the objects of the senses. Neither do they comprehend that the atma is seperate and distinct from the physical body. Nor can they differentiate that the ego is not the physical body and the atma is not the ego. Bewildered by illusion they believe what is unreal to be real and what is real they cannot perceive. The origin and source is unfathomable to them and so deluded they remain in ignorance. This asvattha tree with roots above and branches below that keeps the jiva enslaved in samsara can only be destroyed by the sword of non-attachment to objects of the senses. This renunciation arises from bhakti or exclusive loving devotion to the Supreme Lord Krishna which is the highest good and apex of all to be attained by every jivas and paramount to every other conceivable activity in existence throughout all of creation. Demolishing this strong and durable asvattha tree by the sharp weapon of detachment from sense objects produces disike and disdain for sense gratification which creates a desire for pure, sublime spiritual experiences which when one attains can no longer be subjected to the influence of the three gunas or modes of material nature. How can such a state of consciousness manifest and detachment from the gunas which causes delusion be guaranteed? Lord Krishna has already previously confirmed in chapter VII.VII: That there is nothing superior to Him. In chapter VII.XIV: That those who surrender unto Him alone can surmount the three gunas. In chapter IX, X: That material nature is operating under His control. In X.VIII: That He is the origin and source of all material and spiritual worlds. So let glorious propitiation and devotion be given unto the Supreme Lord Krishna as He alone is the sole refuge of all living entities. Inasmuch as all material impressions, instincts and influences arise from contact with the three gunas proceeding from prakriti the material substratum pervading physical existence which is controlled byHim. It is logical to understand that by Him they can also be transcended. The question that naturally comes to mind is how? The word prapadye means surrender. In VII.XIV is stated prapadyante or have surrendered. In this verse a variant is stated as prapadye yatah which by the gramatical rules of Panini can be interpreted as prapadye iyatah meaning by a mere step of surrendering unto Him spiritual impressions, instincts and influences are activated and awaken in such a one. They will manifest as spontaneous impulses arising with frequency in the heart and dispel all nescience. They are ancient because they embody the collective consciousness of all the mumukshas or achievers of moksa or liberation from material existence since time immemorial, who surrendered and took refuge of the Supreme Lord Krishna or His authorised incarnation and expansion as revealed in Vedic scriptures and were released forever from the bondage of samsara.

Kumara Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The jivas or embodied beings immersed in samsara or the perpetual cycle of birth and death are unable to comprehend this asvattha or banyan tree and its symbolism. It is impossible for them to understand that this tree symbolising material existence has its root above in Satyloka with Brahma and its branches descending downwards are all the innumerable jivas or embodied beings throughout all of creation and that humans are its terminals from where there are branches spreading upwards as well determined by karma or reactions to actions based upon following or ignoring the injunctions and prohibitions of the Vedic scriptures which apply when one finally achieves a human form out of the millions of different plants, birds, fish and animal species. As a human one is quickly indoctrinated into samsara with the conceptions of I am. I am a man. I am a king. I am the son of this person. I am the wife of that person. I am beautiful. I am great, etc., etc. Such I am conceptions keeps one locked in samsara and causes one to be fully occupied with mundane concerns and worldly affairs appropriate to such conceptions. Such persons look upon their bodily conceptions as there very self and are completely oblivious that they are factually eternal beings possessing an atma or immortal soul. They perceive not that they can gradually wean themselves from this ancient tree by renuciation of the three gunas or modes of material nature and detachment from the objects of the senses. Neither do they comprehend that the atma is seperate and distinct from the physical body. Nor can they differentiate that the ego is not the physical body and the atma is not the ego. Bewildered by illusion they believe what is unreal to be real and what is real they cannot perceive. The origin and source is unfathomable to them and so deluded they remain in ignorance. This asvattha tree with roots above and branches below that keeps the jiva enslaved in samsara can only be destroyed by the sword of non-attachment to objects of the senses. This renunciation arises from bhakti or exclusive loving devotion to the Supreme Lord Krishna which is the highest good and apex of all to be attained by every jivas and paramount to every other conceivable activity in existence throughout all of creation. Demolishing this strong and durable asvattha tree by the sharp weapon of detachment from sense objects produces disike and disdain for sense gratification which creates a desire for pure, sublime spiritual experiences which when one attains can no longer be subjected to the influence of the three gunas or modes of material nature. How can such a state of consciousness manifest and detachment from the gunas which causes delusion be guaranteed? Lord Krishna has already previously confirmed in chapter VII.VII: That there is nothing superior to Him. In chapter VII.XIV: That those who surrender unto Him alone can surmount the three gunas. In chapter IX, X: That material nature is operating under His control. In X.VIII: That He is the origin and source of all material and spiritual worlds. So let glorious propitiation and devotion be given unto the Supreme Lord Krishna as He alone is the sole refuge of all living entities. Inasmuch as all material impressions, instincts and influences arise from contact with the three gunas proceeding from prakriti the material substratum pervading physical existence which is controlled byHim. It is logical to understand that by Him they can also be transcended. The question that naturally comes to mind is how? The word prapadye means surrender. In VII.XIV is stated prapadyante or have surrendered. In this verse a variant is stated as prapadye yatah which by the gramatical rules of Panini can be interpreted as prapadye iyatah meaning by a mere step of surrendering unto Him spiritual impressions, instincts and influences are activated and awaken in such a one. They will manifest as spontaneous impulses arising with frequency in the heart and dispel all nescience. They are ancient because they embody the collective consciousness of all the mumukshas or achievers of moksa or liberation from material existence since time immemorial, who surrendered and took refuge of the Supreme Lord Krishna or His authorised incarnation and expansion as revealed in Vedic scriptures and were released forever from the bondage of samsara.

Transliteration Bhagavad Gita 15.3

Na roopamasyeha tathopalabhyateNaanto na chaadirna cha sampratishthaa; Ashwatthamenam suviroodhamoolamAsangashastrena dridhena cchittwaa.

Word Meanings Bhagavad Gita 15.3

na—not; rūpam—form; asya—of this; iha—in this world; tathā—as such; upalabhyate—is perceived; na—neither; antaḥ—end; na—nor; cha—also; ādiḥ—beginning; na—never; cha—also; sampratiṣhṭhā—the basis; aśhvattham—sacred fig tree; enam—this; su-virūḍha-mūlam—deep-rooted; asaṅga-śhastreṇa—by the axe of detachment; dṛiḍhena—strong; chhittvā—having cut down; tataḥ—then; padam—place; tat—that; parimārgitavyam—one must search out; yasmin—where; gatāḥ—having gone; na—not; nivartanti—return; bhūyaḥ—again; tam—to him; eva—certainly; cha—and; ādyam—original; puruṣham—the Supreme Lord; prapadye—take refuge; yataḥ—whence; pravṛittiḥ—the activity; prasṛitā—streamed forth; purāṇi—very old