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Bhagavad Gita Chapter 13 Verse 30

भगवद् गीता अध्याय 13 श्लोक 30

प्रकृत्यैव च कर्माणि क्रियमाणानि सर्वशः।
यः पश्यति तथाऽऽत्मानमकर्तारं स पश्यति।।13.30।।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी ( भगवद् गीता 13.30)

।।13.30।।जो सम्पूर्ण क्रियाओंको सब प्रकारसे प्रकृतिके द्वारा ही की जाती हुई देखता है और अपनेआपको अकर्ता देखता (अनुभव करता) है? वही यथार्थ देखता है।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी तेजोमयानंद

।।13.30।। जो पुरुष समस्त कर्मों को सर्वश प्रकृति द्वारा ही किये गये देखता है तथा आत्मा को अकर्ता देखता है? वही (वास्तव में) देखता है।।

हिंदी टीका - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी

।।13.30।। व्याख्या --   प्रकृत्यैव च कर्माणि क्रियमाणानि सर्वशः -- वास्तवमें चेतन तत्त्व स्वतःस्वाभाविक निर्विकार? सम और शान्तरूपसे स्थित है। उस चेतन तत्त्व(परमात्मा) की शक्ति प्रकृति स्वतःस्वाभाविक क्रियाशील है। उसमें नित्यनिरन्तर क्रिया होती रहती है -- प्रकर्षेण करणं (भावे ल्युट्) इति प्रकृतिः। यद्यपि प्रकृतिको सक्रिय और अक्रिय -- दो अवस्थाओंवाली (सर्गअवस्थामें सक्रिय और प्रलयअवस्थामें अक्रिय) कहते हैं? तथापि सूक्ष्म विचार करें तो प्रलयअवस्थामें भी उसकी क्रियाशीलता मिटती नहीं है। कारण कि जब प्रलयका आरम्भ होता है? तब प्रकृति सर्गअवस्थाकी तरफ चलती है। इस प्रकार प्रकृतिमें सूक्ष्म क्रिया चलती ही रहती है। प्रकृतिकी सूक्ष्म क्रियाको ही अक्रियअवस्था कहते हैं क्योंकि इस अवस्थामें सृष्टिकी रचना नहीं होती। परन्तु महासर्गमें जब सृष्टिकी रचना होती है? तब सर्गके आरम्भसे सर्गके मध्यतक प्रकृति सर्गकी तरफ चलती है और सर्गका मध्य भाग आनेपर प्रकृति प्रलयकी तरफ चलती है। इस प्रकार प्रकृतिकी स्थूल क्रियाको सक्रियअवस्था कहते हैं। अगर प्रलय और महाप्रलयमें प्रकृतिको अक्रिय माना जाय? तो प्रलयमहाप्रलयका आदि? मध्य और अन्त कैसे होगा ये तीनों तो प्रकृतिमें सूक्ष्म क्रिया होनेसे ही होते हैं। अतः सर्गअवस्थाकी अपेक्षा प्रलयअवस्थामें अपेक्षाकृत अक्रियता है? सर्वथा अक्रियता नहीं है।सूर्यका उदय होता है? फिर वह मध्यमें आ जाता है और फिर वह अस्त हो जाता है? तो इससे मालूम होता है कि प्रातः सूर्योदय होनेपर प्रकाश मध्याह्नतक बढ़ता जाता है और मध्याह्नसे सूर्यास्ततक प्रकाश घटता जाता है। सूर्यास्त होनेके बाद आधी राततक अन्धकार बढ़ता जाता है और आधी रातसे सूर्योदयतक अन्धकार घटता जाता है। वास्तवमें प्रकाश और अन्धकारकी सूक्ष्म सन्धि मध्याह्न और मध्यरात ही है? पर वह दीखती है सूर्योदय और सूर्यास्तके समय। इस दृष्टिसे प्रकाश और अन्धकारकी क्रिया मिटती नहीं? प्रत्युत निरन्तर होती ही रहती है। ऐसे ही सर्ग और प्रलय? महासर्ग और महाप्रलयमें भी प्रकृतिमें क्रिया निरन्तर होती ही रहती है (टिप्पणी प0 704)।इस क्रियाशील प्रकृतिके साथ जब यह पुरुष सम्बन्ध जोड़ लेता है? तब शरीरद्वारा होनेवाली स्वाभाविक क्रियाएँ (तादात्म्यके कारण) अपनेमें प्रतीत होने लगती हैं। यः पश्यति तथात्मानमकर्तारं स पश्यति -- प्रकृति और उसके कार्य स्थूल? सूक्ष्म और कारणशरीरमें खानापीना? चलनाफिरना? उठनाबैठना? घटनाबढ़ना? हिलनाडुलना? सोनाजागना? चिन्तन करना? समाधिस्थ होना आदि जो कुछ भी क्रियाएँ होती हैं? वे सभी प्रकृतिके द्वारा ही होती हैं? स्वयंके द्वारा नहीं क्योंकि स्वयंमें कोई क्रिया होती ही नहीं -- ऐसा जो देखता है अर्थात् अनुभव करता है? वही वास्तवमें ठीक देखता है। कारण कि ऐसा देखनेसे अपनेमें अकर्तृत्व(अकर्तापन) का अनुभव हो जाता है।यहाँ क्रियाओंको प्रकृतिके द्वारा होनेवाली बताया है? कहीं गुणोंके द्वारा होनेवाली बताया है और कहीं,इन्द्रियोंके द्वारा होनेवाली बताया है -- ये तीनों बातें एक ही हैं। प्रकृति सबका कारण है? गुण प्रकृतिके कार्य हैं और गुणोंका कार्य इन्द्रियाँ हैं। अतः प्रकृति? गुण और इन्द्रियाँ -- इनके द्वारा होनेवाली सभी क्रियाएँ प्रकृतिके द्वारा होनेवाली ही कही जाती हैं।

हिंदी टीका - स्वामी चिन्मयानंद जी

।।13.30।। विभिन्न मोटर कम्पनियों के द्वारा निर्मित विभिन्न अश्वशक्ति की असंख्य कारों में से प्रत्येक वाहन का कार्य सम्पादन विशिष्ट होता है। इससे हम यह नहीं कह सकते कि इन कारों में प्रयुक्त पेट्रोल विभिन्न क्षमताओं का है। बल्ब अनेक हैं? परन्तु विद्युत् तो एक ही है। ये दृष्टान्त इस श्लोक में व्यक्त किये गये आत्मैकत्व के सिद्धान्त को भली भाँति स्पष्ट करते हैं।सब कर्म आत्मा की केवल उपस्थिति में प्रकृति से उत्पन्न उपाधियों के द्वारा ही किये जाते हैं। अब विभिन्न व्यक्तियों के कर्मों में जो भेद है? वह उनके विभिन्न शुभाशुभ संस्कारों और इच्छाओं के कारण है? आत्मा के कारण नहीं। केवल क्षेत्र या क्षेत्रज्ञ में कोई कर्म नहीं होते हैं।आत्मा अकर्ता है कर्म करने के लिये शरीरादि कारणों की और मन में इच्छा की आवश्यकता होती है? परन्तु आत्मा सर्वव्यापी? निराकार और सर्व उपाधि रहित होने से उसमें कोई कर्म ही नहीं हो सकते? तो फिर वह कर्ता कैसे हो सकता है आत्मा के अकर्तृत्व के विषय में अन्य कारण भी आगे प्रस्तुत किये जायेंगे।जो प्रकृति की क्रियाओं में आत्मा को अकर्ता जानता है? वही पुरुष वास्तव में तत्त्व को देखता है। उपाधियों के अभाव में समस्त जीवों के गुणों और कर्मों की विलक्षणता का अभाव होकर केवल परमात्मा ही स्वस्वरूप में अवस्थित रह जाता है।पुन? ज्ञानी पुरुष के सम्यक् दर्शन को दूसरे शब्दों में बताते हुये कहते हैं

English Translation - Swami Gambirananda

13.30 And he who sees actions as being done in various ways by Nature itself, and also the Self as the non-agent,-he sees.

English Translation - Swami Sivananda

13.30 He sees, who sees that all actions are performed by Nature alone and that the Self is actionless.

English Translation - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

13.30. Whosoever views all actions as being performed (or all objects as being created), indeed by the Material Cause itself and at the same time views his own Self as non-performer (or non-creator) - he veiws properly.

English Commentary - Swami Sivananda

13.30 प्रकृत्या by Nature? एव alone? च and? कर्माणि actions? क्रियमाणानि being performed? सर्वशः all? यः who? पश्यति sees? तथा so also? आत्मानम् the Self? अकर्तारम् actionless? सः he? पश्यति sees.Commentary Nature is responsible for all activities. The Self is beyond all action. It is the silent witness only. He who experiences thus is the real seer or sage.He who knows that all actions proceeding from the five organs of knowledge? the five organs of action? the mind and the intellect are prompted by Nature and that the Self is actionless? really sees. He alone sees. He who identifies himself with the body? the mind and the senses and foolishly thinks that the Self is the actor is an ignorant man. He sees only with the physical eyes. He has no inner eye of intuition. The sky remains motionless but the clouds move across the sky. Even so the Self is actionless but Nature does everythin. The Self is destitute of any limiting adjunct. Just as there is no variety in ether? so also there is no variety in the Self. It is one homogeneous essence. It is free from any kind of characteristics. (Cf.III.27XIV.19XVIII.16)

English Translation of Sanskrit Commentary By Sri Shankaracharya's

13.30 And yah, he who; pasyati, sees, realizes; karmani, actions, those performed through speech, mind and body; as kriyamanani, being done, being accomplished; sarvasah, in various ways; prakrtya, by Nature-Nature is Gods Maya consisting of the three alities, as is said in the Upanisadic text, However, know Maya as Nature (Sv. 4.10); by that Nature; eva, itself-not by the other [Not by the Pradhana of the Sankhyas, known otherwise as prakrti.] which transforms itself in the form of cause and effects such as Mahat etc.; tatha, and also; atmanam, the Self, the Knower of the field; as akartaram, the non-agent, devoid of all adjuncts; sah, he; pasyati, sees-he is the one who has realized the supreme Reality. This is the idea. What is implied is that there is no valid proof about differences in the Non-agent who is devoid of alities and is unconditioned like space. The Lord elaborates again in other words that very true knowledge:

English Translation of Commentary - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

13.30 Prakrtya etc. He whose firm conviction is of this nature The Material Cause alone performs (or creates) this; I do nothing - he, though he performs (or creates) all, does not perform (or create) anything [in fact]. In this manner, is the absence of doership in him.

English Translation of Ramanuja's Sanskrit Commentary

13.30 When he perceives that all acts are performed by the Prakrti in the manner previously stated in, Prakrti is said to be the cause of agency to the body and sense-organs (13.20), and perceive also that the self, being of the form of knowledge, is not the doer, and that the selfs conjunction with the Prakrti, Its direction of the body and Its experiences of happiness and misery are the result of ignorance of the nature of Karma - then indeed he perceives the pure self.

Commentary - Chakravarthi Ji

One who sees that all actions are done by prakrti in the form of body and senses, and sees that the jiva (atmanam) is the doer only by thinking himself the body, but is not actually the doer, actually sees.

Rudra Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

It may be postulated that substantial differences can be seen by different jivas or embodied beings in performing good and evil activities so how is it that the atma is equal within all? Anticipating such a query Lord Krishna states yah pasyati meaning one who sees. Sees what? One who sees understands that all activites in all respects are factually performed by prakriti or the material substratum pervading physical existence. This is actualised by the transformations of prakriti being the three gunas or modes of goodness, passion and ignorance which direct and influences the mind, body and senses organs to actions. Such a one comprehends that the purely spiritual atma or immortal soul is the monitor and witness to these actions only. Any misconception arising contrary to this reality is due to the erroneous identification of the atma as being the physical body instead of understanding that the atma is imperishable and completely independent of the perishable physical body.

Brahma Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

One who perceives that the atma or immortal soul is only the witness and performs no actions; such a person can realise the Supreme Lord Krishna. After enacting the effects of ones karma or reactions to previous actions, the Supreme Lord causes the reactions to be experienced by the jivas or embodied beings. But for the Supreme Lord there exist no enactment of previous actions. Vedavyasa has confirmed that the Supreme Lord is transcendental to material nature, actions and time. The Skanda Purana states: From but a single desire of will the entire creation is manifested by the Supreme Lord. He is the creator of everything but nothing is the creator of Him. He himself has stated earlier that: I am the Lord of all creation. I am the progenitor of Brahma. Everything rests in Me. It is from me that everything has arisen. Know that all creation has manifested from Me alone. These proofs found in the Vedic scriptures and also the absence of any contradictions to this in the Vedic scriptures is corroborated by the words in this verse of prakrtyaiva ca meaning: the material substratum pervading physical existence in the unlimitedly modified forms of bodies with senses. The adjective ca specifically establishes all forms to be from the Supreme Lord alone. In the Shabda Nirnaya is stated that sometimes ca is used to show additional embellishments and other times to emphasise association and other times to show detriments. Since for the inanimate there is no self-motivation as confirmed by Vedavyasa in Vedanta Sutras. It is clear that prakriti or the material substratum pervading physical existence which is inanimate cannot be the primary cause of creation in any way and the creative impulse to animate from the inanimate is completely impossible and preposturous. Thus in this instance the adjective ca is applicable only to the Supreme Lord and not prakriti. in any way. What Lord Krishna has explained in earlier chapters about His being the original seed and everything is connected to Him like pearls on a string is what He is confirming here through association of the ksetra or sphere of activity and the ksetrajna or the knower of the sphere of activity; so there is absolutely no contradiction whatsoever in this regard. Contrarily, hypothesising that anything inanimate can be the cause of the animate is extremely contradictory and completely erroneous. The Paigni scripture states: Creation emanating from conscious will can alone be the main criteria. So in conclusion only supra-mundane actions which are not subject to any modification should be considered eternal and of the nature of the Supreme Lord.

Shri Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Lord Krishna reveals that one who truly perceives understands that all actions proceed from the agency of prakriti or the material substratum that pervades physical existence. One perceives that for creating effects and instruments insentient prakriti is the cause. One perceives that the atma or immortal soul although sentient is not the doer. One perceives that tamas or ignorance in the shape of karma or reactions to actions is the reason for forced confinement in the material existence, the terms and conditions of the confinement and the experiences of pleasure and pain in correlation with the duration of the confinement. One who comprehends all these truly perceives reality.

Kumara Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Lord Krishna reveals that one who truly perceives understands that all actions proceed from the agency of prakriti or the material substratum that pervades physical existence. One perceives that for creating effects and instruments insentient prakriti is the cause. One perceives that the atma or immortal soul although sentient is not the doer. One perceives that tamas or ignorance in the shape of karma or reactions to actions is the reason for forced confinement in the material existence, the terms and conditions of the confinement and the experiences of pleasure and pain in correlation with the duration of the confinement. One who comprehends all these truly perceives reality.

Transliteration Bhagavad Gita 13.30

Prakrityaiva cha karmaani kriyamaanaani sarvashah; Yah pashyati tathaa’tmaanam akartaaram sa pashyati.

Word Meanings Bhagavad Gita 13.30

prakṛityā—by material nature; eva—truly; cha—also; karmāṇi—actions; kriyamāṇāni—are performed; sarvaśhaḥ—all; yaḥ—who; paśhyati—see; tathā—also; ātmānam—(embodied) soul; akartāram—actionless; saḥ—they; paśhyati—see