Share this page on following platforms.
Download Bhagwad Gita 10.4 Download BG 10.4 as Image

⮪ BG 10.3 Bhagwad Gita BG 10.5⮫

Bhagavad Gita Chapter 10 Verse 4

भगवद् गीता अध्याय 10 श्लोक 4

बुद्धिर्ज्ञानमसंमोहः क्षमा सत्यं दमः शमः।
सुखं दुःखं भवोऽभावो भयं चाभयमेव च।।10.4।।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी ( भगवद् गीता 10.4)

।।10.4।।बुद्धि? ज्ञान? असम्मोह? क्षमा? सत्य? दम? शम? सुख? दुःख? भव? अभाव? भय? अभय? अहिंसा? समता? तुष्टि? तप? दान? यश और अपयश -- प्राणियोंके ये अनेक प्रकारके और अलगअलग (बीस) भाव मेरेसे ही होते हैं।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी तेजोमयानंद

।।10.4।। बुद्धि? ज्ञान? मोह का अभाव? क्षमा? सत्य? दम (इन्द्रिय संयम)? शम (मन संयम)? सुख? दुख? जन्म और मृत्यु? भय और अभय।।

हिंदी टीका - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी

।।10.4।। व्याख्या --   बुद्धिः -- उद्देश्यको लेकर निश्चय करनेवाली वृत्तिका नाम बुद्धि है।ज्ञानम् -- सारअसार? ग्राह्यअग्राह्य? नित्यअनित्य? सत्असत्? उचितअनुचित? कर्तव्यअकर्तव्य -- ऐसा जो विवेक अर्थात् अलगअलग जानकारी है? उसका नाम ज्ञान है। यह ज्ञान (विवेक) मानवमात्रको भगवान्से मिला है।असम्मोहः -- शरीर और संसारको उत्पत्तिविनाशशील जानते हुए भी उनमें मैं और मेरापन करनेका नाम सम्मोह है और इसके न होनेका नाम असम्मोह है।क्षमा -- कोई हमारे प्रति कितना ही बड़ा अपराध करे? अपनी सामर्थ्य रहते हुए भी उसे सह लेना और उस अपराधीको अपनी तथा ईश्वरकी तरफसे यहाँ और परलोकमें कहीं भी दण्ड न मिले -- ऐसा विचार करनेका नाम क्षमा है।सत्यम् -- सत्यस्वरूप परमात्माकी प्राप्तिके लिये सत्यभाषण करना अर्थात् जैसा सुना? देखा और समझा है? उसीके अनुसार अपने स्वार्थ और अभिमानका त्याग करके दूसरोंके हितके लिये न ज्यादा? न कम -- वैसाकावैसा कह देनेका नाम सत्य है।दमः शमः -- परमात्मप्राप्तिका उद्देश्य रखते हुए इन्द्रियोंको अपनेअपने विषयोंसे हटाकर अपने वशमें करनेका नाम दम है? और मनको सांसारिक भोगोंके चिन्तनसे हटानेका नाम शम है।सुखं दुःखम् -- शरीर? मन? इन्द्रियोंके अनुकूल परिस्थितिके प्राप्त होनेपर हृदयमें जो प्रसन्नता होती है? उसका नाम सुख है और प्रतिकूल परिस्थितिके प्राप्त होनेपर हृदयमें जो अप्रसन्नता होती है? उसका नाम,दुःख है।भवोऽभावः -- सांसारिक वस्तु? व्यक्ति? घटना? परिस्थिति? भाव आदिके उत्पन्न होनेका नाम भव है और इन सबके लीन होनेका नाम अभाव है।भयं चाभयमेव च -- अपने आचरण? भाव आदि शास्त्र और लोकमर्यादाके विरुद्ध होनेसे अन्तःकरणमें अपना अनिष्ट होनेकी जो एक आशङ्का होती है? उसको भय कहते हैं। मनुष्यके आचरण? भाव आदि अच्छे हैं? वह किसीको कष्ट नहीं पहुँचाता? शास्त्र और सन्तोंके सिद्धान्तसे विरुद्ध कोई आचरण नहीं करता? तो उसके हृदयमें अपना अनिष्ट होनेकी आशङ्का नहीं रहती अर्थात् उसको किसीसे भय नहीं होता। इसीको अभय कहते हैं।अहिंसा -- अपने तन? मन और वचनसे किसी भी देश? काल? परिस्थिति आदिमें किसी भी प्राणीको किञ्चिन्मात्र भी दुःख न देनेका नाम अहिंसा है।समता -- तरहतरहकी अनुकूल और प्रतिकूल वस्तु? व्यक्ति? घटना? परिस्थिति आदिके प्राप्त होनेपर भी अपने अन्तःकरणमें कोई विषमता न आनेका नाम समता है।तुष्टिः -- आवश्यकता ज्यादा रहनेपर भी कम मिले तो उसमें सन्तोष करना तथा और मिले -- ऐसी इच्छाका न रहना तुष्टि है। तात्पर्य है कि मिले अथवा न मिले? कम मिले अथवा ज्यादा मिले आदि हर हालतमें प्रसन्न रहना तुष्टि है।तपः -- अपने कर्तव्यका पालन करते हुए जो कुछ कष्ट आ जाय? प्रतिकूल परिस्थिति आ जाय? उन सबको प्रसन्नतापूर्वक सहनेका नाम तप है। एकादशीव्रत आदि करनेका नाम भी तप है।दानम् -- प्रत्युपकार और फलकी किञ्चिन्मात्र भी इच्छा न रखकर प्रसन्नतापूर्वक अपनी शुद्ध कमाईका हिस्सा सत्पात्रको देनेका नाम दान (गीता 17। 20)।यशोऽयशः -- मनुष्यके अच्छे आचरणों? भावों और गुणोंको लेकर संसारमें जो नामकी प्रसिद्धि? प्रशंसा आदि होते हैं? उनका नाम यश है। मनुष्यके बुरे आचरणों? भावों और गुणोंको लेकर संसारमें जो नामकी निन्दा होती है? उसको अयश (अपयश) कहते हैं।भवन्ति भावा भूतानां मत्त एव पृथग्विधाः -- प्राणियोंके ये पृथक्पृथक् और अनेक तरहके भाव मेरेसे ही होते हैं अर्थात् उन सबको सत्ता? स्फूर्ति? शक्ति? आधार और प्रकाश मुझ लोकमहेश्वरसे ही मिलता है। तात्पर्य है कि तत्त्वसे सबके मूलमें मैं ही हूँ।यहाँ मत्तः पदसे भगवान्का योग? सामर्थ्य? प्रभाव और पृथग्विधाः पदसे अनेक प्रकारकी अलगअलग विभूतियाँ जाननी चाहिये।संसारमें जो कुछ विहित तथा निषिद्ध हो रहा है शुभ तथा अशुभ हो रहा है और संसारमें जितने सद्भाव तथा दुर्भाव हैं? वह सबकीसब भगवान्की लीला है -- इस प्रकार भक्त भगवान्को तत्त्वसे समझ लेता है तो उसका भगवान्में अविकम्प (अविचल) योग हो जाता है (गीता 10। 7)।यहाँ प्राणियोंके जो बीस भाव बताये गये हैं? उनमें बारह भाव तो एकएक (अकेले) हैं और वे सभी अन्तःकरणमें उत्पन्न होनेवाले हैं और भयके साथ आया हुआ अभय भी अन्तःकरणमें पैदा होनेवाला भाव है तथा बचे हुए सात भाव परस्परविरोधी हैं। उनमेंसे भव (उत्पत्ति)? अभाव? यश और अयश -- ये चार तो प्राणियोंके पूर्वकृत कर्मोंके फल हैं और सुख? दुःख तथा भय -- ये तीन मूर्खताके फल हैं। इस मूर्खताको मनुष्य मिटा सकता है।यहाँ प्राणियोंके बीस भावोंको अपनेसे पैदा हुए और अपनी विभूति बतानेमें भगवान्का तात्पर्य है कि ये बीस भाव तो पृथक्पृथक् हैं? पर इन सब भावोंका आधार मैं एक ही हूँ। इन सबके मूलमें मैं ही हूँ? ये सभी मेरेसे ही होते हैं एवं मेरेसे ही सत्तास्फूर्ति पाते हैं। सातवें अध्यायके बारहवें श्लोकमें भी भगवान्ने मत्तः एव पदोंसे बताया है कि सात्त्विक? राजस और तामस भाव मेरेसे ही होते हैं अर्थात् उनके मूलमें मैं ही हूँ? वे मेरेसे ही होते हैं और मेरेसे ही सत्तास्फूर्ति पाते हैं। अतः यहाँ भी भगवान्का आशय विभूतियोंके मूल तत्त्वकी तरफ साधककी दृष्टि करानेमें ही है।विशेष बातसाधक संसारको कैसे देखे ऐसे देखे कि संसारमें जो कुछ क्रिया? पदार्थ? घटना आदि है? वह सब भगवान्का रूप है। चाहे उत्पत्ति हो? चाहे प्रलय हो चाहे अनुकूलता हो? चाहे प्रतिकूलता हो चाहे अमृत हो? चाहे मृत्यु हो चाहे स्वर्ग हो? चाहे नरक हो यह सब भगवान्की लीला है। भगवान्की लीलामें बालकाण्ड भी है? अयोध्याकाण्ड भी है? अरण्यकाण्ड भी है और लङ्काकाण्ड भी है। पुरियोंमें देखा जाय तो अयोध्यापुरीमें भगवान्का प्राकट्य है राजा? रानी और प्रजाका वात्सल्यभाव है। जनकपुरीमें रामजीके प्रति राजा जनक? महारानी सुनयना और प्रजाके विलक्षणविलक्षण भाव हैं। वे रामजीको दामादरूपसे खिलाते हैं? खेलाते हैं? विनोद करते हैं। वनमें (अरण्यकाण्डमें) भक्तोंका मिलना भी है और राक्षसोंका मिलना भी। लंकापुरीमें युद्ध होता है? मारकाट होती है? खूनकी नदियाँ बहती हैं। इस तरह अलगअलग पुरियोंमें? अलगअलग काण्डोंमें भगवान्की तरहतरहकी लीलाएँ होती हैं। परन्तु तरहतरहकी लीलाएँ होते हुए भी रामायण एक है और ये सभी लीलाएँ एक ही रामायणके अङ्ग हैं तथा इन अङ्गोंसे रामायण साङ्गोपाङ्ग होती है। ऐसे ही संसारमें प्राणियोंके तरहतरहके भाव हैं? क्रियाएँ हैं। कहींपर कोई हँस रहा है तो कहींपर कोई रो रहा है? कहींपर विद्वद्गोष्ठी हो रही है तो कहींपर आपसमें लड़ाई हो रही है? कोई जन्म ले रहा है तो कोई मर रहा है?,आदिआदि जो विविध भाँतिकी चेष्टाएँ हो रही हैं? वे सब भगवान्की लीलाएँ हैं। लीलाएँ करनेवाले ये सब भगवान्के रूप हैं। इस प्रकार भक्तकी दृष्टि हरदम भगवान्पर ही रहनी चाहिये क्योंकि इन सबके मूलमें एक परमात्मतत्त्व ही है।

हिंदी टीका - स्वामी चिन्मयानंद जी

।।10.4।। See commentary under 10.5.

English Translation - Swami Gambirananda

10.4 Intelligence, wisdom, non-delusion, forgiveness, truth, control of the external organs, control of the internal organs, happiness, sorrow, birth, death and fear as also fearlessness;

English Translation - Swami Sivananda

10.4 Intellect, wisdom, non-delusion, forgiveness, truth, self-restraint, calmness, happiness, pain, existence or birth, non-existence or death, fear and also fearlessness.

English Translation - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

10.4. Intellect, knowledge, steadiness, patience, truth, control [over sense-organs], tranility [of mind], pleasure, pain, birth, death, fear and courage;

English Commentary - Swami Sivananda

10.4 बुद्धिः intellect? ज्ञानम् wisdom? असंमोहः nondelusion? क्षमा forgiveness? सत्यम् truth? दमः selfrestraint? शमः calmness? सुखम् happiness? दुःखम् pain? भवः birth or existence? अभावः nonexistence? भयम् fear? च and? अभयम् fearlessness? एव even? च and. Commentary Intellect is the power which the Antahkarana (the fourfold inner instrument -- the mind? the subconscious mind? intellect and egoism) has of understanding subtle objects. Wisdom is knowledge of the Self. Nondelusion is freedom from illusion. It consists in acting with discrimination when anything has to be done or kown at the moment. Patience is the nonagitation of the mind when assaulted or abused. Not thinking of any harm of evil for those who ahve assulted or abused is also patience. Patience is enduring without lamentation the three kinds of pains? Adhyatmika? Adhidaivika and Adhibhautika Taapas. Fever? etc.? is Adhyatmika pain. Pain or discomfort from severe cold? heat? too much rain? thunder? and lightning is Adhidaivika pain. Pain from scorpionsting? snakite? and wild animals is Adhibhautika pain.Satyam or truth is veracity. It is speaking of ones own actual or real experience of things as actually heard or seen. There is not the least twisting or exaggeration or the slightest modification of facts. Dama or selfrestraint is control of the external senses. It is withdrawal of the senses (ear? skin? eyes? tongue and nose) from their respective objects (viz.? sound? touch? form? palatable foods and fragrance). Sama is calmness or tranillity of the mind produced by checking the mind from thinking of external objects of the senses and by disconnecting it from the senses.Sukham Happiness. That which has Dharma or virtue as its chief cause and that which is favourable to all beings? is happiness. Duhkham That which has Adhrama as its cause and that which is unfavourable to all beings? is pain.That which appears is Bhavah. Sat is Bhavah. Asat or unreality is Abhavah.

English Translation of Sanskrit Commentary By Sri Shankaracharya's

10.4 See Commentary under 10.5.

English Translation of Commentary - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

10.4 See Comment under 10.5

English Translation of Ramanuja's Sanskrit Commentary

10.4 - 10.5 Intelligence is the power of the mind to determine. Knowledge is the power of determining the difference between the two entities - non-sentient matter and the individual self. Non-delusion is freedom from the delusion of perceiving as silver the mother-of-pearl etc., which are different from silver etc., previously observed. Forbearance, is a non-disturbed state of mind, even when there is a cause for getting disturbed. Truth is speech about things as they are actually seen, and meant for the good of all beings. Here, the working of the mind in conformity with the ideal is intended, because the context is with reference to the working of the mind. Restraint is the checking of the outgoing organs from their tendency to move towards their objects and generate evil. Self-control is the restraint of the mind in the same manner. Pleasure is the experience of what is agreeable to oneself. Pain is th experience of what is adverse. Exaltation is that state of elation of the mind caused by experiences which are agreeable to oneself. Depression is the state of mind caused by disagreeable experiences. Fear is the misery which springs from the perception of the cause of future sufferings. Fearlessness is the absence of such feelings. Non-violence is avoidance of being the cause of sorrow to others. Eability is to become eable in mind whether good or bad befalls and to look upon with the same eanimity on what happens to oneself, friends and enemies. Cheerfulness is the natural disposition to feel pleased with everything seen. Austerity is the chastising of the body by denying to oneself pleasures, as enjoined by the scriptures. Beneficence is giving to another what contributes to ones own enjoyment. Fame is the renown of possessing good alities. Infamy is notoriety of possessing bad alities. The workings of the mind which are in accordance with fame and infamy must be understood here, because it is the subject-matter of the context. Austerity and beneficence are to be understood in the same way. All these mental faculties - these functioning of the mind - resulting either in activity or inactivity, are from Me alone, i.e., are dependent on My volition. Sri Krsna declares: Thos agents who direct the creation, sustentation etc., of all beings, have their activity dependent on My Will.

Commentary - Chakravarthi Ji

Even those who are knowledgeable of scriptures cannot know about me by their intelligence. Because intelligence and other elements are generated from the material gunas like sattva, and though they all originate in me, in themselves they are not suitable for understanding about me who am beyond the gunas. Intelligence is capable of discerning the fine meaning of things. Knowledge (jnana) refers to the ability to distinguish between atma and non-atma. Non-bewilderment means to be devoid of perplexity. These three qualities, though they appear to bring about knowledge of me, are not causes of that knowledge. As well, the other states seen in people mentioned here do not arise on their own (they come from me). Tolerance (ksama), to speak the truth (satyam), control of the external senses (dama), and control of the internal sense (sama) are sattvika. Happiness is sattvika and sorrow is tamasika. Birth and death, types of sorrow, and fear, are tamasika. Fearlessness arising from knowledge is sattvika, but if it arises from rajas or tamas, it is rajasika or tamasika. Non-violence and seeing others as ones self (samata) are sattvika. Satisfaction, if unconditional is sattvika, and if conditional, is rajasika. Austerity and charity, if unconditional, are sattvika and if conditional, are rajasika. Fame and infamy are similarly either sattvika or rajasika. All these arise from my energy. Because of the non-difference of the energy and the source of energy, it is said they arise from me (mattah).

Rudra Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Lord Krishna position as the Supreme Lord of all lords and the Supreme controller of all beings is made clear in this verse and the next two beginning with the words buddhir jnanam which is the ability to discriminate between the supra subtleties of eternal spirit in juxtaposition to temporary matter. Discrimination is a mental skill which allows one to differentiate between what has value and is essential and what is non-essential of no value. Absence of bewilderment regarding the Supreme Lord is not being deluded. The word ahimsa means non-violence to any living being. Refraining from causing injury to others by word, thought or actions is what is implied here. The word danam means charity and is the donation of wealth earned by honest means to a worthy person. All of the aforementioned qualities in these two verses are but different dispositions of human beings along with their opposites and arise solely from the potency of the Supreme Lord.

Brahma Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

In these two verses Lord Krishna clarifies that everything manifests and evolves solely from Him alone. He begins this discourse with the words buddhir jnanam meaning the ability to discriminate between the supra subtleties of eternal spirit in juxtaposition to temporary matter. Jnanam indicates awareness. The Amarakosa dictionary states that discrimination between performance and non-performance of actions is spiritual intelligence and that awareness is the inner wisdom. The word damah is restraint of the senses. The word samah is control over the mind devoting it to the Supreme Lord. The word tustis means contentment. Contentment is satisfaction within. Also it is has been stated that contentment is understanding the transitory limitations of sense objects and the temporary nature of material existence.

Shri Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The various moods, temperaments and dispositions of mankind all emanate from the Supreme Lord Krishna for He is the one who bestows them according to merit. 1) buddhi is the power of the mind to discriminate between the spiritual and the material 2) jnanam is exact knowledge relating to spiritual and non-spiritual matters. 3) asammohah is absence of false conceptions and correct perception of reality. 4) samah is maintaining equilibrium while amidst disturbing elements. 5) satyam is having the veracity to stand up and declare truth for the good of all beings. 6) damah is restraining the external organs from sense gratification. 7) samah is controlling the mind. 8) sukham is experiencing happiness and delightful emotions. 9) duhkham is experiencing affliction and unhappy emotions. 10) bhavah is birth of the blissful glow arising from a happy experience. 11) abhavam is the dire sorrow one feels which an unpleasant experience engenders. 12) bhayam is the dreadful fear one has in anticipation of some impending misfortune. 13) abhayam is the absence of fear for whatever may be impending. 14) ahimsa is non-violence to any being by thought, word, or deed. 15) samata is equanimity in whatever situation one finds their self whether good or bad. 16) tustis is contentment and amiability with all. 17) tapo is bodily austerities such as fasting for spiritual benefit according to the Vedas. 18) danam is beneficence or the giving in charity to one who is worthy. 19) yaso is fame and renown for possessing excellent qualities. 20) ayasyah is infamy and notoriety for possessing bad qualities. The subjects discussed here are the descriptions of mental states and imply the state of mind arising from activities designated by these dispositions. Such temperaments are the active and passive expressions which give impetus to engage in activities or lethargy to remain passive and refrain from engaging in activities. Yet all these mental states are bequeathed by the Supreme Lord to each of them according to merit accrued. The next verse will explain the active agents involved in the creating, sustaining and preservation of all of creation as all beings in all existences derive their impulses solely from the will and desire of Lord Krishna.

Kumara Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The various moods, temperaments and dispositions of mankind all emanate from the Supreme Lord Krishna for He is the one who bestows them according to merit. 1) buddhi is the power of the mind to discriminate between the spiritual and the material 2) jnanam is exact knowledge relating to spiritual and non-spiritual matters. 3) asammohah is absence of false conceptions and correct perception of reality. 4) samah is maintaining equilibrium while amidst disturbing elements. 5) satyam is having the veracity to stand up and declare truth for the good of all beings. 6) damah is restraining the external organs from sense gratification. 7) samah is controlling the mind. 8) sukham is experiencing happiness and delightful emotions. 9) duhkham is experiencing affliction and unhappy emotions. 10) bhavah is birth of the blissful glow arising from a happy experience. 11) abhavam is the dire sorrow one feels which an unpleasant experience engenders. 12) bhayam is the dreadful fear one has in anticipation of some impending misfortune. 13) abhayam is the absence of fear for whatever may be impending. 14) ahimsa is non-violence to any being by thought, word, or deed. 15) samata is equanimity in whatever situation one finds their self whether good or bad. 16) tustis is contentment and amiability with all. 17) tapo is bodily austerities such as fasting for spiritual benefit according to the Vedas. 18) danam is beneficence or the giving in charity to one who is worthy. 19) yaso is fame and renown for possessing excellent qualities. 20) ayasyah is infamy and notoriety for possessing bad qualities. The subjects discussed here are the descriptions of mental states and imply the state of mind arising from activities designated by these dispositions. Such temperaments are the active and passive expressions which give impetus to engage in activities or lethargy to remain passive and refrain from engaging in activities. Yet all these mental states are bequeathed by the Supreme Lord to each of them according to merit accrued. The next verse will explain the active agents involved in the creating, sustaining and preservation of all of creation as all beings in all existences derive their impulses solely from the will and desire of Lord Krishna.

Transliteration Bhagavad Gita 10.4

Buddhir jnaanamasammohah kshamaa satyam damah shamah; Sukham duhkham bhavo’bhaavo bhayam chaabhayameva cha.

Word Meanings Bhagavad Gita 10.4

buddhiḥ—intellect; jñānam—knowledge; asammohaḥ—clarity of thought; kṣhamā—forgiveness; satyam—truthfulness; damaḥ—control over the senses; śhamaḥ—control of the mind; sukham—joy; duḥkham—sorrow; bhavaḥ—birth; abhāvaḥ—death; bhayam—fear; cha—and; abhayam—courage; eva—certainly; cha—and; ahinsā—nonviolence; samatā—equanimity; tuṣhṭiḥ—contentment; tapaḥ—austerity; dānam—charity; yaśhaḥ—fame; ayaśhaḥ—infamy; bhavanti—arise; bhāvāḥ—qualities; bhūtānām—amongst humans; mattaḥ—from me; eva—alone; pṛithak-vidhāḥ—varieties of