न काङ्क्षे विजयं कृष्ण न च राज्यं सुखानि च।
किं नो राज्येन गोविन्द किं भोगैर्जीवितेन वा।।1.32।।
1.32 1.34 O Govinda! What need do we have of a kingdom, or what (need) of enjoyments and livelihood? Those for whom kingdom, enjoyments and pleasures ae desired by us, viz teachers, uncles, fathers-in-law, grandsons, brothers-in-law as also relatives-those very ones stand arrayed for battle risking their lives and wealth.
1.32. I desire not victory, O Krishna, nor kingdom, nor pleasures. Of what avail is dominion to us, O Krishna, or pleasures or even life?
1.32. For whose sake we seek kingdom, [its] pleasures and happiness, the very same persons stand arrayed to fight, giving up their life and wealth.
1.32 न not? काङ्क्षे (I) desire? विजयम् victory? कृष्ण O Krishna? न not? च and? राज्यम् kingdom? सुखानि pleasures? च and? किम् what? नः to us? राज्येन by kindom? गोविन्द O Govinda? किम् what? भोगैः by pleasures? जीवितेन life? वा or.No Commentary.
1.32 Sri Sankaracharya did not comment on this sloka. The commentary starts from 2.10.
1.30 1.34 Na ca sreyah, etc., upto mahikrte. Those who are wrongly conceived as object of slaying, with the individualizing idea that these are my teachers etc.8 would necessarily generate sin. Similarly, the act of slaying even of those deserving to be slain in the battle-if undertaken with the idea that This battle is to be fought for the apparent results like pleasures, happiness etc.- then it generates sin necessarily. This idea lurks in the objection [of Arjuna]. That is why a reply is going to be given [by Bhagavat] as You must undertake actions simply as your own duty, and not with an individualizing idea.
1.26 - 1.47 Arjuna said - Sanjaya said Sanjaya continued: The high-minded Arjuna, extremely kind, deeply friendly, and supremely righteous, having brothers like himself, though repeatedly deceived by the treacherous attempts of your people like burning in the lac-house etc., and therefore fit to be killed by him with the help of the Supreme Person, nevertheless said, I will not fight. He felt weak, overcome as he was by his love and extreme compassion for his relatives. He was also filled with fear, not knowing what was righteous and what unrighteous. His mind was tortured by grief, because of the thought of future separation from his relations. So he threw away his bow and arrow and sat on the chariot as if to fast to death.
I do not see any benefit in killing in this manner (na sreyo pasyami). The scriptures say such things as: dvav imau purusau loke surya-mandala-bhedinau parivrad yoga-yuktas ca rane cabhimukhe hatah The sannyasi engaged in yoga and the warrior who dies facing the enemy attain the sun planet. Parasara Smrti 3.30 Thus it is better that one die rather than kill them, as there is no piety in this killing. “But by fighting you gain kingdom and fame.” “I do not desire victory, kingdom or happiness.”
Arjuna says moreover, I see no good etc. That he does not see any benefit from slaying family members opposed in battle. It may be argued to him that by fighting them it will lead to victory; but he has already said that he doesnt desire victory. This is being expanded in verse 32 beginning with kim tu rajyena up to the end of verse 33. They for whose sake we deisre sovereignty are assembled here to fight giving up life and wealth, meaning undergoing such sacrifice. Therefore of what use will sovereignty be to us? This is the understanding for verses 31-34.
Madhvacarya has no commentary so we present Baladeva Vidyabhusanas. By Arjuna addressing Lord Krishna as Govinda expresses that since Lord Krishna is the knower of all the functions of the senses, Lord Krishna is also the knower of his mind. The reason for not desiring the kingdom etc. are given in the second half of verse 32 beginning: yesam arthe. One can desire a kingdom for the happiness of ones kinsman even at the cost of ones own life; but in this battle when the destruction of ones kin is certain it is a fruitless desire to engage in battle. If it is put forth that although Arjuna out of compassion might not wish to slay his enemies; but it is certain that his enemies will surely slay him to keep the kingdom free from thorns. To answer this Arjuna is saying even if they intend to slay him he will not slay them. He says: I do not desire the rulership of the three worlds let alone this tract of land called Earth. If it is argued that Arjuna could slay only the sons of Dhritarastra who caused the Pandavas so much troubles and leave all the others warriors alive then to answer this Arjuna is saying: what pleasure is there for us the Pandavas to kill the sons of Dhritarastra? In expectation of temporary, earthly pleasures, fratricide is not in any way an appropriate action and will only insure eternal damnation to hell. By Arjuna addressing Lord Krishna as Janardana which means He who always naturally protects His devotees; that since He has appeared for removing the sins from this world, then He can just slay all these sinners Himself and since Lord Krishna is the Supreme Lord there is no question of Him incurring any sinful reaction for causing their deaths.
There is no commentary for this verse.
It could be put forth that even if there is no reward in the heavenly planets there would still be royal luxuries and kingly enjoyments in this world for the slayer. To refute this supposition in this verse Arjuna declares what use are these? The explanation of Arjuna addressing Lord Krishna by the vocative Govinda indicates that since the Lord is the possessor of eternal existence, consciousness and bliss, Arjuna is imploring that the Lord should satiate him with this bliss. In the word Govinda, go stands for the senses and vinda stands for He who attracts and directs the senses. So Arjuna feeling great despair contemplating the prospect of immense slaughter as a consequence of war is requesting Lord Krishna to properly direct his senses for his ultimate benefit. If it were to be submitted that even if Arjuna, being the son of Pandu and Kunti had no desire for royal luxuries and kingly enjoyments, for the sake of his relatives such desires are appropriate. This is neutralised by this verse which stating that all those relatives for whose sake these desires would be appropriate are on the battlefield ready for war. Therefore in this context Arjuna has no need to fight. It may be argued that even if Arjuna thinks of them as relatives, if he does not slay them, they will certainly slay him. So Arjuna should slay them all and rule over the entire kingdom. To refute this Arjuna states that he never desires to slay them, even if they wish to slay him. Arjuna addressing Lord Krishna with the vocative Madhusudana is giving reference to Lord Krishna terminating the existence of a demon name Madhu in a previous time. The name is used to give credence to Arjunas position by illustrating as an example that demons are to be exterminated and not relatives. Arjuna exclaims here that even for dominion of all the worlds he would not wish to slay the sons of Dhritarastra, let alone for a kingdom on the earth. By addressing Lord Krishna with the vocative Janardana meaning He who destroys the ignorance of His devotees, Arjuna is supplicating Lord Krishna to destroy his ignorance as well.
Na kaangkshe vijayam krishna na cha raajyam sukhaani cha; Kim no raajyena govinda kim bhogair jeevitena vaa.
na—nor; kāṅkṣhe—do I desire; vijayam—victory; kṛiṣhṇa—Krishna; na—nor; cha—as well; rājyam—kingdom; sukhāni—happiness; cha—also; kim—what; naḥ—to us; rājyena—by kingdom; govinda—Krishna, he who gives pleasure to the senses, he who is fond of cows; kim—what?; bhogaiḥ—pleasures; jīvitena—life; vā—or; yeṣhām—for whose; arthe—sake; kāṅkṣhitam—coveted for; naḥ—by us; rājyam—kingdom; bhogāḥ—pleasures; sukhāni—happiness; cha—also; te—they; ime—these; avasthitāḥ—situated; yuddhe—for battle; prāṇān—lives; tyaktvā—giving up; dhanāni—wealth; cha—also