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Bhagavad Gita Chapter 9 Verse 19

भगवद् गीता अध्याय 9 श्लोक 19

तपाम्यहमहं वर्षं निगृह्णाम्युत्सृजामि च।
अमृतं चैव मृत्युश्च सदसच्चाहमर्जुन।।9.19।।

English Translation - Swami Gambirananda

9.19 O Arjuna, I give heat, I withhold and pour down rain. I am verily the nectar, and also death existence and nonexistence.

English Translation - Swami Sivananda

9.19 (As the sun) I give heat; I withhold and send forth the rain; I am immortality and also death, existence and non-existence, O Arjuna.

English Translation - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

9.19. I give heat; I hold back and also end forth rains; I am immortality and also death, the real and also the unreal, O Arjuna !

English Commentary - Swami Sivananda

9.19 तपामि give heat? अहम् I? अहम् I? वर्षम् rain? निगृह्णामि withhold? उत्सृजामि send forth? च and? अमृतम् immortality? च and? एव also? मृत्युः death? च and? सत् existence? असत् nonexistence? च and? अहम् I? अर्जुन O Arjuna.Commentary I radiate heat in the form of the sun. I send forth the rain in the form of Indra in the rainy season and I take it back during the rest of the year.Sat Existence? the manifested world (the effect).Asat Nonexistence? the unmanifested (the cause).Nonexistence does not mean nothingness. The subtle? unmanifested cause is spoken of as nonexitence. The Self or Brahman or the Eternal can never be altogether nonexistence. It always exists. It is Existence Absolute. If you say that the subtle unmanifested cause is nothing? it is impossible to conceive existence coming out of nothing. The Chhandogya Upanishad asks? How can existence come out of nonexistence It is simply absurd to conceive that existence has arisen out of nonexistence (nothing).For a Vedantin ( student or follower of Vedanta) Brahman (the Absolute) is Sat (existence) because It always exists and because It is unchanging. This manifested world is Asat or unreal. For the worldlyminded people who have neither understanding nor knowledge of Brahman? who are endowed with gross and impure mind? who do not have a sharp and subtle intellect? and who ca perceive the gross forms only? this manifested world is the Sat and the subtle unmanifested MulaPrakriti (the primordial Nature)? the cause of this manifested world? is Asat. For them Brahman also is Asat. The unmanifested refers to MulaPrakriti and Para Brahman also because both are hidden.Every object has three states? viz.? the gross (Sthula)? the subtle (Sukshma) and the causal (Karana). Mahakarana (the great causeless cause) is Para Brahman. The gross and the subtle states are the effects of Karana. What you see outside is the physical body. This physical body is moved by the astral (the subtle) body made up of the mind? liferoce and the senses. The causal body is the seedbody. From this seedbody have sprung the subtle and the gross bodies. Take the case of an orange. The outer skin is its physical body the inner pulp or essence is the subtle body the innermost causal body which gives rise to the pulp and the outer skin is the seed. This is only a gross illustration. The orange has got another kind of subtle and causal bodies. The worldlyminded man beholds the physical body only and takes this as the Truth. For him? the astral and the causal bodies are unreal.

English Translation of Sanskrit Commentary By Sri Shankaracharya's

9.19 O Arjuna, aham, I, in the form of the sun; tapami, give heat through some intense rays. Through some rays utsrjami, I pour down; varsam, rain. Having poured down, again nigrhnami, I withdraw it through some rays-for eight months. Again I pour it down in the rainy season. I am eva ca, verily; the amrtam, nectar of the gods; and mrtyuh, death of the mortals. I Myself am sat, existence-the effect which has come into bneing in relation to its cause; and its opposite, asat, nonexistence. [Nonexistence: the cause which has not become manifest as the effect possessing name and form, It cannot be admitted that the effect has absolute existence, for the Upanisad says, All transformation has speech as it basis, and it is name only (Ch.6. 1. 4). Nor can it be said that the cause has absolute non-existence, for there is the text,৷৷.by what logic can the existent come verily out of nonexistence? But surely,৷৷.all this was Existence, one without a second (op. cit. 6.2.2).] It is not that the Lord is Himself absolutely nonexistence; nor are effect and cause (absolutely) existence and nonexistent (respectively). Those men of Knowledge who meditate of Me while worshpping Me according to the respective forms of sacrifices mentioned above-regardomg Me as one or multifirious, etc.-, they attain Me alone according to their conceptions.

English Translation of Commentary - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

9.16-19 Ahim kratuh etc. upto Arjuna. The Brahman-being is of course only one and admits of no parts. The action also depends only on the assumed [or not real] causes. Hence, it accomplishes the aloneness (or oneness) of the Brahman. For, if it is performed with the realisation that all the different causes are nothing but the Self, then the action is not far away from reaching the Bhagavat. That has also been stated - This self same action-power of Siva, if it exists in the ignorant, binds [him]; the same power, when it is realised that it is a path to his own Self [Siva], then it leads to the goal (the Lord). (SpK, III, 16). I have myself (Ag.) stated elsewhere as : The intellect that confirms, in the beginning, to [the duality of] the beings and the non-beings; the same intellect does not conform, at the time of withdrawl, to [the duality of] the beings and the non-beings. This subject has been discussed in detail in different places. Hence let us stop [the present discussion] here. I give heat etc. This is said in the context of discussing the One that admits no duality. But if the Brahman can be attained by means of external sacrifices also, then, is a different god (different from Vasudeva) worshipped in the sacrifices like the Agnistoma ? If it is admitted, then it would lead to the doctrine of duality. If [on the other hand] it is Vasudeva Himself, the how is it that emancipation is not attained by the performence [of these sacrifices] ? Therefore it is stated -

English Translation of Ramanuja's Sanskrit Commentary

9.19 I send out heat in the form of fire, the sun etc. I hold back the rain during summer. Likewise, I pour out the rains during the rainy season. I am immortality as well as death - I am both these conditions through which the world lives and dies. Why say more? I am the being and the non-being. Being is that which exists in the present time. Non-being is that which existed in the past and that which may exist in the future, but is not experienced now as existing. The meaning is that, I alone am existent, having all the entities for my modes, as all intelligent and inhert beings existing in all states, constitute My body. In this way, they (the wise) worship Me, contemplating, through the realisation of My essential unity, as the entire universe distinguished by names and forms and characterished by varied pluralities constituting My body. I alone exist; all the pluralities are only My modes. Thus, after depiciting the character of the noble-minded, whose enjoyment consists of only the experience of the Lord, and in order to bring into bolder relief their greatness, He describes the behaviour of ignorant men who covet the objects of desire.

Commentary - Chakravarthi Ji

(combined commentary for verses 16, 17, 18 and 19) “How one can worship you as visva rupa in many ways (bahudha)?” The Lord speaks four verses in response. Kratu means sacrifices mentioned in the sruti like the agnistoma. Yajna refers to sacrifices mentioned in the smrtis like vaisvadeva homa. Ausadham refers to food made from herbs. I am the father (pita) because I produce the individual and total ingredients for all the universes. I am the mother (mata) because I hold within my womb the universe. I am the nourisher (data) of the universe. I am the grandfather, because I produce the creator of the universe, Brahma. I am the object to be known and the object which purifies. I am the result (gati), the master (bhartr), the controller (prabhu), the seer of all good and bad things (saksi), the abode (nivasah), the deliverer from dangers (saranam), and the motiveless benefactor (suhrt). I am the act of creation, destruction and maintenance (prabhava pralaya sthanam). I am the treasures (nidhanam) such as padma nidhi and sankha nidhi,4 the cause (bijam), and am indestructible (avyayam), unlike rice and other seeds which are temporary. Being the sun, I cause heat in the summer, and shower rain in the rainy season, and sometimes I also hold back the rain. I am liberation (amrtam), and repeated birth and death in bondage (mrtum). I am the subtle and the gross (sad asad): Thus the Person, thinking that I am all of this, worships me as the form of universe. These verses are connected thus with the last part of verse 15.

Rudra Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Lord Krishna states that existing as the sun He gives heat to the worlds. He withholds and releases rain. He is immortal life and He is inevitable death. He is the manifest temporary, physical creation and at the same time He is the unmanifest eternal, invisible creation. Knowing that all these manifestations are non-different from the Supreme Lord, mahatmas or great and noble souls worship Him in different forms in the appropriate manner. This is a continuation from verse 15 describing different conceptions of the Supreme Lord.

Brahma Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The word sat meaning eternal unmanifest spirit is the action and asat denoting the temporary, physical manifestation is the cause. The sat is not evident in the beginning but because it is evident on manifestation the wise call the action asat being the unmanifested form of the manifested form and the cause. The Mahabharata explains that creation is comprised of sat and asat and both are superior to material manifestations. Now begins the summation. Now Madhvacarya clarifies some of the concepts from verses 16, 17 and 18 as well in this summary. Because the Supreme Lord Krishna is always propitiated by all His creation He is Rig. Since all His forms are the same in essence He is Sama and due to the fact that He is the ultimate goal of all offerings from all beings He is Yajus. Being the first and final recipient of all yajna or offerings and worship the Supreme Lord is know as Yagna. As He is the activator of creation He is kratu the rituals. As He is not supported by anything other than Himself, He is svadha offerings to the anscestors. As He is always meditated upon He is mantra the Vedic chants. As He is solace for the afflicted He is saranam or shelter. Since Lord Krishna is superior to Brahma, Siva, the demigods or any other gods, He is ajya the first offering of ghee. As He is the holder of dara the conch shell He is dhata the holder. As He, Himself is the oblations of yagna He is hutam or the offering in the fire. As He is the energiser of the creation which cannot be energised on its own He is agni the fire. The Supreme Lord being completely independent in Himself solely is different from all the above mentioned things; yet He is inseparable from them all being their essence thus He is known by them. Since He is referred to as OM in Vedic yagnas, the resplendent Supreme Lord has a His own personal tranccendental sound vibration known as OM-kara. Since He patronises all the Supreme Lord is pitaham the father. Since He comprehends all the needs of everything in creation He is the matah or mother. Since He is superior to even Prajapati who designed and constructed the worlds he is pitamahah the grandsire . Since He is the ultimate abode of all He is sthanam the basis of all. Since He is the protector of all He is suhrt the dear most friend. He is the root cause for the manifestation of existence He is the avyayam bijam the imperishable seed. Since periodically He terminates all life He is pralaya the dissolution concluding the end cycle for all created beings as mrtyuh or inevitable death. He is also certainly amritam or immortal and resides within the body sustaining life and distancing death. The Shabda Nirnaya states that: Since the Supreme Lord Krishna possesses in full all auspicious attributes and qualities, He is sat or the eternal unmanifest spirit sat because there is nothing independent from to Him and He is asat as well because there is independent from Him.

Shri Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The Supreme Lord Krishna explains some of His potencies that through the sun and fire He is tapami or causes heat and He withholds and releases rain. He is amrtam or immortality being by which the world exists. He is also mrtyus or death that by which this world becomes destroyed. Never in contradiction the Supreme Lord is sat or that existence which manifest in the present time and asat or that existence which is unmanifest in present time but which existed in the past and which may manifest in the future. Thus Lord Krishna exists in every reality as the sum of all things intelligent and unintelligent which compose His transcendental body. The mahatmanas or great, noble beings referred to in verse 13 are those who meditate on the Supreme Lord as the unity, manifesting itself in corporeal multiformity and variegatedness throughout creation in the macrocosmic sense. So in order to more fully understand the attributes of the Supreme Lord characterized by the mahatmanas and the method they commune with the Supreme Lord has been depicted. Next will be described the behavior of the ignorant who full of desires covet enjoyment.

Kumara Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The Supreme Lord Krishna explains some of His potencies that through the sun and fire He is tapami or causes heat and He withholds and releases rain. He is amrtam or immortality being by which the world exists. He is also mrtyus or death that by which this world becomes destroyed. Never in contradiction the Supreme Lord is sat or that existence which manifest in the present time and asat or that existence which is unmanifest in present time but which existed in the past and which may manifest in the future. Thus Lord Krishna exists in every reality as the sum of all things intelligent and unintelligent which compose His transcendental body. The mahatmanas or great, noble beings referred to in verse 13 are those who meditate on the Supreme Lord as the unity, manifesting itself in corporeal multiformity and variegatedness throughout creation in the macrocosmic sense. So in order to more fully understand the attributes of the Supreme Lord characterized by the mahatmanas and the method they commune with the Supreme Lord has been depicted. Next will be described the behavior of the ignorant who full of desires covet enjoyment.

Transliteration Bhagavad Gita 9.19

Tapaamyahamaham varsham nigrihnaamyutsrijaami cha; Amritam chaiva mrityushcha sadasacchaahamarjuna.

Word Meanings Bhagavad Gita 9.19

tapāmi—radiate heat; aham—I; aham—I; varṣham—rain; nigṛihṇāmi—withhold; utsṛijāmi—send forth; cha—and; amṛitam—immortality; cha—and; eva—also; mṛityuḥ—death; cha—and; sat—eternal spirit; asat—temporary matter; cha—and; aham—I; arjuna—Arjun