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Bhagavad Gita Chapter 8 Verse 2

भगवद् गीता अध्याय 8 श्लोक 2

अधियज्ञः कथं कोऽत्र देहेऽस्मिन्मधुसूदन।
प्रयाणकाले च कथं ज्ञेयोऽसि नियतात्मभिः।।8.2।।

English Translation - Swami Sivananda

8.2 Who and how is Adhiyajna here in this body, O destroyer of Madhu (Krishna)? And how at the time of death, art Thou to be known by the self-controlled?

English Commentary - Swami Sivananda

8.2 अधियज्ञः Adhiyajna? कथम् how? कः who? अत्र here? देहे in body? अस्मिन् this? मधुसूदन O Madhusudana? प्रयाणकाले at the time of death? च and? कथम् how? ज्ञेयः knowable? असि art? नियतात्मभिः by the selfcontrolled.Commentary Arjuna put seven estions to the Lord1. What is that Brahman Is it Brahman with the Upadhis (limiting adjuncts) or Brahman without them2. Is it the aggregate of the senses or individual consciousness (PratyakChaitanya) or distinct? pure consciousness3. What is Karma Is it Yajna Or? is it distinct from Yajna4. Adhibhuta is knowledge of the Bhutas. Is this the knowledge of the elements or something else5. Adhidaiva is that which is associated with the gods. Is this the meditation on the gods Or? is it the consciousness associated with the Suryamandala? etc.6. Adhiyajna is that which is associated with Yajnas or Vedic rituals. Is this the Para Brahman (Supreme Being) or any special god Is it of the same form (Tadatmyarupa) or is it entirely nondifferent (Abheda) Does it exist in the body or outside it If it exists in the body? is it the intellect (Buddhi) or distinct from it7. At the time of death? when the memory is lost and when the senses become cold (i.e.? whenthey lose their vitality) how can the man of onepointedness and of steadfast mind know the LordO Lord Madhusudana Thou art allmerciful. Thou hast killed Madhu and removed the miseries of the people. Even so Thou canst remove my difficulties and doubts very easily. This is nothing for Thee? the omniscient Lord. (This is the reason why Arjuna addresses the Lord by the name Madhusudana.)

Transliteration Bhagavad Gita 8.2

Adhiyajnah katham ko’tra dehe’smin madhusoodana; Prayaanakaale cha katham jneyo’si niyataatmabhih.

Word Meanings Bhagavad Gita 8.2

arjunaḥ uvācha—Arjun said; kim—what; tat—that; brahma—Brahman; kim—what; adhyātmam—the individual soul; kim—what; karma—the principle of karma; puruṣha-uttama—Shree Krishna, the Supreme Divine Personality; adhibhūtam—the material manifestation; cha—and; kim—what; proktam—is called; adhidaivam—the Lord of the celestial gods; kim—what; uchyate—is called; adhiyajñaḥ—the Lord all sacrificial performances; katham—how; kaḥ—who; atra—here; dehe—in body; asmin—this; madhusūdana—Shree Krishna, the killer of the demon named Madhu; prayāṇa-kāle—at the time of death; cha—and; katham—how; jñeyaḥ—to be known; asi—are (You); niyata-ātmabhiḥ—by those of steadfast mind