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Bhagavad Gita Chapter 8 Verse 19

भगवद् गीता अध्याय 8 श्लोक 19

भूतग्रामः स एवायं भूत्वा भूत्वा प्रलीयते।
रात्र्यागमेऽवशः पार्थ प्रभवत्यहरागमे।।8.19।।

English Translation - Swami Gambirananda

8.19 O son of Prtha, after being born again and again, that very multitude of beings disappears in spite of itself at the approach of night. It comes to life at the approach of day.

English Translation - Swami Sivananda

8.19 This same multitude of beings, being born again and again, is dissolved, helplessly, O Arjuna (into the Unmanifested) at the coming of the night and comes forth at the coming of the day.

English Translation - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

8.19. Being born and born again, the self same multitude of beings gets dissolved while the night approaches, and issues forth willy-nilly while the day approaches, O son of Prtha !

English Commentary - Swami Sivananda

8.19 भूतग्रामः multitude of beings? सः that? एव verily? अयम् this? भूत्वा भूत्वा being born again and again? प्रलीयते dissolves? रात्र्यागमे at the coming of night? अवशः helpless? पार्थ O Partha? प्रभवति comes forth? अहरागमे at the coming of day.Commentary Avidya (ignorance)? Kama (desire) and Karma (action) are the three knots that bind the individual to Samsara. Desire is born of Avidya. Man exerts to attain and enjoy the objects of his desires. During this activity he favours some and injures others through the force of RagaDvesha (love and hatred or attraction and repulsion). Therefore he is caught in the wheel of Samsara or transmigration. He has to take birth again and again to reap the fruits of his own actions. He repeatedly comes forths and dissolves through the force of his own Karma.The individual souls have lost their independence as they are bound by ignorance? desire and activity. Therefore they are subject to the sorrows? miseries and pains of this Samsara. In order to create dispassion in their minds and a longing for liberation in their hearts? and to remove the fallacious belief that a man reaps the fruits of what he has not done or that he does not reap the fruits of what he has done? the Lord has said that all creatures involuntarily come into being again and again at the coming of the day and dissolve at the coming of the night (on account of the actions or Karmas caused by desire born of ignorance).

English Translation of Sanskrit Commentary By Sri Shankaracharya's

8.19 O son of Prtha, bhutva, after being born again and again at the approach of day; sah eva, that very-not any other; bhutagramah, multitude of beings, consisting of the moving and the non-moving objects that existed in the earlier cycle of creation; praliyate, disappears repeatedly; avasah, in spinte of itself, [For they are impelled by their own defects] without any independence whatever; ratri-agame, at the approach of night, at the close of the day. Prabhavati, it comes to life, verily in spite of itself; ahar-agame, at the approach of day. The means for the attainment of that Immutable which was introduced has been pointed out in, He who departs by leaving the body while uttering the single syllable, viz Om, which is Brahman, etc. (13). Now, with a vies to indicating the real nature of that very Immutable, this is being said-that It is to be reached through this path of yoga:

English Translation of Commentary - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

8.17-19 Sahasra-etc., upto aharagama. Those who could see afar (great seers), see [actually] the night and day even in the case of Brahma as being marked [respectively] by the destruction and creation [of the world]. Accordingly, having risen from sleep, the same [Selves] continue their own respective activities every day; they theyselves, putting an end to their activities every night, remain exclusively in the form of Energy [of the Absolute]. In this manner they come to be again and again at the time of creation and of dissolution. No new, but only the self-same personal Souls are let loose. Their mutual difference in the form of the idea of the long and short lives is based only on the concept of time. This delimitation is unavoidable even in the case of the Prajapatis. Hence it is established that they too are cetainly of the nature of having evolution and dissolution. [The Lord] clarifies His [own] statement : People do return from each and every world; but having attained Me, the Supreme Lord, they do not do so.

English Translation of Ramanuja's Sanskrit Commentary

8.19 The same multitude of beings, controlled by Karma, evolves again and again, undergoing dissolution at the coming of night. Again at the coming of the day it comes forth. Similarly, at the end of the life span of Brahma which consists of a hundred years of three hundred and sixty days each, each Brahma-day being a thousand Caturyugas, all the worlds including that of Brahma and Brahma himself dissolve into Me in accordance with the order thus described in the Srutis: The earth is dissolved into the waters, the waters are dissolved into light etc., (Su. U., 2). The process of involution ends, after passing through all the other stages of dissolution, with the Avyakta, Akasa and Tamas. Therefore, for every other entity except Myself, origination and annihilation are unavoidable. So for those who seek Aisvarya (prosperity and power) birth and dissolution according to the above mentioned time arrangement are unavoidable. But in the case of those who attain to Me, there is no return again to Samsara. [The immense duration of time, according to ancient thinkers, is as follows: Catur-yuga, or a unit of the four yugas of Krta, Treta, Dvapara and Kali, has a cumulative duration of 4,320,000 human years. A thousand such periods constitute a day time of Brahma and a similar period his night. Periodic creation and dissolution of the universe take place in these two periods respectively. One year of Brahma consists of 360 such diurnal period. A Brahma has a life-span of 100 such years - i.e., 311, 040, 000,000,000 human years. At the end of it, there is a Mahapralaya, and a new Brahma comes into being. Time thus goes on endlessly]. Now Sri Krsna teaches that there is no return to Samsara even for those who have attained Kaivalya (isolation of the self).

Commentary - Chakravarthi Ji

Thus, all the moving and non-moving living entities (bhuta gramah), after appearing, repeated disappear.

Rudra Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Here Lord Krishna refutes any conjecture that there is permanent destruction of the living beings at any time or that as such they may not receive the exact measure of merits and demerits from their karma or reactions to past actions. This He is revealing by showing that there is an unbroken cycle of creation and dissolution manifesting each day of the 36,000 days of Brahmas 100 year life. This is being shown to infuse a spirit of dispassion for any individuals singular life span. So Lord Krishna explains that all those myriad of unlimited hosts of created beings from all species of life, moving and stationary, walking, crawling, flying, swimming which existed as life forms before dissolution; each and every one of them fully accounted for are created again at Brahmas awakening and only those are manifested and pick up the existence that they were destined to accept from the previous existence according to the stringent laws of karma. So every 8 billion 640 years for each of Brahmas 36,000 days creation and dissolution is perpetually enacted. It is not possible for any manifestation unaccounted for to appear in this matrix as all the hosts of variegated jivas or living entities are all controlled, regulated and processed by the precise maxim of time and individual karma previous existences.

Brahma Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Shri Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Those who understand the succession of Brahmas day and night as established by the Supreme Lord Krishna applicable for all created beings from human up to the highest material being know that the duration of Brahmas day is 4 billion 320 million years and an equal duration is his night. At the dawning of Brahmas day all beings and things in the threefold regions of material existence along with their bodies and senses, objects of enjoyment and locations of enjoyment all in a subtle form issue out of an avyakta or unmanifest state emanting Brahmas subtle body. When Brahmas night draws nigh all that issued out are all once again reabsorbed into that avyakta state of his subtle body. The exact same groups and species of variegated beings adhere to the stringent law of karma or the reactions to previous actions are bound in the material existence and come and go. Appearing in Brahmas day and vanishing in his night again and again perpetually. One year of Brahma equals 26 trillion, 438 billion and 400 million years. When the duration of Brahmas life which is 100 of such years ends. Then immeadiately all systems of all material worlds in existence, operating in tandem or at random up to Brahmas own planet and even Brahma himself are ended and dissolve into the infinite. This dissolution has an order as confirmed in the Subala Upanisad beginning: Prithivy apsu praliyate, apas tejas liyante meaning Earth is devolved into water, water is devolved into fire. Fire is devolved into air etc. air is devolved into ether, ether is devolved into the cosmos, the cosmos devolves into avyakta the unmanifest, the unmanifest devolves into the aksara the imperishable, the imperishable devolves into tamas or darkness and the darkness merges finally back into the Supreme Being. Thus all things except the Supreme Lord are regulated and controlled by time. All things without exception owe their existence to the Supreme Lord Krishna, deriving their inception from Him and concluding their absorption in Him. In the material worlds there is absolutely no alternative to the cycle of birth and death. Thus at the end of life the forced relinquishing of material wealth and opulence for those who wasted there lives to obtain it is inevitable. But for those who instead used their precious human life to attain the Supreme Lord Krishna, having Him as there sole refuge and goal; for them rebirth is not even to be considered as they are automatically liberated from samsara the perpetual cycle of birth and death. Next will be shown that there is also no rebirth for those who have achieved atma tattva or realisation of the soul.

Kumara Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Those who understand the succession of Brahmas day and night as established by the Supreme Lord Krishna applicable for all created beings from human up to the highest material being know that the duration of Brahmas day is 4 billion 320 million years and an equal duration is his night. At the dawning of Brahmas day all beings and things in the threefold regions of material existence along with their bodies and senses, objects of enjoyment and locations of enjoyment all in a subtle form issue out of an avyakta or unmanifest state emanting Brahmas subtle body. When Brahmas night draws nigh all that issued out are all once again reabsorbed into that avyakta state of his subtle body. The exact same groups and species of variegated beings adhere to the stringent law of karma or the reactions to previous actions are bound in the material existence and come and go. Appearing in Brahmas day and vanishing in his night again and again perpetually. One year of Brahma equals 26 trillion, 438 billion and 400 million years. When the duration of Brahmas life which is 100 of such years ends. Then immeadiately all systems of all material worlds in existence, operating in tandem or at random up to Brahmas own planet and even Brahma himself are ended and dissolve into the infinite. This dissolution has an order as confirmed in the Subala Upanisad beginning: Prithivy apsu praliyate, apas tejas liyante meaning Earth is devolved into water, water is devolved into fire. Fire is devolved into air etc. air is devolved into ether, ether is devolved into the cosmos, the cosmos devolves into avyakta the unmanifest, the unmanifest devolves into the aksara the imperishable, the imperishable devolves into tamas or darkness and the darkness merges finally back into the Supreme Being. Thus all things except the Supreme Lord are regulated and controlled by time. All things without exception owe their existence to the Supreme Lord Krishna, deriving their inception from Him and concluding their absorption in Him. In the material worlds there is absolutely no alternative to the cycle of birth and death. Thus at the end of life the forced relinquishing of material wealth and opulence for those who wasted there lives to obtain it is inevitable. But for those who instead used their precious human life to attain the Supreme Lord Krishna, having Him as there sole refuge and goal; for them rebirth is not even to be considered as they are automatically liberated from samsara the perpetual cycle of birth and death. Next will be shown that there is also no rebirth for those who have achieved atma tattva or realisation of the soul.

Transliteration Bhagavad Gita 8.19

Bhootagraamah sa evaayam bhootwaa bhootwaa praleeyate; Raatryaagame’vashah paartha prabhavatyaharaagame.

Word Meanings Bhagavad Gita 8.19

bhūta-grāmaḥ—the multitude of beings; saḥ—these; eva—certainly; ayam—this; bhūtvā bhūtvā—repeatedly taking birth; pralīyate—dissolves; rātri-āgame—with the advent of night; avaśhaḥ—helpless; pārtha—Arjun, the son of Pritha; prabhavati—become manifest; ahaḥ-āgame—with the advent of day