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Bhagavad Gita Chapter 8 Verse 1

भगवद् गीता अध्याय 8 श्लोक 1

अर्जुन उवाच
किं तद्ब्रह्म किमध्यात्मं किं कर्म पुरुषोत्तम।
अधिभूतं च किं प्रोक्तमधिदैवं किमुच्यते।।8.1।।

English Translation - Swami Gambirananda

8.1 Arjuna said O supreme person, what is that Brahman? What is that which exists in the individual plane? What is action? And what is that which is said to exist in the physical plane? What is that which is said to be existing in the divine plane?

English Translation - Swami Sivananda

8.1 Arjuna said What is that Brahman? What is Adhyatma? What is action, O best among men? What is declared to be Adhibhuta? And, what is Adhidaiva said to be?

English Translation - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

8.1. Arjuna Said What is that Brahman ? What is termed the Lord-of-the-self (adhyatma) ? What is action ? O the Best-of-persons ! What is stated to be the Lord-of -material-things (adhibhuta) ? What is called Lord-of-divinities (adhidaiva) ?

English Commentary - Swami Sivananda

8.1 किम् what? तत् that? ब्रह्म Brahman? किम् what? अध्यात्मम् Adhytama? किम् what? कर्म action? पुरुषोत्तम O best among men? अधिभूतम् Adhibhuta? च and? किम् what? प्रोक्तम् declared? अधिदैवम् Adhidaiva? किम् what? उच्यते is called.Commentary In the last two verses of the seventh chapter Lord Krishna had used certain philosophical and technical terms such as Adhyatma? Adhibhuta? Adhidaiva and Adhiyajna. Arjuna does not understand the meaning of these terms. So he proceeds to ask the Lord the above estions for their elucidation. Lord Krishna gives the answers succinctly to the above estions in their order.Some treat this chapter as Abhyasa Yoga because in this chapter verses 7? 8? 10? 12? 13 and 14 deal with spiritual practices. Verse 7 treats of Karma and Bhakti Yoga combined (giving the hands to the service of humanity or society and fixing the mind on the Lord). Verse 8 deals with Abhyasa Yoga. Verses 10? 12 and 13 treat of Hatha Yoga (how to raise the lifeforce t the Ajna Chakra and the Sahasrara and the Brahmarandhra). Verse 14 treats of the easy Yoga of constant Namasmarana or remembering the names of the Lord constantly. This alone will help the spiritual aspirant to approach the Lord easily.The nature of Brahman? the individual Self (Adhyatma)? the nature of action? the nature of the objective universe or phenomena (Adhibhuta)? knowledge of the shining ones (Adhidaiva)? and the secret of sacrifice (Adhiyajna) are described in this discourse. The perfect sage will have perfect knowledge. He will have perfect knowledge of not only the manifested Brahman but also of the transcendental Brahman and the why of the universe? etc.

English Translation of Sanskrit Commentary By Sri Shankaracharya's

8.1 See Commentary under 8.2.

English Translation of Commentary - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

8.1 See Comment under 8.2

English Translation of Ramanuja's Sanskrit Commentary

8.1 8.2 Arjuna said What are that brahman, Adhyatma and Karma which have been mentioned as what should be known by those who aspire for release from old age and death while they take refuge with the Lord? What are Adhibuta and Adhidaiva, which should be known by the aspirants for wealth? Who is Adhiyajna that is to be known by the three groups as their dying hour. In what manner are You to be known by these three groups who are self-controlled?

Commentary - Chakravarthi Ji

Please see text 2 for Sri Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakur’s combined commentary to texts 1 and 2.

Rudra Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Those whose minds are devoted to and fixed upon the Supreme Lord Krishna alone realise the brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence, karma or the reactions to performed actions, adhibhutas or material substratum, etc which were all briefly explained in the previous chapter will be fully delineated in this chapter. Arjuna desired to comprehend the true nature of the brahman, adhidaivas relating to the demigods, adhiyatma relating to the eternal soul within embodied beings, etc. which Lord Krishna mentioned at the end of chapter seven. This is why Arjuna begins with the question kim meaning what is.

Brahma Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Hari OM! The previous six chapters known as the section on karma yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness by selfless actions, the method of acquiring spiritual wisdom was described. Now the next six chapters known as the bhakti yoga section or the yoga of devotion primarily describe the glories and greatness of the Supreme Lord. The words asakta-manah means an extremely attached mental disposition. Utilising this attachment a person takes complete shelter of the Supreme Lord understanding that Lord Krishna is the ultimate controller, the ultimate protector and the ultimate refuge of all living entities. Understanding this reality fully with asamsayam or free from doubt without any reservation is the special meaning here.

Shri Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

In the seventh chapter Lord Krishna discoursed on the nature of Parabrahma the Supreme Being, Vasudeva the Supreme cause of all causes, the object of worship being: 1) The spiritual sovereignty of all living entities, sentient and the insentient. 2) The source and cause of all there is. 3) The support and preservation of everything 4) The ultimate reference of all language used as an expression of ideas which normally relate either to the Supreme Lords rupa which is His form, or His guna which are His qualities. The ultimate reference being the Supreme Lord Himself of whom all beings in existence are His transcendental rupa and all things existing arise from His transcendental gunas. 5) Isvara Parama or the Supreme Controller 6) The most exalted and glorious by the possession of omniscience, omnipresence, and omnipotence, and by the possession of all power, all beauty, all knowledge, all opulence, all fame and all renunciation. Then Lord Krishna went on to explain the reasons why His supreme indomitable nature is concealed and inscrutable for normal human beings due to their committing iniquitous deeds in past lives from time immemorial and also being addicted to gratification of desires with the delights which the physical body and five senses stimulate while being covered with varying degrees of the triple qualities of sattva or goodness, rajas or passion and tamas or ignorance. Lord Krishna then revealed by what means this illusionary delusion can be removed by an embodied being who develops firm faith in the Supreme Lord and surrenders to Him, due to the grace of the spiritual master in Vedically authorised disciplic succession. This faith and resignation to the Supreme Lord manifests in following the instructions of the spiritual master and results in the performance of highly meritorious activities. Lord Krishna also showed how the differences in merit produces differences in results for different aspirants being the atharthis or seekers of fortune, the jijnansur or aspirants for realisation of the soul and jnanis or seekers of the Supreme Lord. It was also shown how out of all these aspirants the jnani was the most exalted. The eminence of the jnanis was derived from their constant devotion and unwavering love for the Supreme Lord exclusively, thus they became an object of the Supreme Lord who loves to reciprocate, warmest affection; but such a devotee of the Supreme Lord is rarely seen and very difficult to find. In conclusion Lord Krishna mentioned several requisites of knowledge which the three classes being atharthis, jijnansurs and jnanis have to be knowledgeable of and act in accordance to in order to realise the individual goals of future felicity which each class aspires for. Arjina continues asking questions in the next verse as well.

Kumara Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

In the seventh chapter Lord Krishna discoursed on the nature of Parabrahma the Supreme Being, Vasudeva the Supreme cause of all causes, the object of worship being: 1) The spiritual sovereignty of all living entities, sentient and the insentient. 2) The source and cause of all there is. 3) The support and preservation of everything 4) The ultimate reference of all language used as an expression of ideas which normally relate either to the Supreme Lords rupa which is His form, or His guna which are His qualities. The ultimate reference being the Supreme Lord Himself of whom all beings in existence are His transcendental rupa and all things existing arise from His transcendental gunas. 5) Isvara Parama or the Supreme Controller 6) The most exalted and glorious by the possession of omniscience, omnipresence, and omnipotence, and by the possession of all power, all beauty, all knowledge, all opulence, all fame and all renunciation. Then Lord Krishna went on to explain the reasons why His supreme indomitable nature is concealed and inscrutable for normal human beings due to their committing iniquitous deeds in past lives from time immemorial and also being addicted to gratification of desires with the delights which the physical body and five senses stimulate while being covered with varying degrees of the triple qualities of sattva or goodness, rajas or passion and tamas or ignorance. Lord Krishna then revealed by what means this illusionary delusion can be removed by an embodied being who develops firm faith in the Supreme Lord and surrenders to Him, due to the grace of the spiritual master in Vedically authorised disciplic succession. This faith and resignation to the Supreme Lord manifests in following the instructions of the spiritual master and results in the performance of highly meritorious activities. Lord Krishna also showed how the differences in merit produces differences in results for different aspirants being the atharthis or seekers of fortune, the jijnansur or aspirants for realisation of the soul and jnanis or seekers of the Supreme Lord. It was also shown how out of all these aspirants the jnani was the most exalted. The eminence of the jnanis was derived from their constant devotion and unwavering love for the Supreme Lord exclusively, thus they became an object of the Supreme Lord who loves to reciprocate, warmest affection; but such a devotee of the Supreme Lord is rarely seen and very difficult to find. In conclusion Lord Krishna mentioned several requisites of knowledge which the three classes being atharthis, jijnansurs and jnanis have to be knowledgeable of and act in accordance to in order to realise the individual goals of future felicity which each class aspires for. Arjina continues asking questions in the next verse as well.

Transliteration Bhagavad Gita 8.1

Arjuna Uvaacha: Kim tadbrahma kim adhyaatmam kim karma purushottama; Adhibhootam cha kim proktam adhidaivam kimuchyate.

Word Meanings Bhagavad Gita 8.1

arjunaḥ uvācha—Arjun said; kim—what; tat—that; brahma—Brahman; kim—what; adhyātmam—the individual soul; kim—what; karma—the principle of karma; puruṣha-uttama—Shree Krishna, the Supreme Divine Personality; adhibhūtam—the material manifestation; cha—and; kim—what; proktam—is called; adhidaivam—the Lord of the celestial gods; kim—what; uchyate—is called; adhiyajñaḥ—the Lord all sacrificial performances; katham—how; kaḥ—who; atra—here; dehe—in body; asmin—this; madhusūdana—Shree Krishna, the killer of the demon named Madhu; prayāṇa-kāle—at the time of death; cha—and; katham—how; jñeyaḥ—to be known; asi—are (You); niyata-ātmabhiḥ—by those of steadfast mind