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Bhagavad Gita Chapter 7 Verse 4

भगवद् गीता अध्याय 7 श्लोक 4

भूमिरापोऽनलो वायुः खं मनो बुद्धिरेव च।
अहङ्कार इतीयं मे भिन्ना प्रकृतिरष्टधा।।7.4।।

English Translation - Swami Gambirananda

7.4 This Prakrti of Mine is divided eight-fold thus: earth, water, fire, air, space, mind, intellect and also egoism.

English Translation - Swami Sivananda

7.4 Earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind, intellect and egoism thus is My Nature divided eightfold.

English Translation - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

7.4. My nature is divided eightfold, such as the Earth, the Water, the Fire, the Wind, the Ether, the Mind, and also the Intellect and the Ego;

English Commentary - Swami Sivananda

7.4 भूमिः earth? आपः water? अनलः fire? वायुः air? खम् ether? मनः mind? बुद्धिः intellect? एव even? च and? अहङ्कारः egoism? इति thus? इयम् this? मे My? भिन्ना divided? प्रकृतिः Nature? अष्टधा eightfold.Commentary This eightfold Nature constitutes the inferior Nature or Apara Prakriti. The five gross elements are formed out of the Tanmatras or rootelements through the process of Pancikarana or fivefold mixing. Tanmatras are the subtle rootelements. In this verse? earth? water? etc.? represent the subtle or rudimentary elements out of which the five gross elements are formed.Mind stands here for its cause Ahamkara intellect for its cause the Mahat Ahamkara for the Avyaktam or the unmanifested (MulaPrakriti) united with Avidya which is conjoined with all kinds of Vasanas or latent tendencies. As Ahamkara (Iness) is the cause for all the actions of every individual and as Ahamkara is the most vital principle in man on which all the other Tattvas or principles depend? the Avyaktam combined with the Ahamkara is itself called here Ahamkara? just as food which is mixed with poison is itself called poison.

English Translation of Sanskrit Commentary By Sri Shankaracharya's

7.4 Iyam, this; prakrtih, Prakrti, [Prakrti here does not mean the Pradhana of the Sankhyas.] the divine power called Maya; me, of Mine, as described; bhinna, is divided; astadha, eight-forl; iti, thus: bhumih, earth-not the gross earth but the subtle element called earth, this being understood from the statement, Prakrti (of Mine) is divided eight-fold. Similarly, the subtle elements alone are referred to even by the words water etc. Apah, water; analah, fire; vayuh, air; kham, space; manah, mind. By mind is meant its source, egoism. By buddhih, intellect, is meant the principle called mahat [Mahat means Hiranyagarbha, or Cosmic Intelligence.] which is the source of egoism. By ahankarah, egoism, is meant the Unmanifest, associated [Associated, i.e. of the nature of.] with (Cosmic) ignorance. As food mixed with position is called poison, similarly the Unmainfest, which is the primordial Cause, is called egoism since it is imbued with the impressions resulting from egoism; and egoism is the impelling force (of all). It is indeed seen in the world that egoism is the impelling cause behind all endeavour.

English Translation of Commentary - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

7.4 See Comment under 7.5

English Translation of Ramanuja's Sanskrit Commentary

7.4 Know that Prakrti, the material cause of this universe, which consists of endless varieties of objects and means of enjoyment and places of enjoyment, is divided into eightfold substances - earth, water, fire, air and ether, having smell, taste etc., as their attributes, and Manas along with kindred sense organs and the categories Mahat and ego-sense - all belonging to Me.

Commentary - Chakravarthi Ji

And, knowledge (jnana) in relation to bhakti means knowledge of the Lord’s powers, not knowledge of the atma being separate from the body. In defining knowledge of the Lord’s powers, the Lord speaks of his two energies (prakrti), superior and inferior, in two verses. By the listing of the five gross elements beginning with earth, the subtle elements, known as the sense objects such as smell, taste, form, touch and sound, are understood as well. By the word false ego, the ten senses, which arise from it, and the mahat tattva, its cause are also understood. Mind and intellect are listed separately to show their greater importance among all the elements.

Rudra Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

After having enticed the listeners interest, next in order to delineate the nature of Isvara the Supreme controller, introduced as the origin of all creation, etc. through the agency of prakriti the material substatum. Prakriti has a dual nature differentiated by higher and lower properties. Lord Krishna defines the lower properties in this verse beginning with the word bhumir meaning Earth. It should be understood that Earth includes the five elementary essences being sight, taste, hearing, smell and touch. By the word manah meaning the mind, its cause ahankarah meaning ego is denoted. By the word ahankaryah or egoism, its cause avidya or ignorance the absence of knowledge is denoted. By the word buddhih meaning the intellect, its cause the mahat being cosmic intelligence is denoted. This is Lord Krishnas lower nature divided into eight categories. Another interpretation of this verse is that earth means the five gross elements together with the five subtle elements. The word egoism means together with its by products being the five senses. Intellect means the cosmic intelligence. By mind is meant the pradhana or the unmanifest which has no form that has been manifested and which can only be inferred by the mind. So this is Lord Krihnas prakriti otherwise known as maya-sakti or illusory potency in eight categories. Although prakriti is usually divided into twenty-four categories because the other sixteen are included within these eight it is said here to be divided into eight categories. Later in chapter thirteen, verses six and seven concerning ksetra or the body this very same prakriti will be described in full as having twenty-four categories being the five gross elements, egoism, intellect, the unmanifest, the ten sense organs, the mind and the five objects of the senses.

Brahma Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The eight categories of Lord Krishnas include the five elements and the mind concluding with the mahat denoting intellect and ahankara denoting false ego. The ahankara of the living entities is different from the ego sense of the incarnation Ksiradaksayi Vishnu who while meditating upon Himself in the casual ocean merely thinks I Am and universal creation begins to manifest as unlimited universes from the pores of His spiritual body.

Shri Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

It should be known that mula prakriti or the primeval substratum of material nature is the basis for the infinite and phenomena of all creation. It ministers its all encompassing energy in material existence to all sentient beings in a marvellous variety of ways. As objects of enjoyment, bodily organs to enjoy with as well as regions of enjoyment to interact with. All these things are also manifestations of the Supreme Lord Krishnas nature and they are divided into eight principle categories. 1)Solids being Earth distinguished by odor, 2)liquids being water distinguished by moisture, 3)light being fire distinguished by heat, 4)air being gases distinguished by lightness and 5)space being ether distinguished by unlimitedness, 6) manas or mind with its accompanying five senses and ahankara or false ego.

Kumara Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

It should be known that mula prakriti or the primeval substratum of material nature is the basis for the infinite and phenomena of all creation. It ministers its all encompassing energy in material existence to all sentient beings in a marvellous variety of ways. As objects of enjoyment, bodily organs to enjoy with as well as regions of enjoyment to interact with. All these things are also manifestations of the Supreme Lord Krishnas nature and they are divided into eight principle categories. 1)Solids being Earth distinguished by odor, 2)liquids being water distinguished by moisture, 3)light being fire distinguished by heat, 4)air being gases distinguished by lightness and 5)space being ether distinguished by unlimitedness, 6) manas or mind with its accompanying five senses and ahankara or false ego.

Transliteration Bhagavad Gita 7.4

Bhoomiraapo’nalo vaayuh kham mano buddhireva cha; Ahamkaara iteeyam me bhinnaa prakritirashtadhaa.

Word Meanings Bhagavad Gita 7.4

bhūmiḥ—earth; āpaḥ—water; analaḥ—fire; vāyuḥ—air; kham—space; manaḥ—mind; buddhiḥ—intellect; eva—certainly; cha—and; ahankāraḥ—ego; iti—thus; iyam—all these; me—my; bhinnā—divisions; prakṛitiḥ—material energy; aṣhṭadhā—eightfold