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Bhagavad Gita Chapter 7 Verse 13

भगवद् गीता अध्याय 7 श्लोक 13

त्रिभिर्गुणमयैर्भावैरेभिः सर्वमिदं जगत्।
मोहितं नाभिजानाति मामेभ्यः परमव्ययम्।।7.13।।

English Translation - Swami Gambirananda

7.13 All this world, deluded as it is by these three things made of the gunas (alities), does not know Me who am transcendental to these and undecaying.

English Translation - Swami Sivananda

7.13 Deluded by these Natures (states or things) composed of the three alities of Nature all this world does not know Me as distinct from them and immutable.

English Translation - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

7.13. Being duluded by these three beings of the Strands, this entire world does not recognise Me Who am eternal and transcending these [Strands].

English Commentary - Swami Sivananda

7.13 त्रिभिः by three? गुणमयैः composed of Gunas? भावैः by natures? एभिः by these? सर्वम् all? इदम् this? जगत् world? मोहितम् deluded? न not? अभिजानाति knows? माम् Me? एभ्यः from them? परम् higher? अव्ययम् immutable.Commentary Persons of this world are deluded by the three alities of Nature or Maya. Affection? attachment and infatuated love are all modifications of these alities. On account of delusion created by these three alities they are not able to break the worldly ties and to turn the mind towards the Supreme Soul? the Lord of the three alities.Avyayam Immutable or unchangeable or inexhaustible or imperishable. The Self is of one homogeneous essence. It has not got the six changes or modifications (Shad Bhava Vikaras) which the body has? viz.? existence? birth? growth? modification? decay and death. (Cf.VII.25)

English Translation of Sanskrit Commentary By Sri Shankaracharya's

7.13 Sarvam, all; idam, this; jagat, world, the aggregate of creatures; mohitam, deluded as it is-made to have indiscrimination; hih, by these; aforesaid tribhih, three; bhavaih, things, in the forms of attachment, repulsion, delusion, etc; and gunamayaih, made of the gunas, of the transformations of the gunas; na abhijanati, does not know; mam, Me; who am param, transcendental to, distinct, different; hyah, from these gunas as referred to above; and am avyayam, undecaying, i.e. free from all (the six kinds of) changes in things, viz birth etc. [See note on p.38.-Tr.] How, again, do they cross over this divine Maya of Visnu, constituted by the three gunas? That is being stated:

English Translation of Commentary - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

7.12-13 Ye ca etc. Tribhih etc. The [Strands] Sattva etc., are derived from Me, and not I from them. That is why he who has achieved his identity with the Bhagavat (the Absolute), properly realises all [objects] as being the Bhagavat [Himself]. On the other hand, the person who is established in the knowledge of objects of umpteen varieties does not understand the reality of the Bhagavat. This krama (traditional order) pleases the mind of all. With this idea only the Lord is going to declare presently Vasudeva is all. There the meaning is this : He, whose internal organ is favoured by the descent of the Supreme Energy or grace (Sakti-pata) that arises after [teaching the stage of] eableness of effects of actions (karma-samata) that is brought about by the enjoyment [of effects] through many births; and who realises the reality of Bhagavat, with conviction verily all is Vasudeva - that person is the great Soul and he is difficult to find. But, not knowing in this manner and, on the contrary, being duluded by the Strands, Sattva etc., this world, fails to perceive the reality of Vasudeva, transcending the Strands. [The Lord] declares why the persons established exclusively in the Sattva etc. (Strands), are not conscious of the real nature of the Bhagavat :

English Translation of Ramanuja's Sanskrit Commentary

7.13 Now, in this way, the whole universe, consisting of animate and inanimate entities belonging to Me, evolves from time to time from Me only, is absorbed in Me, and abides in Me alone. It constitutes My body and has Me for its self. Whether in the causal state or in the state of effect, it is I who have all these entities as My modes, because all entities form My body. Thus, in regard to all these modes, I am superior to them, as I am their cause, principal, and as I possess a complex of countless auspicious attributes like knowledge, strength etc. In every way I remain as the highest being. There exists none higher than Myself. Such being the case, I am superior to these entities composed of the alities of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas - superior to them by My extraordinary attributes and by having these various modes for My enjoyment. I am the highest and immutable, i.e., I form a unity in Myself. This world constituted of gods, men, animals and immovables, and deluded by the three Gunas of Prakrti and its evolutes are inferior and transient. The forms of bodies, senses and objects of enjoyment comprising the world are there in accordance with their past Karmas. No one in the world knows Me. How is it possible that all experiencing beings think as enjoyable objects which are inferior, constituted of the Gunas and are transient, while You exist - You who are of the nature of unbounded and abundant bliss, who has an eternal unchanging form and who is the source of the enjoyableness of even the objects of the world? Sri Krsna replies:

Commentary - Chakravarthi Ji

“Then if you are all things, why do people not know you, the Supreme Lord?” All the jivas born in the universe (sarvam idam jagat), being bewildered by the states such as sense and mind control in the mood of goodness, jubilation in the mode of passion, and lamentation in the mode of ignorance, stemming from the nature of the gunas, do not know me, who am superior to them, since I am beyond the gunas, and without change (avyayam).

Rudra Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Why is it that the people of this Earth are unaware of the Supreme Lord and His potencies. It is being stated that the whole world is deluded by the three gunas being the modes of goodness, passion and nescience which influence a person to act respectively in righteousness, passion and ignorance. Therefore the people of this world are unable to recognise that the Supreme Lord Krishna is transcendental to and unaffected by the three gunas being their source and therefore immutable and immaculate. Neither are they able to fathom His paramount position at the apex of divinity completely superior to all other gods.

Brahma Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Why does Arjuna know and is not deluded will be explained by this verse. To show Himself as the source of the three gunas being the modes of goodness, passion and nescience, Lord Krishna uses the word mayair meaning of mine. In regard to the Supreme Lord can be understood in three ways; as relating to the atma or soul, as relating to modification and as relating to effulgence. It is not used as illusion here as He speaks of gunamayair meaning My attributes being the three gunas which originate from Him. His actions apply to His nature as well for ones nature is compatible with ones actions. This is mentioned in the Vyasa Yoga. The word bhavair means conditions and refers to through objects. Objects become perceived by their attributes and by this they are seen. The word idam meaning this is used to show that the wise are not deluded. Those who recognise their own bodies as consisting of the three gunas and who think that Lord Krishna transcendental body is also similarly formed are certainly deluded persons. In the Vyasa Yoga a similar comparison is made as follows: After seeing the physical body of Brahma and other demi-gods possessing attributes; if one believes that the transcendental body of the Supreme Lord is similar to theirs such a person is completely deluded in bondage. The words ebhyah param means above and beyond, referring to the attributes. When referring to the Supreme Lord of transcendental form it means He is superior to the three gunas.

Shri Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Everything existing in creation, abounding in objects animate and inanimate is part and parcel of the Supreme Lord Krishna. At appointed and periods it emanates from Him and at appointed periods it emanates back into Him. Everything is existent within Him alone, forming His transcendental body, covering all the universes which He ensouls with the life force. Thus Lord Krishna alone is eternally existent both in potential and in manifestation for He is both the cause and the effect. For all things are constitute as parts of His body and are related to Him as adjuncts. Whether the Supreme Lord Krishna is considered to be the cause as the Sovereign Lord; or the effect as the possessor of innumerable hosts of glorious attributes and myriads of marvellous qualities; or in many other descriptions it should be consummately comprehended that He is the most superior above all things and designations and that there is not a second who is qualified to be so characterised. But the world in general does not know Lord Krishnas exalted position which is far beyond tribhir guna the three modes of material nature being goodness, passion and ignorance. The world does not realise His Supreme position as the possessor of multitudes of extraordinary blessed attributes and as such knows Him not as that supreme bliss and joy without which nothing can exist and which constitutes the life of all created beings. The word avyayam means imperishable this is synonymous with infinite and eternal. Although He is all this, the beings of creation consisting of demi- gods, humans, animals, aquatics and plant life are all oblivious to it and completely beguiled by the trivial and fascinated by the ephemeral in the form of objects appearing as physical bodies and subtle senses adopted to furnish enjoyments for the utilisation of pleasure according to the dispensations doled out from previous impressions of old karmas or reactions from past activities. Due to these impediments the world in general is not able to know Him. If reflecting Arjuna were to ask: How is it possible that Lord Krishna who surpasses every joy and delight that material existence is capable of offering, whose immeasurable beatitude, eternality and immutability are gloriously effulgent is not perceived by the world? And if Arjuna were to further ask: How is it possible that desire and attachment arises in the hearts of embodied souls for the same repetitive pleasures over and over again without satiation to the point of redundancy? Lord Krishna answers with the words mama maya duratyaya explaining that His illusory energy is very difficult to surmount. In as much as this His maya or illusion permeates His prakriti or material substratum through the three gunas or modes of sattva or goodness, rajas or passion and tamas or ignorance; so it is extremely difficult to overcome. The total material manifestation is under its sway and influenced by it. It is daivi meaning divine and is created by Lord Krishna for the purpose of sport as is deduced from the root word div meaning to play. Its designation by the term maya is on account of its potency to produce phenomenal effects in the gross material existence albeit depending upon the breadth of ones knowledge. These phenomenal effects are even manifested from the spiritual worlds as in the case of Lord Krishna dispatching His intrepid and impervious Sudarsana Cakra or fiery transcendental disc to shield and protect the physical body of His devotee Prahlad causing the 1000 incantation manifestations to fail to harm him one after the other. They are also analogous to the brahmastras or mantra governed missles and arrows discharged in battle by regal ksatriyas or the royal warrior class as were exhibited in the Battle of Kurushetra. They are also sometimes manifested in the evil magic of the asuras meaning literally those without light and the sorcery of the rakshasas which are human eating demons and fiends. The term maya never signifies what is false. The term mayair is applied to that which is able to produce real impressions upon anothers imagination albeit individual or collective. The effect is certainly real although the cause is definitely illusory. Like a magician by the art of conjuring produces marvellous effects upon the minds of those witnessing by means of incantations; so that when mayair designates a producer of real effects which are not false, the word maya denotes the incantation by which the manifestion was effected. Wherever the term maya is found to be used it invariably means that which has the ability of activating phenomenal and marvellous material effects and is universally accepted. An example is a crate of Chinese fireworks is just another crate of dry goods lying in a warehouse; but when activated by someone knowledgeable at night it produces marvellous and real effects in the sky. Whenever the word maya is used to suggest the illusion of non-reality instead of a real impression upon the mind then such application is only figurative and subordinate to the universal understanding which is not to be usurped by the figurative understanding. When one reads 100 lances fought in battle it means the 100 men who carry the lances. So like this in this way the word maya should be understood. This maya of the Supreme Lord which is capable of producing sublime and marvellous effects which permeates the entire material creation is the only maya to be considered as any other is but figurative or metaphorical. The Svetasvatara Upanisad states: mayan-tu prakritim vidyat mahinan-tu mahesvaram which means prakriti the material substratum then prakriti is to be apprehended by the word maya and mahesvaram or the Supreme Lord by the word mayi. It is the responsibilty of maya to veil the true nature of the Supreme Lord from the miscreants and unqualified and to lure such beings to constantly chase after the desire for sense gratification. Hence all the worlds are beguiled and bewildered by the intrepid effect of maya from the time they are born and thus fail to recognise the magnificent splendour and wonderous glories of the Supreme Lord Krishna who is eternity, knowledge and bliss personified of immeasurable transcendental nature. The next verse will give the means of deliverance and redemption to alleviate this situation.

Kumara Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Everything existing in creation, abounding in objects animate and inanimate is part and parcel of the Supreme Lord Krishna. At appointed and periods it emanates from Him and at appointed periods it emanates back into Him. Everything is existent within Him alone, forming His transcendental body, covering all the universes which He ensouls with the life force. Thus Lord Krishna alone is eternally existent both in potential and in manifestation for He is both the cause and the effect. For all things are constitute as parts of His body and are related to Him as adjuncts. Whether the Supreme Lord Krishna is considered to be the cause as the Sovereign Lord; or the effect as the possessor of innumerable hosts of glorious attributes and myriads of marvellous qualities; or in many other descriptions it should be consummately comprehended that He is the most superior above all things and designations and that there is not a second who is qualified to be so characterised. But the world in general does not know Lord Krishnas exalted position which is far beyond tribhir guna the three modes of material nature being goodness, passion and ignorance. The world does not realise His Supreme position as the possessor of multitudes of extraordinary blessed attributes and as such knows Him not as that supreme bliss and joy without which nothing can exist and which constitutes the life of all created beings. The word avyayam means imperishable this is synonymous with infinite and eternal. Although He is all this, the beings of creation consisting of demi- gods, humans, animals, aquatics and plant life are all oblivious to it and completely beguiled by the trivial and fascinated by the ephemeral in the form of objects appearing as physical bodies and subtle senses adopted to furnish enjoyments for the utilisation of pleasure according to the dispensations doled out from previous impressions of old karmas or reactions from past activities. Due to these impediments the world in general is not able to know Him. If reflecting Arjuna were to ask: How is it possible that Lord Krishna who surpasses every joy and delight that material existence is capable of offering, whose immeasurable beatitude, eternality and immutability are gloriously effulgent is not perceived by the world? And if Arjuna were to further ask: How is it possible that desire and attachment arises in the hearts of embodied souls for the same repetitive pleasures over and over again without satiation to the point of redundancy? Lord Krishna answers with the words mama maya duratyaya explaining that His illusory energy is very difficult to surmount. In as much as this His maya or illusion permeates His prakriti or material substratum through the three gunas or modes of sattva or goodness, rajas or passion and tamas or ignorance; so it is extremely difficult to overcome. The total material manifestation is under its sway and influenced by it. It is daivi meaning divine and is created by Lord Krishna for the purpose of sport as is deduced from the root word div meaning to play. Its designation by the term maya is on account of its potency to produce phenomenal effects in the gross material existence albeit depending upon the breadth of ones knowledge. These phenomenal effects are even manifested from the spiritual worlds as in the case of Lord Krishna dispatching His intrepid and impervious Sudarsana Cakra or fiery transcendental disc to shield and protect the physical body of His devotee Prahlad causing the 1000 incantation manifestations to fail to harm him one after the other. They are also analogous to the brahmastras or mantra governed missles and arrows discharged in battle by regal ksatriyas or the royal warrior class as were exhibited in the Battle of Kurushetra. They are also sometimes manifested in the evil magic of the asuras meaning literally those without light and the sorcery of the rakshasas which are human eating demons and fiends. The term maya never signifies what is false. The term mayair is applied to that which is able to produce real impressions upon anothers imagination albeit individual or collective. The effect is certainly real although the cause is definitely illusory. Like a magician by the art of conjuring produces marvellous effects upon the minds of those witnessing by means of incantations; so that when mayair designates a producer of real effects which are not false, the word maya denotes the incantation by which the manifestion was effected. Wherever the term maya is found to be used it invariably means that which has the ability of activating phenomenal and marvellous material effects and is universally accepted. An example is a crate of Chinese fireworks is just another crate of dry goods lying in a warehouse; but when activated by someone knowledgeable at night it produces marvellous and real effects in the sky. Whenever the word maya is used to suggest the illusion of non-reality instead of a real impression upon the mind then such application is only figurative and subordinate to the universal understanding which is not to be usurped by the figurative understanding. When one reads 100 lances fought in battle it means the 100 men who carry the lances. So like this in this way the word maya should be understood. This maya of the Supreme Lord which is capable of producing sublime and marvellous effects which permeates the entire material creation is the only maya to be considered as any other is but figurative or metaphorical. The Svetasvatara Upanisad states: mayan-tu prakritim vidyat mahinan-tu mahesvaram which means prakriti the material substratum then prakriti is to be apprehended by the word maya and mahesvaram or the Supreme Lord by the word mayi. It is the responsibilty of maya to veil the true nature of the Supreme Lord from the miscreants and unqualified and to lure such beings to constantly chase after the desire for sense gratification. Hence all the worlds are beguiled and bewildered by the intrepid effect of maya from the time they are born and thus fail to recognise the magnificent splendour and wonderous glories of the Supreme Lord Krishna who is eternity, knowledge and bliss personified of immeasurable transcendental nature. The next verse will give the means of deliverance and redemption to alleviate this situation.

Transliteration Bhagavad Gita 7.13

Tribhirgunamayair bhaavairebhih sarvamidam jagat; Mohitam naabhijaanaati maamebhyah paramavyayam.

Word Meanings Bhagavad Gita 7.13

tribhiḥ—by three; guṇa-mayaiḥ—consisting of the modes of material nature; bhāvaiḥ—states; ebhiḥ—all these; sarvam—whole; idam—this; jagat—universe; mohitam—deluded; na—not; abhijānāti—know; mām—me; ebhyaḥ—these; param—the supreme; avyayam—imperishable