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Bhagavad Gita Chapter 5 Verse 6

भगवद् गीता अध्याय 5 श्लोक 6

संन्यासस्तु महाबाहो दुःखमाप्तुमयोगतः।
योगयुक्तो मुनिर्ब्रह्म नचिरेणाधिगच्छति।।5.6।।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी ( भगवद् गीता 5.6)

।।5.6।।(टिप्पणी प0 286) परन्तु हे महाबाहो कर्मयोगके बिना संन्यास सिद्ध होना कठिन है। मननशील कर्मयोगी शीघ्र ही ब्रह्मको प्राप्त हो जाता है।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी तेजोमयानंद

।।5.6।। परन्तु हे महाबाहो योग के बिना संन्यास प्राप्त होना कठिन है योगयुक्त मननशील पुरुष परमात्मा को शीघ्र ही प्राप्त होता है।।

हिंदी टीका - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी

 5.6।। व्याख्या   संन्यासस्तु महाबाहो दुःखमाप्तुमयोगतः सांख्ययोगकी सफलताके लिये कर्मयोगका साधन करना आवश्यक है क्योंकि उसके बिना सांख्ययोगकी सिद्धि कठिनतासे होती है। परन्तु कर्मयोगकी सिद्धिके लिये सांख्ययोगका साधन करनेकी आवश्यकता नहीं है। यही भाव यहाँ तु पदसे प्रकट किया गया है।सांख्ययोगीका लक्ष्य परमात्मतत्त्वका अनुभव करना होता है। परन्तु राग रहते हुए इस साधनके द्वारा परमात्मतत्त्वके अनुभवकी तो बात ही क्या है इस साधनका समझमें आना भी कठिन हैराग मिटानेका सुगम उपाय है कर्मयोगका अनुष्ठान करना। कर्मयोगमें प्रत्येक क्रिया दूसरोंके हितके लिये ही की जाती है। दूसरोंके हितका भाव होनेसे अपना राग स्वतः मिटता है। इसलिये कर्मयोगके आचरणद्वारा राग मिटाकर सांख्ययोगका साधन करना सुगम पड़ता है। कर्मयोगका साधन किये बिना सांख्ययोगका सिद्ध होना कठिन है।योगयुक्तो मुनिर्ब्रह्म नचिरेणाधिगच्छति अपने निष्कामभावका और दूसरोंके हितका मनन करनेवाले कर्मयोगीको यहाँ मुनिः कहा गया है।कर्मयोगी छोटी या बड़ी प्रत्येक क्रियाको करते समय यह देखता रहता है कि मेरा भाव निष्काम है या सकाम सकामभाव आते ही वह उसे मिटा देता है क्योंकि सकामभाव आते ही वह क्रिया अपनी और अपने लिये हो जाती है।दूसरोंका हित कैसे हो इस प्रकार मनन करनेसे रागका त्याग सुगमतासे होता है।उपर्युक्त पदोंसे भगवान् कर्मयोगकी विशेषता बता रहे हैं कि कर्मयोगी शीघ्र ही परमात्मतत्त्वको प्राप्त कर लेता है। परमात्मतत्त्वकी प्राप्तिमें विलम्बका कारण है संसारका राग। निष्कामभावपूर्वक केवल दूसरोंके हितके लिये कर्म करते रहनेसे कर्मयोगीके रागका सर्वथा अभाव हो जाता है और रागका सर्वथा अभाव होनेपर स्वतःसिद्ध परमात्मतत्त्वकी अनुभूति हो जाती है। इसी आशयको भगवान्ने चौथे अध्यायके अड़तीसवें श्लोकमें तत्स्वयं योगसंसिद्धः कालेनात्मनि विन्दति पदोंसे बताया है कि योगसंसिद्ध होते ही अपनेआप तत्त्वज्ञानकी प्राप्ति अवश्यमेव हो जाती है। इस साधनमे अन्य साधनकी अपेक्षा नहीं है। इसकी सिद्धिमें कठिनाई और विलम्ब भी नहीं है।दूसरा कारण यह है कि देहधारी देहाभिमानी मनुष्य सम्पूर्ण कर्मोंका त्याग नहीं कर सकता पर जो कर्मफलका त्यागी है वह त्यागी कहलाता है (18। 11)। इससे यह ध्वनि निकलती है कि देहधारी कर्मोंका त्याग तो नहीं कर सकता पर कर्मफलका फलेच्छाका त्याग तो कर ही सकता है। इसलिये कर्मयोगमेंसुगमता है।कर्मयोगकी महिमामें भगवान् कहते हैं कि कर्मयोगीको तत्काल ही शान्ति प्राप्त हो जाती है त्यागाच्छान्तिरनन्तरम् (गीता 12। 12)। वह संसारबन्धनसे सुखपूर्वक मुक्त हो जाता है सुखं बन्धात्प्रमुच्यते (गीता 5। 3)। अतः कर्मयोगका साधन सुगम शीघ्र सिद्धिदायक और किसी अन्य साधनके बिना परमात्मप्राप्ति करानेवाला स्वतन्त्र साधन है। सम्बन्ध   अब भगवान् कर्मयोगीके लक्षणोंका वर्णन करते हैं।

हिंदी टीका - स्वामी चिन्मयानंद जी

।।5.6।। आत्मज्ञान की साधना में कर्म के स्थान के विषय में प्राचीन ऋषिगण जिस निष्कर्ष पर पहुँचे थे भगवान् यहाँ उसका ही दृढ़ता से विशेष बल देकर प्रतिपादन कर रहे हैं। कर्मपालन के बिना वास्तविक कर्मसंन्यास असंभव है। किसी वस्तु को प्राप्त किये बिना उसका त्याग कैसे संभव होगा इच्छाओं के अतृप्त रहने से और महत्त्वाकांक्षाओं के धूलि में मिल जाने के कारण जो पुरुष सांसारिक जीवन का त्याग करता है उसका संन्यास वास्तविक नहीं कहा जा सकता।किसी धातु विशेष के बने पात्र पर मैल जम जाने पर उसे स्वच्छ एवं चमकीला बनाने के लिए एक विशेष रासायनिक घोल का प्रयोग किया जाता है। जंग (आक्साइड) की जो एक पर्त उस पात्र पर जमी होती है वह उस घोल में मिल जाती है। कुछ समय पश्चात् जब कपड़े से उसे स्वच्छ किया जाता है तब उस घोल के साथसाथ मैली पर्त भी दूर हो जाती है और फिर वहाँ स्वच्छ चमकीला और आकर्षक पात्र दिखाई देता है। मन के शुद्धिकरण की प्रक्रिया भी इसी प्रकार की है।कर्मयोग के पालन से जन्मजन्मान्तरों में अर्जित वासनाओं का कल्मष दूर हो जाता है और तब शुद्ध हुए मन द्वारा निदिध्यासन के अभ्यास से अकर्म आत्मा का अनुभव होता है और यही वास्तविक कर्मसंन्यास है। ध्यान के लिए आवश्यक इस पूर्व तैयारी के बिना यदि हम कर्मों का संन्यास करें तो शारीरिक दृष्टि से तो हम क्रियाहीन हो जायेंगे लेकिन मन की क्रियाशीलता बनी रहेगी। आंतरिक शुद्धि के लिए मन की बहिर्मुखता अनुकूल नहीं है। वास्तव में देखा जाय तो यह बहिर्मुखता ही वह कल्मष है जो हमारे दैवी सौंदर्य एवं सार्मथ्य को आच्छादित किये रहता है। प्राचीन काल के हिन्दू मनीषियों की आध्यात्मिक उन्नति के क्षेत्र में यह सबसे बड़ी खोज है।जहाँ भगवान् ने यह कहा कि कर्मयोग की भावना से कर्म किये बिना ध्यान की योग्यता अर्थात् चित्तशुद्धि नहीं प्राप्त होती वहीं वे यह आश्वासन भी देते हैं कि साधकगण उचित प्रयत्नों के द्वारा ध्यान के अनुकूल इस मनस्थिति को प्राप्त कर सकते हैं।योगयुक्त जो पुरुष सदा निरहंकार और निस्वार्थ भाव से कर्म करने में रत होता हैं उसे मन की समता तथा एकाग्रता प्राप्त होती है। साधक को ध्यानाभ्यास की योग्यता प्राप्त होने पर कर्म का प्रयोजन सिद्ध हो जाता है। ऐसे योग्यता सम्पन्न मुनि को आत्मानुभूति शीघ्र ही होती है।परमात्मा का अनुभव कब होगा इस विषय में कोई कालमर्यादा निश्चित नहीं की जा सकती। अचिरेण शब्द के प्रयोग से यही बात दर्शायी गई है।उपर्युक्त विवेचन से कर्मसंन्यास की अपेक्षा कर्म के आचरण को श्रेष्ठ कहने का कारण स्पष्ट हो जाता है।जब साधक पुरुष सम्यक् दर्शन के साधनभूत योग का आश्रय लेता है तब

English Translation - Swami Gambirananda

5.6 But, O mighty-armed one, renunciation is hard to attain without (Karma-) yoga. The meditative man eipped with yoga attains Brahman without delay.

English Translation - Swami Sivananda

5.6 But renunciation, O mighty-armed Arjuna, is hard to attain without Yoga; the Yoga-harmonised sage ickly goes to Brahman.

English Translation - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

5.6. O mighty-armed (Arjuna) ! Renunciation is certainly hard to attain excepting through Yoga; the sage who is the master of Yoga attains the Brahman, before long.

English Commentary - Swami Sivananda

5.6 संन्यासः renunciation? तु but? महाबाहो O mightyarmed? दुःखम् hard? आप्तुम् to attain? अयोगतः without Yoga? योगयुक्तः Yogaharmonised? मुनिः Muni? ब्रह्म to Brahman? नचिरेण ickly? अधिगच्छति goes.Commentary Muni is one who does Manana (meditation or reflection). Yoga is performance of action without selfish motive as an offering unto the Lord.Brahman here signifies renunciation or Sannyasa because renunciation consists in the knowledge of the Self. A Muni? the sage of meditation? the Yogaharmonised? i.e.? purified by the performance of action? ickly attains Brahman? the true renunciation which is devotion to the knowledge of the Self. Therefore Karma Yoga is better. It is easy for a beginner. It prepares him for the higher Yoga by purifying his mind.

English Translation of Sanskrit Commentary By Sri Shankaracharya's

5.6 Tu, but, O mighty-armed one; sannyasah, renunciation, in the real sense; duhkham aptum, is hard to attain; ayogatah, without (Karma-) yoga. Munih, the meditative man-the word muni being derived in the sense of one who meditates on the real nature of God; yoga-yuktah, eipped with yoga, with Vedic Karma-yoga in the form of dedication to God without thought of results (for oneself); adhigacchati, attains; brahma, Brahman; na cirena, without delay, very ickly. Therefore it was said by Me, Karma-yoga excels. [Karma-yoga leads to enlightenment through the stages of attenuation of attachment, withdrawal of the internal and external organs from their objects, and their inclination towards the indwelling Self. (Also see Commentary on 5.12).] The monasticism under discussion is called Brahman because it leads to knowledge of the supreme Self, as stated in the Upanisad, Nyasa (monasticism) is Brahman. Brahman is verily the supreme (Ma. Na. 21.2) Brahman means monasticism in the real sense, consisting in steadfastness to the knowledge of the supreme Self.

English Translation of Commentary - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

5.6 Samnyasastu etc. [Here] the word tu is used in the sense of affirmation and it is to be construed in a different order. [Hence the meaning is] : For a person without Yoga, it is certainly hard to attain renunciation. Because, as it has been already shown logically, it is difficult to renounce actions. But, it is certainly easy for men of Yoga to attain this. That has been said earlier.

English Translation of Ramanuja's Sanskrit Commentary

5.6 Renunciation, i.e., Jnana Yoga, cannot be attained without Yoga, i.e., Karma Yoga. A person following Yoga, i.e., following Karma Yoga, being himself a Muni, i.e., one engaged in the contemplation of self, after practising Karma Yoga reaches with ease the Brahman i.e., attains the self soon, i.e., in a short time. But one following Jnana Yoga by itself, completes Jnana Yoga with great difficulty only. On account of this great difficulty, he attains the self after a long period only.

Commentary - Chakravarthi Ji

Sannyasa gives suffering for the jnani who cannot fix purity in the heart. Karma yoga however gives pleasure. The intended meaning of what was spoken earlier is made clear. Because of not performing karma yoga which can pacify the disturbance of the heart, sannyasa may give rise to suffering, if it is accepted without proper qualification. Thus it is said by the writers of the vartika: pramadino bahis cittah pisunah kalahotsukah sannyasino ‘pi drsyante daiva-sandusitasrayah One sees sannyasis who are absorbed in sense gratification, with evil minds, fond of arguing, who are contaminated shelters of spiritual life. The personified Vedas also says: yadi na samuddharanti yatayo hrdi kama-jata Members of the renounced order who fail to uproot the last traces of material desire in their hearts remain impure, and thus You do not allow them to understand You. SB 10.87.39 Bhagavatam also says: yas tv asamyata-sad-vargah pracandendriya-sarathih jnana-vairagya-rahitas tri-dandam upajivati suran atmanam atma-stham nihnute mam ca dharma-ha avipakva-kasayo ‘smad amusmac ca vihiyate One who has not controlled the six forms of illusion [lust, anger, greed, excitement, false pride and intoxication], whose intelligence, the leader of the senses, is extremely attached to material things, who is bereft of knowledge and detachment, who adopts the sannyasa order of life to make a living, who denies the worshipable demigods, his own self and the Supreme Lord within himself, thus ruining all religious principles, and who is still infected by material contamination, is deviated and lost both in this life and the next. SB 11.18.40 Therefore, the jnani (munih) engaging in niskama karma yoga (yoga yuktah) quickly attains brahman.

Rudra Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The question may be raised that if persons practising karma yoga or prescribed Vedic activities without desiring rewards have anyway to achieve atma tattva or realisation of the soul through renunciation it would be better to renounce actions right from the start. To alleviate this question Lord Krishna advises that it is very difficult and perilous to attempt this without performing karma yoga without desire for rewards beforehand because the mind will not have been purified. Contrarily the munir or elevated sage devoted to actions devoid of ego easily purifies their mind and realises the Brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence quickly in the same lifetime. This is why it is iterated that karma yoga is superior to renunciation of action because it can not be maintained without first performing karma yoga. That is why it is said by the author of the Varttika that: One even sees the minds of sannyasins or complete renunciates in abnegation agitated by material desirous and are externalised with thoughts polluted by contact with material nature, becoming careless, malicious, and quarrelsome.

Brahma Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Lord Krishna is reconfirming that renunciation is advisable for equanimity of mind for without it the possibility of moksa or liberation from the cycle of birth and death in the material existence will not manifest. The desire for sense objects and the motivation for rewards only leads to misery. Moksa itself is should be the goal of all endeavours as all other goals are of little importance as they are material and transitory and in ones possession for only a limited time. The Padma Purana states: That except for the goal of moksa all other goals are not even worthy of consideration. When an effort is able to bestow superior results, the bestowal of inferior results is of no consequence. The primary effect of equanimity is renunciation thus the word munir is given meaning one who has renounced. Thus it is said that they alone are known as renunciates who are devoid of desire and anger. Now begins the summation. The means of moksa or liberation is said to be the state of equanimity and its effect is renunciation. That which is always first offered to the lotus feet of the Supreme Lord for His pleasure is true renunciation and no other forms of renunciation are commendable. In the Agni Purana is stated: That without renouncing the desire of rewards for ones actions whatever one might offer unto the Supreme Lord has no merit and the rewards received from all forms of renunciation contrary for the satisfaction of the Supreme Lord are similar to the pleasures of hell. Hence it has been declared what is called renunciation know that to be equanimity. Since equanimity has been clarified to be of such paramount importance there is no need to emphasise it further.

Shri Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Lord Krishna affirms that the aspirant who performs renunciation of the rewards of actions and the aspirant who practices jnana yoga or the cultivation of Vedic knowledge, for both of them atma tattva or realisation of the soul is difficult to achieve without the help of karma yoga or performing prescribed Vedic activities without desire for rewards. The compound words yoga-yuktah is one who has achieved communion with the ultimate consciousness by karma yoga or performing prescribed Vedic activities without attachment. The word munir or sagacious is one who is focused on meditating on the atma or soul. Such a muni easily traverses the path of karma yoga receiving atma tattva or realisation of the soul as well as realisation of the Brahman or the spiritual substratum pervading all existence. But the person who is inclined to perform jnana yoga or the cultivation of Vedic knowledge finds this path extremely difficult and hard to maintain. Because of this it takes an exceptionally long time to attain the atma by this discipline.

Kumara Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Lord Krishna affirms that the aspirant who performs renunciation of the rewards of actions and the aspirant who practices jnana yoga or the cultivation of Vedic knowledge, for both of them atma tattva or realisation of the soul is difficult to achieve without the help of karma yoga or performing prescribed Vedic activities without desire for rewards. The compound words yoga-yuktah is one who has achieved communion with the ultimate consciousness by karma yoga or performing prescribed Vedic activities without attachment. The word munir or sagacious is one who is focused on meditating on the atma or soul. Such a muni easily traverses the path of karma yoga receiving atma tattva or realisation of the soul as well as realisation of the Brahman or the spiritual substratum pervading all existence. But the person who is inclined to perform jnana yoga or the cultivation of Vedic knowledge finds this path extremely difficult and hard to maintain. Because of this it takes an exceptionally long time to attain the atma by this discipline.

Transliteration Bhagavad Gita 5.6

Sannyaasastu mahaabaaho duhkham aaptuma yogatah; Yogayukto munir brahma na chirenaadhigacchati.

Word Meanings Bhagavad Gita 5.6

sanyāsaḥ—renunciation; tu—but; mahā-bāho—mighty-armed one; duḥkham—distress; āptum—attains; ayogataḥ—without karm-yog; yoga-yuktaḥ—one who is adept in karm-yog; muniḥ—a sage; brahma—Brahman; na chireṇa—quickly; adhigachchhati—goes