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Bhagavad Gita Chapter 5 Verse 4

भगवद् गीता अध्याय 5 श्लोक 4

सांख्ययोगौ पृथग्बालाः प्रवदन्ति न पण्डिताः।
एकमप्यास्थितः सम्यगुभयोर्विन्दते फलम्।।5.4।।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी ( भगवद् गीता 5.4)

।।5.4।।बेसमझ लोग सांख्ययोग और कर्मयोगको अलगअलग फलवाले कहते हैं न कि पण्डितजन क्योंकि इन दोनोंमेंसे एक साधनमें भी अच्छी तरहसे स्थित मनुष्य दोनोंके फलरूप परमात्माको प्राप्त कर लेता है।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी तेजोमयानंद

।।5.4।। बालक अर्थात् बालबुद्धि के लोग सांख्य (संन्यास) और योग को परस्पर भिन्न समझते हैं किसी एक में भी सम्यक् प्रकार से स्थित हुआ पुरुष दोनों के फल को प्राप्त कर लेता है।।

हिंदी टीका - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी

।।5.4।। व्याख्या   सांख्ययोगौ पृथग्बालाः प्रवदन्ति न पण्डिताः इसी अध्यायके पहले श्लोकमें अर्जुनने कर्मोंका स्वरूपसे त्याग करके तत्त्वदर्शी महापुरुषके पास जाकर ज्ञान प्राप्त करनेके साधनको कर्मसंन्यास नामसे कहा है। भगवान्ने भी दूसरे श्लोकमें अपने सिद्धान्तकी मुख्यता रखते हुए उसे संन्यास और कर्मसंन्यास नामसे कहा है। अब उस साधनको भगवान् यहाँ सांख्य नामसे कहते हैं। भगवान् शरीरशरीरीके भेदविचार करके स्वरूपमें स्थित होनेको सांख्य कहते हैं। भगवान्के मतमें संन्यास और सांख्य पर्यायवाची हैं जिसमें कर्मोंका स्वरूपसे त्याग करनेकी आवश्यकता नहीं है।अर्जुन जिसे कर्मसंन्यास नामसे कह रहे हैं वह भी निःसन्देह भगवान्के द्वारा कहे सांख्य का ही एक अवान्तर भेद है। कारण कि गुरुसे सुनकर भी साधक शरीरशरीरीके भेदका ही विचार करता है।बालाः पदसे भगवान् यह कहते हैं कि आयु और बुद्धिमें बड़े होकर भी जो सांख्ययोग और कर्मयोगको अलगअलग फलवाले मानते हैं वे बालक अर्थात् बेसमझ ही हैं।जिन महापुरुषोंने सांख्ययोग और कर्मयोगके तत्त्वको ठीकठीक समझा है वे ही पण्डित अर्थात् बुद्धिमान् हैं। वे लोग दोनोंको अलगअलग फलवाले नहीं कहते क्योंकि वे दोनों साधनोंकी प्रणालियोंको न देखकर उन दोनोंके वास्तविक परिणामको देखते हैं.साधनप्रणालीको देखते हुए स्वयं भगवान्ने तीसरे अध्यायके तीसरे श्लोकमें सांख्ययोग और कर्मयोगको दो प्रकारका साधन स्वीकार किया है। दोनोंकी साधनप्रणाली तो अलगअलग है पर साध्य अलगअलग नहीं है।एकमप्यास्थितः सम्यगुभयोर्विन्दते फलम् गीतामें जगहजगह सांख्ययोग और कर्मयोगका परमात्मप्राप्तिरूप फल एक ही बताया गया है। तेरहवें अध्यायके चौबीसवें श्लोकमें दोनों साधनोंसे अपनेआपमें परमात्मतत्त्वका अनुभव होना बताया गया है। तीसरे अध्यायके उन्नीसवें श्लोकमें कर्मयोगीके लिये परमात्माकी प्राप्ति बतायी गयी है और बारहवें अध्यायके चौथे श्लोकमें तथा तेरहवें अध्यायके चौंतीसवें श्लोकमें ज्ञानयोगीके लिये परमात्माकी प्राप्ति बतायी गयी है। इस प्रकार भगवान्के मतमें दोनों साधन एक ही फलवाले हैं।

हिंदी टीका - स्वामी चिन्मयानंद जी

।।5.4।। किसी भी सामान्य कर्म को ईश्वर का पूजा में परिवर्तित करने के दो उपाय हैं। एक है सभी कर्मों में कर्तृत्व के अभिमान का त्याग और दूसरा है फलासक्ति के कारण उत्पन्न होने वाली चिंताओं का त्याग जिसे दूसरे शब्दों में कहेंगे भोक्तृत्व के अभिमान का त्याग। प्रथम उपाय को कहते हैं सांख्य तथा दूसरे को योग।सांख्य मार्ग का अनुसरण सबके लिए संभव नहीं होता है। अत्यन्त मेधावी पुरुष ही संपूर्ण विश्व में हो रहे कर्मों का अवलोकन कर इस कर्तृत्त्व के अभिमान को त्याग सकता है। जीवन में प्राप्त उपलब्धियों के लिए जगत् में कितने ही व्यक्तियों एवं नियमों की अपेक्षा होती है। इसे समझ कर ही हम अपने व्यक्तिगत योगदान की क्षुद्रता समझ सकते हैं और तभी हम अपने मिथ्या कर्तृत्त्व की धारणा को भी त्याग सकते हैं।केवल बालक अर्थात् अपरिपक्व विचार के लोग ही सांख्य और योग में विरोध देखते हैं जबकि बुद्धिमान पुरुष जो किसी एक मार्ग का अवलंबन दृढ़ता से करते हैं दोनों मार्गों के समान प्रभाव को जानते हैं। यदि साधक के रूप में हम कर्तृत्व अभिमान अथवा फलासक्ति को त्यागते हैं तो हमें एक ही लक्ष्य प्राप्त होता है।एक के ही सम्यक ् अनुष्ठान से दोनों के फल की प्राप्ति कैसे होगी उत्तर में कहते हैं

English Translation - Swami Gambirananda

5.4 The fools, not the learned ones, speak of Sankhya (the path of Knowledge) and (Karma-) yoga as different. Any one who properly resorts to even one (of them) gets the result of both.

English Translation - Swami Sivananda

5.4 Children, not the wise, speak of knowledge and the Yoga of action or the performance of action as though they are distinct and different; he who is truly established in one obtains the fruits of both.

English Translation - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

5.4. The childish, and not the wise, proclaim the paths of knowledge and the Yoga as different. He, who has properly resorted to even one [of these two], gets the fruit of both.

English Commentary - Swami Sivananda

5.4 सांख्ययोगौ Sankhya (knowledge) and Yoga (Yoga of action or performance of action)? पृथक् distinct? बालाः children? प्रवदन्ति speak? न not? पण्डिताः the wise? एकम् one? अपि even? आस्थितः established in? सम्यक् truly? उभयोः of both? विन्दते obtains? फलम् fruit.Commentary Children the ignorant people who have no knowledge of the Self? and who have only a theoretical knowledge of the scriptures.Children or ignorant people only say that knowledge and the performance of action are different and produce distinct and opposite results. But the wise who have the knowledge of the Self say that they produce the same result only? viz.? Moksha or liberation. He who is duly established in,one? he who truly lives in one? Sankhya or Yoga? obtains the fruits of both. Therefore there is no diversity in the result or the fruit. This is the gist of this verse. (Cf.VI.2)

English Translation of Sanskrit Commentary By Sri Shankaracharya's

5.4 Balah, the fools; na panditah, not the learned ones; pravadanti, speak of; sankhya-yogau, Sankhya [Sankhya, i.e. monasticism, is that which is suited for sankhya, Self-iniry.] (the Path of Knowledge) and (Karma-)yoga; as prthak, different, having opposite and different results. The learned ones, the wise, however, admit one, unconflicting result. How? Any one who samyak, properly; asthitah, resorts to, i.e. follows; ekam api, even one, between the Path of Knowledge and (Karma-) yoga; vindate, gets; phalam, the result; ubhayoh, of both. For, the result of both is that Liberation itself. Therefore there is no conflict with regard to the result. Objection: After beginning the topic with the words, renunciation and (Karma-) yoga, how is it that the Lord speaks of the identity of the results of the path of Knowledge and (Karma-) yoga, which is beside the point? Reply: This defect does not arise. Although the estion was put by Arjuna merely with regard to renunciation and Karma-yoga, yet the Lord, without actually avoiding them, and by adding something special which was intended by Him, gave the answer by expressing them through other words, Sankhya and (Karma-) yoga. Those very renunciation and Karma-yoga, when they are (respectively) associated with Knowledge and such of Its means as eanimity etc., are meant by the words Sankhya and yoga. This is the Lords veiw. Therefore there is no discussion out of the context. How can the result of both be attained by the proper performance of only one? The answer is:

English Translation of Commentary - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

5.4 See Comment under 5.5

English Translation of Ramanuja's Sanskrit Commentary

5.4 Those who say that Karma Yoga and Jnana Yoga are distinct because of the difference in results, are children, i.e., are persons with incomplete knowledge; they do not know the entire truth. The meaning is that they do not possess true knowledge, who say that Karma Yoga results in Jnana Yoga only and that Jnana Yoga alone results in the vision of the self and that the two are thus distinct because of the difference in their fruits. But on the contrary as both have only the vision of the self as the fruit, a person who is firmly set in one of them, wins that one fruit common to both. Sri Krsna further expounds the same:

Commentary - Chakravarthi Ji

Your statement about which is the better of the two does not actually   apply,   because   intelligent  people do  not  see any difference between the two. The word sankya refers to being fixed in jnana. An anga of that is sannyasa. The fools, not the wise, speak of the difference between sannyasa and karma yoga. As the previous verse mentioned, “one should know the karma yogi to be the real sannyasi.” The sannyasi and karma yogi are one.

Rudra Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

So it can be understood that both karma yoga or prescribed Vedic activities without desiring rewards includes renunciation of action as well when a person arrives at that realisation. Thus both paths can be practised in sequence according to a persons stage of spiritual development. The question of which one is factually superior is only applicable to the ignorant and misinformed as the discriminating and knowledgeable understand that the person who practices both thoroughly achieves the same result. The meaning Lord Krishna is intending is that they do not produce separate results.

Brahma Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Renunciation is certainly essential for the acquisition of spiritual wisdom which has been stated in Vedic scriptures as being impossible to acquire for one who is unable to relinquish enjoying the objects of the senses. If this is the case then how can it be assumed that renunciation is inferior to karma yoga or prescribed Vedic activities. Therefore Lord Krishna is explaining that both are inherent in each other and not contradictory. One who observes a yagna or offerings of worship to propitiate the Supreme Lord and experiencing the smoke arising from the ghee and seed grains offered to the fire reflects that the yagna is not sanctified due to its being performed for desires of the rewards upon its completion. But for the same yagna being performed without desires but solely for the propitiation of the Supreme Lord is considered the highest wisdom. Those that think otherwise are not conversant with the Vedic scriptures and thus their speculations do not need to be considered.

Shri Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

They are misinformed and not conversant with Vedic scriptures who think that karma yoga or prescribed Vedic activities and jnana yoga the renunciation of rewards of actions by the cultivation Vedic knowledge give different results and do not both award atma tattva or realisation of the soul. Although karma yoga may go through the path of jnana yoga it may also independently achieve atma tattva by its own merit. So as long as an aspirant firmly adopts either path with determination they are assured of success. This is further expanded by Lord Krishna in the next verse.

Kumara Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

They are misinformed and not conversant with Vedic scriptures who think that karma yoga or prescribed Vedic activities and jnana yoga the renunciation of rewards of actions by the cultivation Vedic knowledge give different results and do not both award atma tattva or realisation of the soul. Although karma yoga may go through the path of jnana yoga it may also independently achieve atma tattva by its own merit. So as long as an aspirant firmly adopts either path with determination they are assured of success. This is further expanded by Lord Krishna in the next verse.

Transliteration Bhagavad Gita 5.4

Saankhyayogau prithagbaalaah pravadanti na panditaah; Ekam apyaasthitah samyag ubhayor vindate phalam.

Word Meanings Bhagavad Gita 5.4

sānkhya—renunciation of actions; yogau—karm yog; pṛithak—different; bālāḥ—the ignorant; pravadanti—say; na—never; paṇḍitāḥ—the learned; ekam—in one; api—even; āsthitaḥ—being situated; samyak—completely; ubhayoḥ—of both; vindate—achieve; phalam—the result