स्वाध्यायज्ञानयज्ञाश्च यतयः संशितव्रताः।।4.28।।
।।4.28।।दूसरे कितने ही तीक्ष्ण व्रत करनेवाले प्रयत्नशील साधक द्रव्यसम्बन्धी यज्ञ करनेवाले हैं और कितने ही तपोयज्ञ करनेवाले हैं और दूसरे कितने ही योगयज्ञ करनेवाले हैं तथा कितने ही स्वाध्यायरूप ज्ञानयज्ञ करनेवाले हैं।
4.28 Tatha, similarly; apare, others; are dravya-yajnah, perfomers of sacrifices through wealth-those sacrificers who spend wealth (dravya) in holy places under the idea of performing sacrifices; tapo-yajnah, performers of sacrifices through austerity, men of austerity, to whom austerity is a sacrifice; [This is according to Ast.-Tr.] yogayajnah, performers of sacrifice through yoga-those to whom the yoga consisting in the control of the vital forces, withdrawal of the organs, etc., is a sacrifice; and svadhyaya-jnana-yajnah, performers of sacrifices through study and knowledge. Sacrificers through study are those to whom the study of Rg-veda etc. accroding to rules is a sacrifice. And sacrificers through knowledge are those to whom proper understanding of the meaing of the scriptures is a sacrifice. Others are yatayah, ascetics, who are deligent; samsita-vratah, in following severe vows. Those whose vows (vratah) have been fully sharpened (samsita), made very rigid, are samsita-vratah. [Six kinds of sacrifices have been enumerated in this verse.] Further,
4.27-28 Sarvani etc. Dravyayajnak etc. Again all the activities of their sense-organs, the activities of their mind, and the activities of their vital airs, such as issuing through the mouth and nose, driving down the urine etc., other [seekers] established in the fire of concentration, named Yoga, which is the means for subduing the self i.e., the mind, and which is set ablaze by i.e., to be filled with, knowledge. The idea is this : With their intellect that has completely abandoned all other activities due to their concentration on the object, they receive the object that is being perceived on conceived. That has been stated in the Sivopanisad : When the intellect, concentrated on a certain object, not rejected, would not go to another object, at that time the meditation, remaining in the core of the objects, blossoms very much. Thus the Yoga-sacrifices are explained. So far the performers of the material-object-sacrifices, the austerity-sacrifices, and the yoga-sacrifices have been defined. Those, who are the performers of the svadhyaya-knowledge-sacrifices are defined now [as] -
4.28 Some Karma Yogins perform the sacrifice of material objects. Some worship the gods with materials honestly acired. Some practise charity, some engage themselves in sacrifices and in making oblations into the sacred fire. All these perform sacrifice with material objects. Some do the sacrifice of austerity by devoting themselves to Krcchra, Candrayana, fast, etc. Others perform the sacrifice of Yoga. Some devote themselves to making pilgrimages to sacred sanctuaries and holy places. Here the term Yoga means pilgrimages to sacred sancturaries and holy places as the context relates to aspects of Karma Yoga. Some are devoted to recitation of Vedic texts and some to learning their meaning. They are all devoted to the practice of self-control and of strict vows, i.e., they are men to steady resolution.
Dravyayajnaas tapoyajnaa yogayajnaastathaapare; Swaadhyaayajnaana yajnaashcha yatayah samshitavrataah.
dravya-yajñāḥ—offering one’s own wealth as sacrifice; tapaḥ-yajñāḥ—offering severe austerities as sacrifice; yoga-yajñāḥ—performance of eight-fold path of yogic practices as sacrifice; tathā—thus; apare—others; swādhyāya—cultivating knowledge by studying the scriptures; jñāna-yajñāḥ—those offer cultivation of transcendental knowledge as sacrifice; cha—also; yatayaḥ—these ascetics; sanśhita-vratāḥ—observing strict vows