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Bhagavad Gita Chapter 4 Verse 18

भगवद् गीता अध्याय 4 श्लोक 18

कर्मण्यकर्म यः पश्येदकर्मणि च कर्म यः।
स बुद्धिमान् मनुष्येषु स युक्तः कृत्स्नकर्मकृत्।।4.18।।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी ( भगवद् गीता 4.18)

।।4.18।।जो मनुष्य कर्ममें अकर्म देखता है और जो अकर्ममें कर्म देखता है वह मनुष्योंमें बुद्धिमान् है योगी है और सम्पूर्ण कर्मोंको करनेवाला है।

Rudra Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Showing the mysterious intricacies of action and inaction is being delineated by Lord Krishna. One who sees inactions in actions such as yagna or the worship of the Supreme Lord and who sees that such worship is actually non-action as it leads to knowledge and having no reactions does not bind one to material existence. This person understands. Similarly one who sees action in inaction such as the non-performance of prescribed activities such as Ekadasi vrata or completely abstaining from all grains on the 11th day of the waxing moon and waning moon when not performed results in sinful reactions and binds one to material existence and who sees that such abstention is actually action within inaction is properly situated. Lord Krishna actually praises such a person as being of superior intelligence by dint of their comprehension and subsequent application of this esoteric subject matter. The word yuktah means yogi or one dedicated to the science of the individual consciousness in communion with the ultimate consciousness. This verse verifies previous verse II.XXXXVI with actions offered to the Lord, verse III.IV by not performing actions and verse III.XVII the redundance of action once moksa or liberation is achieved. In action even when the body and senses are active one who realises the atma or soul is distinct from the physical body sees these actions as inaction. Contrarily one who is void of knowledge sees action as inaction due to avoiding actions because they are troublesome and difficult, for this person the non-performance of action is hypocritical as revealed in verse III.VI and is an obstruction to knowledge. The performer of actions situated in knowledge of the atma observes the performance of Vedic activities naturally in action and inaction as they come of their own accord. So thus being guided by the atma within there is no scope or possibility for such a person to perform a prohibited act or to not perform prescribed acts as they come of their own accord. Thus it should be noted that the nature of prohibited actions is included as well.

Brahma Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

In this verse Lord Krishna delineates the intricate and subtle forms of actions. When a person performing karma or prescribed Vedic activities resolves with certitude that the action performed is solely for the Supreme Lord and not for the one performing the action whose consciousness is merely a minute reflection of the ultimate consciousness then does realisation begin to dawn within and all actions performed by such a one are factually inaction. Then one realises that all actions performed are actually performed by the Supreme Being Himself in the same consciousness as when the Supreme Reality even creates the universes. This person is spiritually intelligent and situated in true wisdom, for such a person is verily in communion with the Supreme Consciousness and even when this person is not performing any actions, such a person should be understood to be performing all actions and the knower of all actions. Now begins the summation. Karma or actions are the nature of all living beings. This is because they are not the actual performer of any action and are dependent. Akarma or inaction is the nature of the Supreme Lord because of His being independent and the factual performer of all actions. The living beings accept karma and reactions to actions when egoism is present in the belief that one is the doer or thinks that the actions were performed by them. In the Narada Purana it states that since the Supreme Lord Krishna is never bound by cause and effect all His actions are to be understood as inaction. In the Pancharatra it is noted that the word krtsna has the attribute of not being perceptible in regards to activities. This denotes that all actions are under the control of the Supreme Lord. Since all material actions are visible to the living beings, what is not visible is the karma or reactions that come with the actions that the living beings are forced to accept due to having desires for the rewards of their actions and this perpetual desire to enjoy causes tem to perform actions which keeps them attached.

Shri Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Action is karma and inaction is akarma. Actions concerning the atma or soul which is the essential subject to be known in human existence is also considered akarma. How this is to be understood Lord Krishna is explaining here. There are two categories to be considered. 1) The person who performs actions while continuously contemplating the atma 2) The person who immersed within the atma perceives the atma performs all actions One who by contemplating the true nature of the atma while performing all activities is in the first category. One who conceives the nature of all activities as actually the doings of the atma is in the second category. By actually performing prescribed Vedic activities with ones body and at the same time meditating upon it within ones mind, the objective as well the subjective realisations are achieved and the true nature of the atma is perceived. Whoever sees that karma is within akarma in regards to atma tattva or knowledge o the soul. Such a person is considered to be situated in wisdom and conversant with the ultimate purport of the Vedic scriptures. Such a spiritually intelligent person has realised the essence of all Vedic teachings and has qualified themselves for moksa or liberation from material existence.

Kumara Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Action is karma and inaction is akarma. Actions concerning the atma or soul which is the essential subject to be known in human existence is also considered akarma. How this is to be understood Lord Krishna is explaining here. There are two categories to be considered. 1) The person who performs actions while continuously contemplating the atma 2) The person who immersed within the atma perceives the atma performs all actions One who by contemplating the true nature of the atma while performing all activities is in the first category. One who conceives the nature of all activities as actually the doings of the atma is in the second category. By actually performing prescribed Vedic activities with ones body and at the same time meditating upon it within ones mind, the objective as well the subjective realisations are achieved and the true nature of the atma is perceived. Whoever sees that karma is within akarma in regards to atma tattva or knowledge o the soul. Such a person is considered to be situated in wisdom and conversant with the ultimate purport of the Vedic scriptures. Such a spiritually intelligent person has realised the essence of all Vedic teachings and has qualified themselves for moksa or liberation from material existence.