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Bhagavad Gita Chapter 4 Verse 15

भगवद् गीता अध्याय 4 श्लोक 15

एवं ज्ञात्वा कृतं कर्म पूर्वैरपि मुमुक्षुभिः।
कुरु कर्मैव तस्मात्त्वं पूर्वैः पूर्वतरं कृतम्।।4.15।।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी ( भगवद् गीता 4.15)

।।4.15।।पूर्वकालके मुमुक्षुओंने भी इस प्रकार जानकर कर्म किये हैं इसलिये तू भी पूर्वजोंके द्वारा सदासे किये जानेवाले कर्मोंको ही (उन्हींकी तरह) कर।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी तेजोमयानंद

।।4.15।। पूर्व के मुमुक्ष पुरुषों द्वारा भी इस प्रकार जानकर ही कर्म किया गया है इसलिये तुम भी पूर्वजों द्वारा सदा से किये हुए कर्मों को ही करो।।

हिंदी टीका - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी

 4.15।। व्याख्या   नवें श्लोकमें भगवान्ने अपने कर्मोंकी दिव्यताका जो प्रसङ्ग आरम्भ किया था उसका यहाँ उपसंहार करते हैं।एवं ज्ञात्वा कृतं कर्म पूर्वैरपि मुमुक्षुभिः अर्जुन मुमुक्षु थे अर्थात् अपना कल्याण चाहते थे। परन्तु युद्धरूपसे प्राप्त अपने कर्तव्यकर्मको करनेमें उन्हें अपना कल्याण नहीं दीखता प्रत्युत वे उसको घोरकर्म समझकर उसका त्याग करना चाहते हैं (गीता 3। 1)। इसलिये भगवान् अर्जुनको पूर्वकालके मुमुक्षु पुरुषोंका उदाहरण देते हैं कि उन्होंने भी अपनेअपने कर्तव्यकर्मोंका पालन करके कल्याणकी प्राप्ति की है इसलिये तुम्हें भी उनकी तरह अपने कर्तव्यका पालन करना चाहिये।तीसरे अध्यायके बीसवें श्लोकमें जनकादिका उदाहरण देकर तथा इसी (चौथे) अध्यायके पहलेदूसरे श्लोकोंमें विवस्वान् मनु इक्ष्वाकु आदिका उदाहरण देकर भगवान्ने जो बातें कही थी वही बात इस श्लोकमें भी कह रहे हैं।शास्त्रोंमें ऐसी प्रसिद्धि है कि मुमुक्षा जाग्रत् होनेपर कर्मोंका स्वरूपसे त्याग कर देना चाहिये क्योंकि मुमुक्षाके बाद मनुष्य कर्मका अधिकारी नहीं होता प्रत्युत ज्ञानका अधिकारी हो जाता है (टिप्पणी प0 238)। परन्तु यहाँ भगवान् कहते हैं कि मुमुक्षुओंने भी कर्मयोगका तत्त्व जानकर कर्म किये हैं। इसलिये मुमुक्षा जाग्रत् होनेपर भी अपने कर्तव्यकर्मोंका त्याग नहीं करना चाहिये प्रत्युत निष्कामभावपूर्वक कर्तव्यकर्म करते रहना चाहिये।कर्मयोगका तत्त्व है कर्म करते हुए योगमें स्थित रहना और योगमें स्थित रहते हुए कर्म करना। कर्म संसारके लिये और योग अपने लिये होता है। कर्मोंको करना और न करना दोनों अवस्थाएँ हैं। अतः प्रवृत्ति (कर्म करना) और निवृत्ति (कर्म न करना) दोनों ही प्रवृत्ति (कर्म करना) है। प्रवृत्ति और निवृत्ति दोनोंसे ऊँचा उठ जाना योग है जो पूर्ण निवृत्ति है। पूर्ण निवृत्ति कोई अवस्था नहीं है।चौदहवें श्लोकमें भगवान्ने कहा कि कर्मफलमें मेरी स्पृहा नहीं है इसलिये मुझे कर्म नहीं बाँधते। जो मनुष्य कर्म करनेकी इस विद्या(कर्मयोग) को जानकर फलेच्छाका त्याग करके कर्म करता है वह भी कर्मोंसे नहीं बँधता कारण कि फलेच्छासे ही मनुष्य बँधता है फले सक्तो निबध्यते (गीता 5। 12)। अगर मनुष्य अपने सुखभोगके लिये अथवा धन मान बड़ाई स्वर्ग आदिकी प्राप्तिके लिये कर्म करता है तो वे कर्म उसे बाँध देते हैं (गीता 3। 9)। परन्तु यदि उसका लक्ष्य उत्पत्तिविनाशशील संसार नहीं है प्रत्युत वह संसारसे सम्बन्धविच्छेद करनेके लिये निःस्वार्थ सेवाभावसे केवल दूसरोंके हितके लिये कर्म करता है तो वे कर्म उसे बाँधते नहीं (गीता 4। 23)। कारण कि दूसरोंके लिये कर्म करनेसे कर्मोंका प्रवाह संसारकी तरफ हो जाता है जिससे कर्मोंका सम्बन्ध (राग) मिट जाता है और फलेच्छा न रहनेसे नया सम्बन्ध पैदा नहीं होता।कुरु कर्मैव तस्मात्त्वं पूर्वैः पूर्वतरं कृतम् इन पदोंसे भगवान् अर्जुनको आज्ञा दे रहे हैं कि तू मुमुक्षु है इसलिये जैसे पहले अन्य मुमुक्षुओंने लोकहितार्थ कर्म किये हैं ऐसे ही तू भी संसारके हितके लिये कर्म कर।शरीर इन्द्रियाँ मन आदि कर्मकी सब सामग्री अपनेसे भिन्न तथा संसारसे अभिन्न है। वह संसारकी है और संसारकी सेवाके लिये ही मिली है। उसे अपनी मानकर अपने लिये कर्म करनेसे कर्मोंका सम्बन्ध अपने साथ हो जाता है। जब सम्पूर्ण कर्म केवल दूसरोंके हितके लिये किये जाते हैं तब कर्मोंका सम्बन्ध हमारे साथ नहीं रहता। कर्मोसे सर्वथा सम्बन्धविच्छेद होनेपर योग अर्थात् परमात्माके साथ हमारे नित्यसिद्ध सम्बन्धका अनुभव हो जाता है जो कि पहलेसे ही है। सम्बन्ध   पूर्वश्लोकमें एवं ज्ञात्वा कृतं कर्म पदोंसे कर्मोंको जाननेकी बात कही गयी थी। अब भगवान् आगेके श्लोकसे कर्मोंको तत्त्व से जाननेके लिये प्रकरण आरम्भ करते हैं।

हिंदी टीका - स्वामी चिन्मयानंद जी

।।4.15।। परमात्मा में कर्तृत्व तथा फलासक्ति का अभाव है और उस आत्मस्वरूप का साक्षात् अनुभव कर लेने पर साधक में न इच्छा रहती है और न अहंकार जनित अन्य वृत्तियाँ। पूर्व अध्याय में वर्णित कर्मयोग का आचरण प्राचीन समय में अनेक बुद्धिमान मुमुक्ष पुरुषों ने किया था। अर्थ यह हुआ कि यह मार्ग कोई नवीन नहीं है।आपके उपदेशमात्र से मैं कर्मयोग का पालन करूँगा किन्तु इसमें पूर्व के मुमुक्षुओं का सन्दर्भ देने की क्या आवश्यकता है इसके उत्तर में भगवान् कहते हैं क्योंकि कर्म क्या है इस विषय को समझने में कठिनाई है कैसे कहते हैं

English Translation - Swami Gambirananda

4.15 Having known thus, duties were performed even by the ancient seekers of Liberation. Thererfore you undertake action itself as was performed earlier by the ancient ones.

English Translation - Swami Sivananda

4.15 Having known this, the ancient seekers after freedom also performed action; therefore do thou also perform action, as did the ancients in days of yore.

English Translation - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

4.15. Realizing in this fashion, action had been under-taken also by ancient seekers of salvation. Hence, you too should perform, by all means, the more ancient action that had been performed by the ancients.

English Commentary - Swami Sivananda

4.15 एवं thus? ज्ञात्वा having known? कृतम् (was) done? कर्म action? पूर्वैः by ancients? अपि also? मुमुक्षुभिः seekers after freedom? कुरु perform? कर्म action? एव even? तस्मात् therefore? त्वम् thou? पूर्वैः by ancients?,पूर्वतरम् in the olden time? कृतम् done.Commentary Knowing thus that the Self can have no desire for the fruits of actions and cannot be tainted by them? and knowing that no one can be tainted if he works without egoism? attachment and expectation of fruits? do thou perform your duty.If your heart is impure? perform actions for its purification. If you have attained AtmaJnana or the knowledge of the Self? work for the wellbeing of the world. The ancients such as Janaka and others performed actions in the days of yore. So do thou also perform action.

English Translation of Sanskrit Commentary By Sri Shankaracharya's

4.15 Jnatva, having known; evam, thus, that I am not an agent; I have no desire for the results of actions; karma, duties; krtam, were undertaken; api, even; purvaih, by the ancient; mumuksubhih, seekers of Liberation. Tasmat, therefore; tvam, you; kuru, undertake; karma, action; eva, itself. You ought not to sit ietly, or even renounce. Therefore, you (undertake actions) because they were performed by the ancients as well-if you have no Self-knowledge, then (undertake actions) for self-purification; or, if you have Self-knowledge, then (undertake actions) in order to prevent people from going astray-, as were krtam, performed; purvataram, earlier; purvaih, by the ancient ones, Janaka and others; not actions as are undertaken in the present day. [This last portion of the sentence is translated by some as follows: You should not undertake actions which are done in the present manner (i.e. do not perform actions in the manner undertakne by people nowadays, which neither purifies the mind nor helps people). (See G1. Pr. p. 114.) If action has to be undertaken here, then I shall do so following Your instruction itself. What is the use of specifying that it was done earlier by the ancient ones? The answer is: Because there is a great difficult as regards actions. How?

English Translation of Commentary - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

4.15 Evam etc. Therefore being purified by this [sort of] conviction you too should perform actions that are to be necessarily performed. But, if it is said that success would result just from the non-performance of action, that is not correct. For -

English Translation of Ramanuja's Sanskrit Commentary

4.15 Actions of the kind described above were performed even by the aspirants of old for liberation, who have become free from evil after knowing Me in this way. Therefore, after having got rid of the sins by knowledge of Me in the aforesaid way, perform actions in the same way as they were performed by those ancients like Vivasvan, Manu etc., in olden times, in the way in which their performance was taught by Me even then. I shall declare it again in what follows. Sri Krsna stresses the difficulty of undertaking the type of Karma that is going to be taught now.

Commentary - Chakravarthi Ji

Understanding how I have acted without being bound, previously person like Janaka performed karma in order to promote it with the people.

Rudra Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Beginning from the previous four verse where Lord Krishna explains: In whatever way one worships Him then that offering He will accept. By this He refuted any conception of partiality of God and allowed Him to propound karma yoga or the performance of prescribed Vedic activities according to status and position in life. Thus knowing that actions performed without egoism do not bind one to material nature. Ancient seekers of moksa or liberation such as King Janaka the father of Sita who performed great deeds of yore for the benefit of the world and for purification of their minds. Therefore Lord Krishna is encouraging Arjuna to follow in their footsteps.

Brahma Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Even after realising the eternally, transcendental position of the Supreme Lord one should still perform Vedic actions as a matter of principle following the tradition of the ancients. The performance of Vedic actions of the ancients means without desires or attachments.

Shri Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Understanding Lord Krishna as delineated in the previous verses did the ancient seers and sages perform Vedic activities dedicated to Him and thus achieved moksa or liberation from material existence. He is encouraging Arjuna to perform karma yoga or prescribed Vedic activities as the ancients such as Visvavan and Manu performed it in knowledge of Him.

Kumara Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Understanding Lord Krishna as delineated in the previous verses did the ancient seers and sages perform Vedic activities dedicated to Him and thus achieved moksa or liberation from material existence. He is encouraging Arjuna to perform karma yoga or prescribed Vedic activities as the ancients such as Visvavan and Manu performed it in knowledge of Him.

Transliteration Bhagavad Gita 4.15

Evam jnaatwaa kritam karma poorvair api mumukshubhih; Kuru karmaiva tasmaat twam poorvaih poorvataram kritam.

Word Meanings Bhagavad Gita 4.15

evam—thus; jñātvā—knowing; kṛitam—performed; karma—actions; pūrvaiḥ—of ancient times; api—indeed; mumukṣhubhiḥ—seekers of liberation; kuru—should perform; karma—duty; eva—certainly; tasmāt—therefore; tvam—you; pūrvaiḥ—of those ancient sages; pūrva-taram—in ancient times; kṛitam—performed