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Bhagavad Gita Chapter 3 Verse 29

भगवद् गीता अध्याय 3 श्लोक 29

प्रकृतेर्गुणसम्मूढाः सज्जन्ते गुणकर्मसु।
तानकृत्स्नविदो मन्दान्कृत्स्नविन्न विचालयेत्।।3.29।।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी ( भगवद् गीता 3.29)

।।3.29।।प्रकृतिजन्य गुणोंसे अत्यन्त मोहित हुए अज्ञानी मनुष्य गुणों और कर्मोंमें आसक्त रहते हैं। उन पूर्णतया न समझनेवाले मन्दबुद्धि अज्ञानियोंको पूर्णतया जाननेवाला ज्ञानी मनुष्य विचलित न करे।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी तेजोमयानंद

।।3.29।। प्रकृति के गुणों से मोहित हुए पुरुष गुण और कर्म में आसक्त होते हैं उन अपूर्ण ज्ञान वाले (अकृत्स्नविद) मंदबुद्धि पुरुषों को पूर्ण ज्ञान प्राप्त पुरुष विचलित न करे।।

हिंदी टीका - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी

 3.29।। व्याख्या   प्रकृतेर्गुणसंमूढाः सज्जन्ते गुणकर्मसु सत्त्व रज और तम ये तीनों प्रकृतिजन्य गुण मनुष्यको बाँधनेवाले हैं। सत्त्वगुण सुख और ज्ञानकी आसक्तिसे रजोगुण कर्मकी आसक्तिसे और तमोगुण प्रमाद आलस्य तथा निद्रासे मनुष्यको बाँधता है (गीता 14। 6 8)। उपर्युक्त पदोंमें उन अज्ञानियोंका वर्णन है जो प्रकृतिजन्य गुणोंसे अत्यन्त मोहित अर्थात् बँधे हुए हैं परन्तु जिनका शास्त्रोंमें शास्त्रविहित शुभकर्मोंमें तथा उन कर्मोंके फलोंमें श्रद्धाविश्वास है। इसी अध्यायके पचीसवेंछब्बीसवें श्लोकोंमें ऐसे अज्ञानी पुरुषोंका सक्ताः अविद्वांसः और कर्मसङ्गिनाम् अज्ञानाम् नामसे वर्णन हुआ है। लौकिक और पारलौकिक भोगोंकी कामनाके कारण ये पुरुष पदार्थों और कर्मोंमें आसक्त रहते हैं। इस कराण इनसे ऊँचे उठनेकी बात समझ नहीं सकते। इसीलिये भगवान्ने इन्हें अज्ञानी कहा है।तानकृत्स्नविदो मन्दान् अज्ञानी मनुष्य शुभकर्म तो करते हैं पर करते हैं नित्यनिरन्तर न रहनेवाले नाशवान् पदार्थोंकी प्राप्तिके लिये। धनादि प्राप्त पदार्थोंमें वे ममता रखते हैं और अप्राप्त पदार्थोंकी कामना करते हैं। इस प्रकार ममता और कामनासे बँधे रहनेके कारण वे गुणों (पदार्थों) और कर्मोंके तत्त्वको पूर्णरूपसे नहीं जान सकते।अज्ञानी मनुष्य शास्त्रविहित कर्म और उनकी विधिको तो ठीक तरहसे जानते हैं पर गुणों और कर्मोंके तत्त्वको ठीक तरहसे न जाननेके कारण उन्हें अकृत्सनविदः (पूर्णतया न जाननेवाले) कहा गया है और सांसारिक भोग तथा संग्रहमें रुचि होनेके कारण उन्हें मन्दान् (मन्दबुद्धि) कहा गया है।कृत्स्नविन्न विचालयेत् गुण और कर्मविभागको पूर्णतया जाननेवाले तथा कामनाममतासे रहित ज्ञानी पुरुषको चाहिये कि वह पूर्ववर्णित (सकाम भावपूर्वक शुभकर्मोंमें लगे हुए) अज्ञानी पुरुषोंको शुभकर्मोंसेविचलित न करें जिससे वे मन्दबुद्धि पुरुष अपनी वर्तमान स्थितिसे नीचे न गिर जायँ। इसी अध्यायके पचीसवेंछब्बीसवें श्लोकोंमें ऐसे ज्ञानी पुरुषोंका असक्तः विद्वान् और युक्तः विद्वान् नामसे वर्णन हुआ है।भगवान्ने तत्त्वज्ञ महापुरुषको पचीसवें श्लोकमें कुर्यात् पदसे स्वयं कर्म करनेकी तथा छब्बीसवें श्लोकमें जोषयेत् पदसे अज्ञानी पुरुषोंसे भी वैसे ही कर्म करवानेकी आज्ञा दी थी। परन्तु यहाँ भगवान्ने न विचालयेत् पदोंसे वैसी आज्ञा न देकर मानो उसमें कुछ ढील दी है कि ज्ञानी पुरुष अधिक नहीं तो कमसेकम अपने संकेत वचन और क्रियासे अज्ञानी पुरुषोंको विचलित न करे। कारण कि जीवन्मुक्त महापुरुषपर भगवान् और शास्त्र अपना शासन नहीं रखते। उनके कहलानेवाले शरीरसे स्वतःस्वाभाविक लोकसंग्रहार्थ क्रियाएँ हुआ करती हैं (टिप्पणी प0 166)। तत्त्वज्ञ महापुरुष कर्मयोगी हो अथवा ज्ञानयोगी सम्पूर्ण कर्म करते हुए भी उसका कर्मों और पदार्थोंके साथ किसी प्रकारका सम्बन्ध स्वतः नहीं रहता जो वस्तुतः था नहीं।अज्ञानी मनुष्य स्वर्गप्राप्तिके लिये शुभकर्म किया करते हैं। इसलिये भगवान्ने ऐसे मनुष्योंको विचलित न करनेकी आज्ञा दी है अर्थात् वे महापुरुष अपने संकेत वचन और क्रियासे ऐसी कोई बात प्रकट न करें जिससे उन सकाम पुरुषोंकी शास्त्रविहित शुभकर्मोंमें अश्रद्धा अविश्वास या अरुचि पैदा हो जाय और वे उन कर्मोंका त्याग कर दें क्योंकि ऐसा करनेसे उनका पतन हो सकता है। इसलिये ऐसे पुरुषोंको सकामभावसे विचलित करना है शास्त्रीय कर्मोंसे नहीं। जन्ममरणरूप बन्धनसे छुटकारा दिलानेके लिये उन्हें सकामभावसे विचलित करना उचित भी है और आवश्यक भी। सम्बन्ध   जिससे मनुष्य कर्मोंमें फँस जाता है उस कर्म और कर्मफलकी आसक्तिसे छूटनेके लिये क्या करना चाहिये इसको भगवान् आगेके श्लोकमें बताते हैं।

हिंदी टीका - स्वामी चिन्मयानंद जी

।।3.29।। यद्यपि अनेक लोग सामान्य रूप से यह जानते हैं कि मन में स्थित वासनायें ही स्वयं को पूर्ण करने के लिये जगत् में कर्म बनकर व्यक्त होती हैं परन्तु केवल ज्ञानी पुरुष ही इस सत्य से पूर्णतया परिचित सब कर्मों में शांत और अनासक्त रहता है। बहुसंख्यक लोग तो पूर्णरूप से मोहित हुये अपनी ही वासनाओं के शिकार बने रहते हैं। वासनाओं से तरंगायित कर्मरूप जीवन के प्रवाह में बाधा उत्पन्न करने का प्रयत्न नहीं करना चाहिये। 26वें श्लोक में विद्वान् पुरुष को दी गयी सम्मति को ही यहाँ दूसरे शब्दों में उस पर बल देने के लिये दोहराया गया है।मन्दबुद्धि अज्ञानी एवं आसक्त पुरुषों को कर्म से विचलित न करके ज्ञानी को चाहिए कि उन्हें शनै शनै सही मार्ग पर लाने का प्रयत्न करे। इस प्रकार ज्ञानी पुरुष द्वारा सुनिर्दिष्ट प्रवाह संस्कृति के उद्यान को सींचता हुआ वैयत्तिक और सामाजिक उन्नति के स्वप्न को साकार कर सकेगा।कर्म में ही अधिकृत अज्ञानी पुरुष को अपने बन्धनों से मुक्त होने के लिये किस प्रकार कर्म करना चाहिए उत्तर है

English Translation - Swami Gambirananda

3.29 Those who are wholly deluded by the gunas of Nature become attached to the activities of the gunas. The knower of the All should not disturb those of dull intellect, who do not know the All.

English Translation - Swami Sivananda

3.29 Those deluded by the alities of Nature are attached to the functions of the alities. The man of perfect knowledge should not unsettle the foolish one who is of imperfect knowledge.

English Translation - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

3.29. Men, completely deluded by the Strands of the Prakrti, are attached to the actions of the Strands. Man, who know fully, should not confuse them, the dullard, who do not know fully.

English Commentary - Swami Sivananda

3.29 प्रकृतेः of nature? गुणसंमूढाः persons deluded by the Gunas? सज्जन्ते are attached? गुणकर्मसु in the functions of the alities? तान् those? अकृत्स्नविदः of imperfect knowledge? मन्दान् the foolish (thedullwitted)? कृत्स्नवित् man of perfect knowledge? न not? विचालयेत् should unsettle.Commentary The ignorant people do action with the expectation of fruits. The wise people who have the knowledge of the Self should not distract the faith or conviction or belief of such ignorant persons. If they unsettle their minds they will give up actions and become victims of inertia. They will lead an idle life. They should be encouraged by the wise to do actions of the Sakama type (actions for the sake of their fruits) in the beginning. The wise ones should turn the minds of the ignorant by giving them gradual instructions on Karma Yoga (Yoga of selfless? desireless action) and its benefits? viz.? purification of the heart that leads to the attainment of Selfrealisation.

English Translation of Sanskrit Commentary By Sri Shankaracharya's

3.29 Those again, guna-sammudhah, who are wholly deluded by the gunas; prakrteh, of Nature; sajjante, become attached; guna karmasu, to the activities of the gunas, thining, We do actions for results. Krtsna-vit, the knower of the All, one who is himself a knower of the Self; na vicalayet, should not disturb; tan, those who are attached to actions; (who are) mandan, of dull intellect; akrtsnavidah, who do not know the All, who are all attention on the results of actions. Unsetting of beliefs is itself the disturbance. That he should not do. This is the idea. Again, in what manner should duties be under-taken by a seeker after Liberation who is not enlightened, who is alified for actions (rites and duties)? As to this, the answer is being stated:

English Translation of Commentary - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

3.29 Prakrteh etc. The deluded persons, under the influence of the Strands, Sattva etc., are attached to the actions performed by the Sattva etc., which are the Strands belonging to the Prakrti. In the same context (III, 26) it has been said : Therefore being a master of Yoga, let [the wise] fulfil actions. How to do that ? [The Lord] clarifies :

English Translation of Ramanuja's Sanskrit Commentary

3.29 Those who do not know the whole truth are those persons who are trying for the vision of the self but are deluded about the nature of the self, not knowing, on account of their involvement in Prakrti, that actions proceed from the Gunas of Prakrti. They are therefore attached to the actions of the Gunas - i.e., only to actions forming part of Karma Yoga. They are alified only for Karma Yoga. One who knows the complete truth should not, by himself remaining a practitioner of Jnana Yoga, unsettle those persons who are ignorant and who do not know the complete truth. Those, the ignorant, who tend to follow the behaviour of a great man, when they see him transcend Karma Yoga, will have their minds shaken from Karma Yoga. Thus, the great man, should himself remain established in Karma Yoga, while having the full knowledge of the true nature of the self and contemplating on the self as not being the agent. Thus he should demonstrate that Karma Yoga by itself is an autonomous means for the vision of the self. He should create in those who do not know the complete truth the love of Karma Yoga. The superiority of this Karma Yoga over Jnana Yoga even for those who are alified for Jnana Yoga has already been stated. Therefore one who is a respected person of note should follow this Karma Yoga alone for the good of the world. The method of performing actions after attributing agency to the Gunas by discerning the nature of the self as different from Prakrti, has been taught. The agency of the self is not produced by the inherent nature of the self, but by its contact with the Gunas. Hence by discriminating between what is obtained by contact and not obtained when there is no contact, it has to be understood that this agency is due to the Gunas or Prakrti. Now it is said that the agency of works, first attributed to Gunas, ultimately go to the Supreme Person who is the Self of all. It is done by discerning that the nature of the individual self is one of subservience to the Supreme Person, as they constitute His body:

Commentary - Chakravarthi Ji

If the jivas are separate from the senses and the sense objects without relationship to them, then why is it seen that people are attached to the sense objects? This verse answers. By  absorption  in  the  senses  made  of matter jivas  become bewildered. Just like a man possessed by a ghost thinks himself a ghost, the jivas absorbed in the senses made of matter think themselves to be the senses. Then they become attached to the sense objects (guna karmasu). The   man   who   knows all (krtsnavit) does not disturb those who are ignorant. He does not attempt to make them realize that they, as jivas, are different from the senses, that they are not the senses. Instead he engages them in action without desire, which will remove the absorption in the senses. One does not cure a man possessed of a ghost even by instructing him even a hundred times, “You are a man, not a ghost!” Instead one cures him by use of mantras, jewels and medicines which will remove that affliction.

Rudra Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

When Lord Krishna states that one should not disturb the minds, He is referring to the ignorant, all those who are still deluded by prakriti or the material nature and the three gunas or the modes of sattva or goodness, rajas or passion and tamas or nescience. One who is situated in the wisdom of Vedic knowledge should not unbalance the equilibrium of the ignorant who although attached to the results of actions are at least doing their daily duties.

Brahma Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The attributes of nature are those that are abducted by the senses thus delusion arises and the conception of false ego enjoying the sense objects impels a reaction. Lord Krishna uses the word guna-karmasu means the reactions from actions influenced by the modes of goodness, passion and nescience. Auditory and visual sense objects capture the attention of the senses being the ear and eye respectively and bring like or dislike to the mind. It should be understood that the impulses that come from the sense objects are secondary attributes and they have reactions and bind one to samsara the cycle of birth and death.

Shri Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The misinformed make attempts for atma-tattva or soul realisation but due to their ignorance of the true nature of the atma or soul and because of their acute identification with the physical body and the senses they are obstructed in their attempts by the influences of the three gunas being the mode of goodness, passion and nescience. Such a person is quickly brought under the control of the gunas by their association with sense objects and cannot divert these natural tendencies towards atma-tattva. Thus they are not qualified for jnana yoga or the cultivation of knowledge but are only competent for karma yoga or performing prescribed Vedic activities. The person situated in Vedic wisdom in jnana yoga after observing the meager capacities of the ignorant masses with their sluggish understanding should not attempt to convert them to jnana yoga from their easy to perform path of karma yoga. This is because it would be dangerous for the ignorant to give up the path of karma yoga to follow the path of jnana yoga when they are in no way qualified to do so. Leaving the path of karma yoga and unable to follow the path of jnana yoga they would having nothing and be at a loss in their lives. The conclusion is that one situated in Vedic wisdom and is a prominent leading figure in society should also perform prescribed Vedic activities in karma yoga even though such a person is a knower of atma-tattva. By acting in this way and performing Vedic activities without attachment lesser men will follow his example and perform in a like manner. It has been shown earlier in this chapter that even for jnana yogis the path of karma yoga is preferable, hence persons of Vedic wisdom who are leaders in society should also tread the path of karma yoga as beacons of light for the masses in the world. The method of performing karma yoga by understanding that the atma is distinct from the physical body and thus ascribing the activities of the senses to be from the influences of the gunas has been thoroughly described. One should contemplate and reflect on the atma and its essential nature which is purely spiritual. The atma performs no material activity but has association with actions through the gunas due to the conjunction with prakriti. Thus in association with prakriti there is doer ship with the atma and without association there is none. The next verse will explain the relationship between the senses and the gunas in regards to the Supreme Lord who is omniscient and omnipresent. Paramatma who is the Supreme Soul of all living entities evidenced by the fact that every individual soul constitutes His eternal, transcendental, spiritual body and are His eternal parts and parcels.

Kumara Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The misinformed make attempts for atma-tattva or soul realisation but due to their ignorance of the true nature of the atma or soul and because of their acute identification with the physical body and the senses they are obstructed in their attempts by the influences of the three gunas being the mode of goodness, passion and nescience. Such a person is quickly brought under the control of the gunas by their association with sense objects and cannot divert these natural tendencies towards atma-tattva. Thus they are not qualified for jnana yoga or the cultivation of knowledge but are only competent for karma yoga or performing prescribed Vedic activities. The person situated in Vedic wisdom in jnana yoga after observing the meager capacities of the ignorant masses with their sluggish understanding should not attempt to convert them to jnana yoga from their easy to perform path of karma yoga. This is because it would be dangerous for the ignorant to give up the path of karma yoga to follow the path of jnana yoga when they are in no way qualified to do so. Leaving the path of karma yoga and unable to follow the path of jnana yoga they would having nothing and be at a loss in their lives. The conclusion is that one situated in Vedic wisdom and is a prominent leading figure in society should also perform prescribed Vedic activities in karma yoga even though such a person is a knower of atma-tattva. By acting in this way and performing Vedic activities without attachment lesser men will follow his example and perform in a like manner. It has been shown earlier in this chapter that even for jnana yogis the path of karma yoga is preferable, hence persons of Vedic wisdom who are leaders in society should also tread the path of karma yoga as beacons of light for the masses in the world. The method of performing karma yoga by understanding that the atma is distinct from the physical body and thus ascribing the activities of the senses to be from the influences of the gunas has been thoroughly described. One should contemplate and reflect on the atma and its essential nature which is purely spiritual. The atma performs no material activity but has association with actions through the gunas due to the conjunction with prakriti. Thus in association with prakriti there is doer ship with the atma and without association there is none. The next verse will explain the relationship between the senses and the gunas in regards to the Supreme Lord who is omniscient and omnipresent. Paramatma who is the Supreme Soul of all living entities evidenced by the fact that every individual soul constitutes His eternal, transcendental, spiritual body and are His eternal parts and parcels.

Transliteration Bhagavad Gita 3.29

Prakriter gunasammoodhaah sajjante gunakarmasu; Taan akritsnavido mandaan kritsnavin na vichaalayet.

Word Meanings Bhagavad Gita 3.29

prakṛiteḥ—of material nature; guṇa—by the modes of material nature; sammūḍhāḥ—deluded; sajjante—become attached; guṇa-karmasu—to results of actions; tān—those; akṛitsna-vidaḥ—persons without knowledge; mandān—the ignorant; kṛitsna-vit—persons with knowledge; na vichālayet—should not unsettle