यामिमां पुष्पितां वाचं प्रवदन्त्यविपश्िचतः।
वेदवादरताः पार्थ नान्यदस्तीति वादिनः।।2.42।।
।।2.42 2.43।।हे पृथानन्दन जो कामनाओंमें तन्मय हो रहे हैं स्वर्गको ही श्रेष्ठ माननेवाले हैं वेदोंमें कहे हुए सकाम कर्मोंमें प्रीति रखनेवाले हैं भोगोंके सिवाय और कुछ है ही नहीं ऐसा कहनेवाले हैं वे अविवेकी मनुष्य इस प्रकारकी जिस पुष्पित (दिखाऊ शोभायुक्त) वाणीको कहा करते हैं जो कि जन्मरूपी कर्मफलको देनेवाली है तथा भोग और ऐश्वर्यकी प्राप्तिके लिये बहुतसी क्रियाओंका वर्णन करनेवाली है।
।।2.42।। हे पार्थ अविवेकी पुरुष वेदवाद में रमते हुये जो यह पुष्पिता (दिखावटी शोभा की) वाणी बोलते हैं? इससे (स्वर्ग से) बढ़कर और कुछ नहीं है।।।
।।2.42।। व्याख्या कामात्मानः वे कामनाओंमें इतने रचेपचे रहते हैं कि वे कामनारूप ही बन जाते हैं। उनको अपनेमें और कामनामें भिन्नता ही नहीं दीखती। उनका तो यही भाव होता है कि कामनाके बिना आदमी जी नहीं सकता कामनाके बिना कोई भी काम नहीं हो सकता कामनाके बिना आदमी पत्थरकी जड हो जाता है उसको चेतना भी नहीं रहती। ऐसे भाववाले पुरुष कामात्मानः हैं।स्वयं तो नित्यनिरन्तर ज्योंकात्यों रहता है उसमें कभी घटबढ़ नहीं होती पर कामना आतीजाती रहती है और घटतीबढ़ती है। स्वयं परमात्माका अंश है और कामना संसारके अंशको लेकर है। अतः स्वयं और कामना ये दोनों सर्वथा अलगअलग हैं। परन्तु कामनामें रचेपचे लोगोंको अपने स्वरूपका अलग भान ही नहीं होता। स्वर्गपराः स्वर्गमें बढ़ियासेबढ़िया दिव्य भोग मिलते हैं इसलिये उनके लक्ष्यमें स्वर्ग ही सर्वश्रेष्ठ होता है और वे उसकी प्राप्तिमें ही रातदिन लगे रहते हैं।यहाँ स्वर्गपराः पदसे उन मनुष्योंकी बात कही गयी है जो वेदोंमें शास्त्रोंमें वर्णित स्वर्गादि लोकोंमें आस्था रखनेवाले हैं। वेदवादरताः पार्थ नान्यदस्तीति वादिनः वे वेदोंमें कहे हुए सकाम कर्मोंमें प्रीति रखनेवाले हैं अर्थात् वेदोंका तात्पर्य वे केवल भोगोंमें और स्वर्गकी प्राप्तिमें मानते हैं इसलिये वे वेदवादरताः हैं। उनकी मान्यतामें यहाँके और स्वर्गके भोगोंके सिवाय और कुछ है ही नहीं अर्थात् उनकी दृष्टिमें भोगोंके सिवाय परमात्मा तत्त्वज्ञान मुक्ति भगवत्प्रेम आदि कोई चीज है ही नहीं। अतः वे भोगोंमें ही रचेपचे रहते हैं। भोग भोगना उनका मुख्य लक्ष्य रहता है। यामिमां पुष्पितां वाचं प्रवदन्त्यविपश्चितः जिनमें सत्असत् नित्यअनित्य अविनाशीविनाशीका विवेक नहीं है ऐसे अविवेकी मनुष्य वेदोंकी जिस वाणीमें संसार और भोगोंका वर्णन है उस पुष्पित वाणीको कहा करते हैं।यहाँ पुष्पिताम् कहनेका तात्पर्य है कि भोग और ऐश्वर्यकी प्राप्तिका वर्णन करनेवाली वाणी केवल फूलपत्ती ही है फल नहीं है। तृप्ति फलसे ही होती है फूलपत्तीकी शोभासे नहीं। वह वाणी स्थायी फल देनेवाली नहीं है। उस वाणीका जो फल स्वर्गादिका भोग है वह केवल देखनेमें ही सुन्दर दीखता है उसमें स्थायीपना नहीं है। जन्मकर्मफलप्रदाम् वह पुष्पित वाणी जन्मरूपी कर्मफलको देनेवाली है क्योंकि उसमें सांसारिक भोगोंको ही महत्व दिया गया है। उन भोगोंका राग ही आगे जन्म होनेमें कारण है (गीता 13। 21)। क्रियाविशेषबहुलां भोगैश्वर्यगतिं प्रति वह पुष्पित अर्थात् दिखाऊ शोभायुक्त वाणी भोग और ऐश्वर्यकी प्राप्तिके लिये जिन सकाम अनुष्ठानोंका वर्णन करती है उनमें क्रियाओंकी बहुलता रहती है अर्थात् उन अनुष्ठानोंमें अनेक तरहकी विधियाँ होती हैं अनेक तरहकी क्रियाएँ करनी पड़ती हैं अनेक तरहके पदार्थोंकी जरूरत पड़ती है एवं शरीर आदिमें परिश्रम भी अधिक होता है (गीता 18। 24)।
।।2.42।। no commentary.
2.42-2.43 O son of Prtha, those undiscerning people who utter this flowery talk which promises birth as a result of rites and duties, and is full of various special rites meant for the attainment of enjoyment and affluence , they remain engrossed in the utterances of the Vedas and declare that nothing else exists; their minds are full of desires and they have heaven as the goal.
2.42 Flowery speech is uttered by the unwise, taking pleasure in the eulogising words of the Vedas, O Arjuna, saying, There is nothing else.
2.42. - 2.43. O son of Prtha ! Those, whose very nature is desire, whose goal is heaven, who esteem only the Vedic declaration [of fruits], who declare that there is nothing else, who proclaim this flowery speech about the paths to the lordship of the objects of enjoyment-[the paths] that are full of different actionsand who desire action alone as a fruit of their birth-they are men without insight.
2.42 याम which? इमाम् this? पुष्पिताम् flowery? वाचम् speech? प्रवदन्ति utter? अविपश्चितः the unwise? वेदवादरताः takign pleasure in the eulogising words of the Vedas? पार्थ O Partha? न not? अन्यत् other? अस्ति is? इति thus? वादिनः saying.Commentary Unwise people who are lacking in discrimination lay great stress upon the Karma Kanda or the ritualistic portion of the Vedas? which lays down specific rules for specific actions for,the attainment of specific fruits and ectol these actions and rewards unduly. They are highly enamoured of such Vedic passages which prescribe ways for the attainment of heavenly enjoyments. They say that there is nothing else beyond the sensual enjoyments in Svarga (heaven) which can be obtained by performing the rites of the Karma Kanda of the Vedas.There are two main divisions of the Vedas -- Karma Kanda (the section dealing with action) and Jnana Kanda (the section dealing with knowledge). The Karma Kanda comprises the Brahmanas and the Samhitas. This is the authority for the Purvamimamsa school founded by Jaimini. The followers of this school deal with rituals and prescribe many of them for attaining enjoyments and power here and happiness in heaven. They regard this as the ultimate object of human existence. Ordinary people are attracted by their panegyrics. The Jnana Kanda comprises the Aranyakas and the Upanishads which deal with the nature of Brahman or the Supreme Self.Life in heaven is also transitory. After the fruits of the good actions are exhausted? one has to come back to this earthplane. Liberatio or Moksha can only be attained by knowledge of the Self but not by performing a thousand and one sacrifices.Lord Krishna assigns a comparatively inferior position to the doctrine of the Mimamsakas of performing Vedic sacrifices for obtaining heaven? power and lordship in this world as they cannot give us final liberation.
2.42 Partha, O son of Prtha; those devoid of one-pointed conviction, who pravadanti, utter; imam, this; yam puspitam vacam, flowery talk, which is going to be stated, which is beautiful like a tree in bloom, pleasant to hear, and appears to be (meaningful) sentences [Sentences that can be called really meaningful are only those that reveal the self.-Tr.]; who are they? they are avipascitah, people who are undiscerning, of poor intellect, i.e. non-discriminating; veda-vada-ratah, who remain engrossed in the utterances of the Vedas, in the Vedic sentences which reveal many panegyrics, fruits of action and their means; and vadinah, who declare, are apt tosay; iti, that; na anyat, nothing else [God, Liberation, etc.]; asti, exists, apart from the rites and duties conducive to such results as attainment of heaven etc. And they are kamatmanah, have their minds full of desires, i.e. they are swayed by desires, they are, by nature, full of desires; (and) svarga-parah, have heaven as the goal. Those who accept heaven (svarga) as the supreme (para) human goal, to whom heaven is the highest, are svarga-parah. They utter that speech ( this is supplied to construct the sentence ) which janma-karma-phala-pradam, promises birth as a result of rites and duties. The result (phala) of rites and duties (karma) is karma-phala. Birth (janma) itself is the karma-phala. That (speech) which promises this is janma-karma-phala-prada. (This speech) is kriya-visesa-bahulam, full of various special rites; bhoga-aisvarya-gatim-prati, for the attainment of enjoyment and affluence. Special (visesa) rites (kriya) are kriya-visesah. The speech that is full (bahula) of these, the speech by which that is full (bahula) of these, the speech by which these, viz objects such as heaven, animals and sons, are revealed plentifully, is kriya-visesa-bahula. Bhoga, enjoyment, and aisvarya, affluence, are bhoga-aisvarya. Their attainment (gatih) is bhoga-aisvarya-gatih. (They utter a speech) that is full of the specialized rites, prati, meant for that (attainment). The fools who utter that speech move in the cycle of transmigration. This is the idea.
2.42 See Comment under 2.44
2.42 - 2.44 The ignorant, whose knowledge is little, and who have as their sole aim the attainment of enjoyment and power, speak the flowery language i.e., having its flowers (show) only as fruits, which look apparently beautiful at first sight. They rejoice in the letter of the Vedas i.e., they are attached to heaven and such other results (promised in the Karma-kanda of the Vedas). They say that there is nothing else, owing to their intense attachment to these results. They say that there is no fruit superior to heaven etc. They are full of worldly desires and their minds are highly attached to secular desires. They hanker for heaven, i.e. think of the enjoyment of the felicities of heaven, after which one can again have rirth which offers again the opportunity to perform varied rites devoid of true knowledge and leads towards the attainment of enjoyments and power once again. With regard to those who cling to pleasure and power and whose understanding is contaminated by that flowery speech relating to pleasure and lordly powers, the aforesaid mental disposition characterised by resolution, will not arise in their Samadhi. Samadhi here means the mind. The knowledge of the self will not arise in such minds. In the minds of these persons, there cannot arise the mental disposition that looks on all Vedic rituals as means for liberation based on the determined conviction about the real form of the self. Hence, in an aspirant for liberation, there should be no attachment to rituals out of the conviction that they are meant for the acisition of objects of desire only. It may be estioned why the Vedas, which have more of love for Jivas than thousands of parents, and which are endeavouring to save the Jivas, should prescribe in this way rites whose fruits are infinitesimal and which produce only new births. It can also be asked if it is proper to abandon what is given in the Vedas. Sri Krsna replies to these estions.
Text 42: This verse speaks of the persons with wavering intelligence, involved in sakama karma, who are very dull witted. They speak excellently (pra vadanti)16 pleasant words of the Vedas which are like a poisonous flowering plant. Since their consciousness has been deluded by those words, they are not endowed with fixed intelligence, (taya apahrta cetasam vyavasayatmika buddhih samadhau na vidhiyate). The sentence continues in verse 44. Because of the impossibility for them to accept, it is not taught to them. They speak in this way because they are fools (avipascitah), because they interpret the words of the Vedas (veda vada ratah) such as the following: aksayyam ha vai caturmasya-yajinah sukrtam bhavati One who has worshiped by means of the vows of caturmasya attains pious credits which never become depleted. Apastambha Srauta Sutra, Krishna Yajur Veda 8.1.1 apama somam amrta abhuma We drank soma and became immortal. Rg Veda 8.48.3 They say that there is no God other than this (na anyat asti). Text 43: What type of words do they speak? They speak words about various rites giving many results in terms of power and enjoyment, words which give good results of action in terms of birth.
One may wonder why is it that living entities filled with desire fail to relinquish even desires which are very difficult to fulfil and adhere in fixed determination to surrendering their actions to the Supreme Lord? This is now being answered that they are dull witted of limited understanding who consider heaven as the highest attainment. Why do they talk such nonsense? Because they are of dull wits and limited understanding. The reason for their dull wits is that they are enamoured by the panegyric euphemisms of the scriptures. Words like everlasting happiness, eternal life, resurrection and immortality are very appealing to those of limited understanding. With these thoughts motivating them they perform every actions for the attainment of these goals believing they can be attained independent of the mercy of the Supreme Lord
There is no commentary for this verse.
There is no commentary for this verse.
Why is it that the scholars who have studied the Vedas so fastidiously fail to possess the resolute intelligence? It is because they could not comprehend the essence of the Vedic scriptures and subsequently they missed understanding the true purport of the Vedas. This Lord Krishna emphasises with the word avipascitah meaning the ignorant who are not knowledgeable are attracted to flowery descriptions in the Vedas even as a beautiful flowery creeper may be attractive although it is poisonous. But these living entities are ignorant and not actual scholars of Vedanta because they are only devoted to those parts of the Vedas which help them secure material opulence in this life and the next. Such statements like by performing some ritual one can obtain imperishable merit or by drinking Soma nectar one can become immortal, etc. Their conception of devotion is being devoted to pursuing heavenly delights and they even foolishly argue that there is nothing more beyond the rewards of heavenly pleasures to attain. Why is this so for them? It is because their minds are obsessed by desires due to addiction to material pleasures experienced by contact with the senses of taste, touch, seeing, hearing and smelling. So they look upon heaven although heaven is still in the material existence as being the supreme goal. This is because in heaven there is neither old age or sickness, everything is beautiful and a wonder to behold and the facility to enjoy fully is increased a thousand fold. So all their activities in this life are enacted solely for the sake of accuring benefits in order to reside in the heavenly spheres where they can enjoy and enjoy for a seemingly unlimited time span. But when their merit has expired after enjoying the delights of heaven in various wonderful ways to their hearts content they will again take birth on earth in a rich and learned family who also are following the flowery phrases of the Vedas and they will again follow this path and at lifes end transmigrate to the heavenly planets once again to enact the process. By being born into situations of opulence and prosperity allows one ample means and facility to perform very extravagantly the various prescribed rituals such as astrologically performing activities on the auspicious days each month such as purnima to obtain the maximum result. Thus again and again from body to body they are continuously revolving like a waterwheel. In special situations Indra, the ruler of the demi-gods sometimes appoints one of them as a gandharva celestial musician or as an aspara celestial damsel among the demigods for the duration of time their merit warrants.
Yaam imaam pushpitaam vaacham pravadantyavipashchitah; Vedavaadarataah paartha naanyad asteeti vaadinah.
yām imām—all these; puṣhpitām—flowery; vācham—words; pravadanti—speak; avipaśhchitaḥ—those with limited understanding; veda-vāda-ratāḥ—attached to the flowery words of the Vedas; pārtha—Arjun, the son of Pritha; na anyat—no other; asti—is; iti—thus; vādinaḥ—advocate; kāma-ātmānaḥ—desirous of sensual pleasure; swarga-parāḥ—aiming to achieve the heavenly planets; janma-karma-phala—high birth and fruitive results; pradāṁ—awarding; kriyā-viśheṣha—pompous ritualistic ceremonies; bahulām—various; bhoga—gratification; aiśhwarya—luxury; gatim—progress; prati—toward