एषा तेऽभिहिता सांख्ये बुद्धिर्योगे त्विमां श्रृणु।
बुद्ध्यायुक्तो यया पार्थ कर्मबन्धं प्रहास्यसि।।2.39।।
2.39 O Partha, this wisdom has been imparted to you from the standpoint of Self-realization. But listen to this (wisdom) from the standpoint of Yoga, endowed with which wisdom you will get rid of the bondage of action.
2.39 This, which has been taught to thee, is wisdon concerning Sankhya. Now listen to wisdom concerning Yoga, endowed with which, O Arjuna, thou shalt cast off the bonds of action.
2.39. Listen, how this knowledge, imparted [to you] for your sankhya, is [also] for the Yoga; endowed with which knowledge you shall cast off the bondage of action, O son of Prtha !
2.39 एषा this? ते to thee? अभिहिता (is) declared? सांख्ये in Sankhya? बुद्धिः wisdom? योगे in the Yoga? तु indeed? इमाम् this? श्रृणु hear? बुद्ध्या with wisdom? युक्तः endowed with? यया which? पार्थ O Partha? कर्मबन्धम् bondage of Karma? प्रहास्यसि (thou) shalt cast off.Commentary Lord Krishna taught Jnana (knowledge) to Arjuna till now. (Sankhya Yoga is the path of Vedanta or Jnana Yoga? which treats of the nature of the Atman or the Self and the methods to attain Selfrealisation. It is not the Sankhya philosophy of sage Kapila.) He is now giving to teach Arjuna the technie or secret of Karma Yoga endowed with which he (or anybody else) can break through the bonds of Karma. The Karma Yogi should perform work without expectation of fruits of his actions? without the idea of agency (or the notin I do this)? without attachment? after annihilating or going beyond all the pairs of opposites such as heat and cold? gain and loss? victoyr and defeat? etc. Dharma and Adharma? or merit and demerit will not touch that Karma Yogi who works without attachment and egoism. The Karma Yogi consecrates all his works and their fruits as offerings unto the Lord (Isvararpanam) and thus obtains the grace of the Lord (Isvaraprasada).
2.39 Partha, O son of Prtha (Arjuna); esa, this; buddhih, wisdom, the Knowledge which directly removes the defect (viz ignorance) that is responsible for sorrow, delusion, etc. [Mundane existence consists of attraction and repulsion, agentship and enjoyership, etc. These are the defects, and they arise from ignorance about ones Self. Enlightenment is the independent and sole cause that removes this ignorance.] constituting mundane existence; abhihita, has been imparted; te, to you; sankhye, from the standpoint of Self-realization, with regard to the discriminating knowledge of the supreme Reality. Tu, but; srnu, listen; imam, to this wisdom which will be imparted presently; yoge, from the spandpoint of Yoga, from the standpoint of the means of attaining it (Knowledge) i.e., in the context of Karma-yoga, the performance of rites and duties with detachment after destroying the pairs of opposites, for the sake of adoring God, as also in the context of the practice of spiritual absorption. As as inducement, He (the Lord) praises that wisdom: Yuktah, endowed; yaya, with which; buddhya, wisdom concerning Yoga; O Partha, prahasyasi, you will get rid of; karma-bandham, the bondage of action action is itself the bondage described as righteousness and unrighteousness; you will get rid of that bondage by the attainment of Knowledge through Gods grace. This is the idea.
2.39 Esa te etc. And this knowledge in th form of determination has been declared [to you] for your sankhya, i.e., perfect knowledge. Now, how the self-same determinate knowledge is also taught for the Yoga i.e., dexerity in action - in that manner only you must listen to by means of which determinate knowledge you shall avoid the binding nature of the actions. Truely, the actions do not themselves bind as they are insentient. Hence, it is the Self which binds Itself by means of the actions in the form of mental impressions.
2.39 Sankhya means intellect, and the truth about the Atman, which is determinable by the intellect, is Sankhyam. Concerning the nature of the self which has to be known, whatever Buddhi has to be taught, has been taught to you in the passage beginning with, It is not that I did not exist (II.12) and ending with the words, Therefore, you shall not grieve for any being (II.30). The disposition of mind (Buddhi) which is reired for the performance of works preceded by knowledge of the self and which thus constitutes the means of attaining release, that is here called by the term Yoga. It will be clearly told later on, Work done with desire for fruits is far inferior to work done with evennes of mind (II. 49). What Buddhi or attitude of mind is reired for making your act deserve the name of Yoga, listen to it now. Endowed with that knowledge, you will be able to cast away the bondage of Karma. Karma-bandha means the bondage due to Karma i.e., the bondage of Samsara. Now Sri Krsna explains the glory of works associated with the Buddhi to be described hereafter:
In this verse, Krishna concludes the jnana yoga which he has just taught. Sdnkhya means “that by which true knowledge of things (vastu tattvam) is perfectly (samak) revealed (khyayate).” In other words, sankhya means a perfect process of knowing. The intelligence (esa) resulting from that process has been explained. Now hear about the intelligence resulting from bhakti yoga (yoge) which will now be explained. Equipped with this intelligence which is absorbed in the subject of bhakti yoga, you will give up samsara (karma bandham).
A brief introduction as to the correct understanding concerning the eternality of the immortal soul that has just been described is now concluded and the path of actions known as karma yoga which is the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the Ultimate Consciousness is now being introduced. That by which the nature of reality is determined is deemed as sankhya which is analytical knowledge and that by which the nature of the eternal soul is revealed is also sankhya. The proper understanding one must utilise in respect to this has just been imparted to Arjuna. If in spite of all these unequivocal instructions regarding the nature of the eternal soul one is still unable to realise it then one should with determination seek to realise the eternal soul by the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the Ultimate Consciousness through actions without any hankering for fruitive rewards. This will allow a living entity to attain purity of mind and spiritual intelligence. By the manifestation of spiritual intelligence one will understand how to surrender all actions in righteousness to the Supreme Lord. The cessation of seeking and yearning for fruitive results effectively neutralises any fruitive reactions before they even materialise. Since it is ones own fruitive desires that causes fruitive actions and subsequent reactions, by renouncing the desire for any fruitive results and performing actions as a matter of duty a living entity is automatically freed from any fruitive reactions.
The wisdom of sankhya being the ability to understand the distinction of spirit from matter leads to the realisation of the eternal soul and is in essence the sankhya philosophy has been given in smriti. The yoga method of the individual consciousness perceiving and then subsequently attaining communion with the Ultimate Consciousness and the accompanying state which manifests has been revealed in the Bhagavad Purana. Other than these nothing else has been referred to as the sankhya philosophy or the science of yoga ; but in other contexts the word karma yoga has been used and along with Pancaratra has been named as a method for liberation. In the Vedic scriptures there is always a holistic understanding and comprehensive appreciation present, thus there is no contradiction unless one is in possession of faulty perceptions. It is sometimes seen that due to partial understanding an incorrect interpretation is made due to not acquiring sufficient knowledge. In the Citra Shikhandi Sastra the similarity between Pancaratra and the Vedas has been well documented. Also in all cases the sankhya philosophy and the science of yoga have been similarly described as methods for liberation from the material existence. This is quite proper because spiritual knowledge is the only means of salvation and various methods have been delineated in the Vedic scriptures regarding this. If attainment of salvation can become known by any method than that in itself is spiritual knowledge. By whatever way the sankhya system comes to be known that is the distinction of spirit from matter by that way it has been explained. Now begins the summation. Equal importance is also given to both jnana knowledge and sankhya. By yoga both these 2 become united; therefore yoga is the means. Seekers of truth have determined that yoga is the precursor to sankhya as given in the Sabda Nirnaya. Brahma Tarka is a dialectical method propounded by Visnu incarnation Kapiladeva in his discourse to Devahuti on the original sankhya philosophy which is fully theist in the Bhagavat Purana. The nyaya philosophy of Gautama, the vaisesika philosophy of Kanada and the imitation sankhya philosophy which is athiestic of Kapila Muni are all but dialectical arguments not dialectical methods for attaining the Ultimate Truth. Mayavadi and Pasupata doctrines are considered profane. The mimamsaka philosophy of Jaimini is threefold concerning rituals, brahman and the Supreme Lord. The original sankhya philosophy of Kapiladeva and the mimamsaka of Jaimini are both dialectical methods for the Ultimate Truth. The perfect wisdom of the Vedic scriptures is the only complete source of spiritual knowledge. Those who have realised this eternal truth do not follow anything else. Other philosophies such as tantra or even the astanga yoga system of Pantanjali should not be followed according to the Narada Purana. The atheist sankhya philosophy as has been stated earlier is a dialectical argument but here in Bhagavad-Gita it is being explained in its original theistic ontology as a dialectical method. The original sankhya philosophy as well as the astanga yoga system both declare that killing causes undesirable reactions. In the Bhagavad-Gita war is recommended as desirable for upholding dharma or righteousness and in this way according to prescribed duties of a ksatriya is a means for salvation when it is said karma bandham prahasyasi. So it should be understood in this light and there should be no discrepancy between what has been intended in the original sankhya philosophy or the astanga yoga system and what has been related in Bhagavad-Gita as there is factually no contradiction.
There is no commentary for this verse.
Having instructed the true knowledge of the soul as being distinctly different from the physical body and seeing that this knowledge has still not been firmly embedded in Arjunas heart, Lord Krishna reiterates this truth again in order to illustrate that this knowledge never becomes firmly embedded without practice of the means which is yoga. To do this He introduces the yoga path of selfless actions as the means to this end. Thus the reality is to perform all actions under the direction of ones mind well cultivated by the aid of spiritual knowledge from the Vedic scriptures exclusively. Although this spiritual knowledge is scientific Arjuna is still unsteady in its application due to lack of practice in assimilation. So Lord Krishna explains that by practice in the performance of actions by the renunciation of their rewards Arjuna will be completely freed from transmigration in the material existence.
Eshaa te’bhihitaa saankhye buddhir yoge twimaam shrinu; Buddhyaa yukto yayaa paartha karma bandham prahaasyasi.
eṣhā—hitherto; te—to you; abhihitā—explained; sānkhye—by analytical knowledge; buddhiḥ yoge—by the yog of intellect; tu—indeed; imām—this; śhṛiṇu—listen; buddhyā—by understanding; yuktaḥ—united; yayā—by which; pārtha—Arjun, the son of Pritha; karma-bandham—bondage of karma; prahāsyasi—you shall be released from