तमुवाच हृषीकेशः प्रहसन्निव भारत।
सेनयोरुभयोर्मध्ये विषीदन्तमिदं वचः।।2.10।।
।।2.10।।हे भरतवंशोद्भव धृतराष्ट्र दोनों सेनाओंके मध्यभागमें विषाद करते हुए उस अर्जुनके प्रति हँसते हुएसे भगवान् हृषीकेश ये (आगे कहे जानेवाले) वचन बोले।
।।2.10।। हे भारत (धृतराष्ट्र) दोनों सेनाओं के बीच में उस शोकमग्न अर्जुन को भगवान् हृषीकेश ने हँसते हुए से यह वचन कहे।।
2.10।। व्याख्या तमुवाच हृषीकेषशः ৷৷. विषीदन्तमिदं वचः अर्जुनने बड़ी शूरवीरता और उत्साहपूर्वक योद्धाओंको देखनेके लिये भगवान्से दोनों सेनाओंके बीचमें रथ खड़ा करनेके लिये कहा था। अब वहींपर अर्थात् दोनों सेनाओंके बीचमें अर्जुन विषादमग्न हो गये वास्तवमें होना यह चाहिये था कि वे जिस उद्देश्यसे आये थे उस उद्देश्यके अनुसार युद्धके लिये खड़े हो जाते। परन्तु उस उद्देश्यको छोड़कर अर्जुन चिन्ताशोकमें फँस गये। अतः अब दोनों सेनाओंके बीचमें ही भगवान् शोकमग्न अर्जुनको उपदेश देना आरम्भ करते हैं। प्रहसन्निव (विशेषतासे हँसते हुएकी तरह) का तात्पर्य है कि अर्जुनके भाव बदलनेको देखकर अर्थात् पहले जो युद्ध करनेका भाव था वह अब विषादमें बदल गया इसको देखकर भगवान्को हँसी आ गयी। दूसरी बात अर्जुनने पहले (2। 7 में) कहा था कि मैं आपके शरण हूँ मेरेको शिक्षा दीजिये अर्थात् मैं युद्ध करूँ या न करूँ मेरेको क्या करना चाहिये इसकी शिक्षा दीजिये परन्तु यहाँ मेरे कुछ बोले बिना अपनी तरफसे ही निश्चय कर लिया कि मैं युद्ध नहीं करूँगा यह देखकर भगवान्को हँसी आ गयी। कारण कि शरणागत होनेपर मैं क्या करूँ और क्या नहीं करूँ आदि कुछ भी सोचनेका अधिकार नहीं रहता। उसको तो इतना ही अधिकार रहता है कि शरण्य जो काम कहता है वही काम करे। अर्जुन भगवान्के शरण होनेके बाद मैं युद्ध नहीं करूँगा ऐसा कहकर एक तरहसे शरणागत होनेसे हट गये। इस बातको लेकर भगवान्को हँसी आ गयी। इव का तात्पर्य है कि जोरसे हँसी आनेपर भी भगवान् मुस्कराते हुए ही बोले।जब अर्जुनने यह कह दिया कि मैं युद्ध नहीं करूँगा तब भगवान्को यहीं कह देना चाहिये था कि जैसी तेरी मर्जी आये वैसा कर यथेच्छसि तथा कुरु (18। 63)। परन्तु भगवान्ने यही समझा कि मनुष्य जब चिन्ताशोकसे विकल हो जाता है तब वह अपने कर्तव्यका निर्णय न कर सकनेके कारण कभी कुछ तो कभी कुछ बोल उठता है। यही दशा अर्जुनकी हो रही है। अतः भगवान्के हृदयमें अर्जुनके प्रति अत्यधिक स्नेह होनेके कारण कृपालुता उमड़ पड़ी। कारण कि भगवान् साधकके वचनोंकी तरफ ध्यान न देकर उसके भावकी तरफ ही देखते हैं। इसलिये भगवान् अर्जुनके मैं युद्ध नहीं करूँगा इस वचनकी तरफ ध्यान न देकर (आगेके श्लोकसे) उपदेश आरम्भ कर देते हैं।जो वचनमात्रसे भी भगवान्के शरण हो जाता है भगवान् उसको स्वीकार कर लेते हैं। भगवान्के हृदयमें प्राणियोंके प्रति कितनी दयालुता है हृषीकेश कहनेका तात्पर्य है कि भगवान् अन्तर्यामी हैं अर्थात् प्राणियोंके भीतरी भावोंको जाननेवाले हैं। भगवान् अर्जुनके भीतरी भावोंको जानते हैं कि अभी तो कौटुम्बिक मोहके वेगके कारण और राज्य मिलनेसे अपना शोक मिटता न दीखनेके कारण यह कह रहा है कि मैं युद्ध नहीं करूँगा परन्तु जब इसको स्वयं चेत होगा तब यह बात ठहरेगी नहीं और मैं जैसा कहूँगा वैसा ही यह करेगा। इदं वचः उवाच पदोंमें केवल उवाच कहनेसे ही काम चल सकता था क्योंकि उवाच के अन्तर्गत ही वचः पदका अर्थ आ जाता है। अतः वचः पद देना पुनरूक्तिदोष दीखता है। परन्तु वास्तवमें यह पुनरुक्तिदोष नहीं है प्रत्युत इसमें एक विशेष भाव भरा हुआ है। अभी आगेके श्लोकसे भगवान् जिस रहस्यमय ज्ञानको प्रकट करके उसे सरलतासे सुबोध भाषामें समझाते हुए बोलेंगे उसकी तरफ लक्ष्य करनेके लिये यहाँ वचः दिया गया है। सम्बन्ध शोकाविष्ट अर्जुनको शोकनिवृत्तिका उपदेश देनेके लिये भगवान् आगेका प्रकरण कहते हैं।
।।2.10।। इस प्रकार धर्म और अधर्म शुभ और अशुभ इन दो सेनाओं के संव्यूहन के मध्य अर्जुन (जीव) पूर्ण रूप से अपने सारथी भगवान् श्रीकृष्ण (सूक्ष्म विवेकवती बुद्धि) की शरण में आत्मसमर्पण करता है जो पाँच अश्वों (पंच ज्ञानेन्द्रियों) द्वारा चालित रथ (देह) अपने पूर्ण नियन्त्रण में रखते हैं।ऐसे दुखी और भ्रमित व्यक्ति जीव अर्जुन को श्रीकृष्ण सहास्य उसकी अन्तिम विजय का आश्वासन देने के साथ ही गीता के आत्ममुक्ति का आध्यात्मिक उपदेश भी करते हैं जिसके ज्ञान से सदैव के लिये मनुष्य के शोक मोह की निवृत्ति हो जाती है।उपनिषद् के रूपक को ध्यान में रखकर यदि हम संजय द्वारा चित्रित दृश्य का वर्णन उपर्युक्त प्रकार से करें तो इसमें हमें सनातन पारमार्थिक सत्य के दर्शन होंगे। जब जीव (अर्जुन) विषादयुक्त होकर शरीर में (देह) स्थित हो जाता है और सभी स्वार्थ पूर्ण कर्मों के साधनों (गाण्डीव) को त्यागकर इन्द्रियों को (श्वेत अश्व) मन की लगाम के द्वारा संयमित करता है तब सारथि (शुद्ध बुद्धि) जीव को धर्म शक्ति की सहायता से वह दैवी सार्मथ्य और मार्गदर्शन प्रदान करता है जिससे अधर्म की बलवान सेना को भी परास्त कर जीव सम्पूर्ण विजय को प्राप्त करता है।
2.10 O descendant of Bharata, to him who was sorrowing between the two armies, Hrsikesa, mocking as it were, said these words:
2.10 To him who was despondent in the midst of the two armies, Krishna, as if smiling, O Bharata, spoke these words.
2.10. O descendant of Bharata (O Dhrtarastra) ! Hrsikesa, as if [he was] smiling, spoke to him who was sinking in despondency in between two armies.
2.10 तम् to him? उवाच spoke? हृषीकेशः Hrishikesha? प्रहसन् smiling? इव as it were? भारत O Bharata? सेनयोः of the armies? उभयोः (of) both? मध्ये in the middle? विषीदन्तम् despondent? इदम् this? वचः word.No commentary.
2.10 And here, the text commencing from But seeing the army of the Pandavas (1.2) and ending with (he) verily became silent, telling Him (Govinda), I shall not fight is to be explained as revealing the cause of the origin of the defect in the from of sorrow, delusion, etc. [Delusion means want of discrimination. Etc. stands for the secondary manifestations of sorrow and delusion, as also ignorance which is the root cause of all these.] which are the sources of the cycles of births and deaths of creatures. Thus indeed, Ajunas own sorrow and delusion, cuased by the ideas of affection, parting, etc., originating from the erroneous belief, I belong to these; they belong to me, with regard to kingdom [See note under verse 8.-Tr.], elders, sons, comrades, well-wishers (1.26), kinsmen (1.37), relatives (1.34) and friends, have been shown by him with the words, How can I (fight)৷৷.in battle (against) Bhisma (4), etc. It is verily because his discriminating insight was overwhelmed by sorrow and delusion that, even though he had become engaged in battle out of his own accord as a duty of the Ksatriyas, he desisted from that war and chose to undertake others duties like living on alms etc. It is thus that in the case of all creatures whose minds come under the sway of the defects of sorrow, delusion, etc. there verily follows, as a matter of course, abandoning their own duties and resorting to prohibited ones. Even when they engage in their own duties their actions with speech, mind, body, etc., are certainly motivated by hankering for rewards, and are accompanied by egoism. [Egoism consists in thinking that one is the agent of some work and the enjoyer of its reward.] Such being the case, the cycle of births and deaths characterized by passing through desireable and undesirable births, and meeting with happiness, sorrow, etc. [From virtuous deeds follow attainment of heaven and happiness. From unvirtuous, sinful deeds follow births as beasts and other lowly beings, and sorrow. From the performance of both virtuous and sinful deeds follows birth as a human being, with a mixture of happiness and sorrow.] from the accumulation of virtue and vice, continues unendingly. Thus, sorrow and delusion are therefore the sources of the cycles of births and deaths. And their cessation comes from nothing other than the knowledge of the Self which is preceded by the renunciation of all duties. Hence, wishing to impart that (knowledge of the Self) for favouring the whole world, Lord Vasudeva, making Arjuna the medium, said, You grieve for those who are not to be grieved for, etc. As to that some (opponents) [According to A.G. the opponent is the Vrttikara who, in the opinion of A. Mahadeva Sastri, is none other than Bodhayana referred to in Sankaracaryas commentary on B.S. 1.1.11-19.-Tr.] say: Certainly, Liberation cannot be attained merely from continuance in the knowledge of the Self which is preceded by renunciation of all duties and is independent of any other factor. What then? The well-ascertained conclusion of the whole of the Gita is that Liberation is attained through Knowledge associated with rites and duties like Agnihotra etc. prescribed in the Vedas and the Smrtis. And as an indication of this point of view they ote (the verses): On the other hand, if you will not fight this righteous (battle) (33); Your right is for action (rites and duties) alone (47); Therefore you undertake action (rites and duties) itself (4.15), etc. Even this objection should not be raised that Vedic rites and duties lead to sin since they involve injury etc.. Objection: How? Opponent: The duties of the Ksatriyas, charaterized by war, do not lead to sin when undertaken as ones duty, even though they are extremely cruel since they involve violence against elders, brothers, sons and others. And from the Lords declaration that when they are not performed, then, forsaking your own duty and fame, you will incur sin (33), it stands out as (His) clearly stated foregone conclusion that ones own duties prescribed in such texts as, (One shall perform Agnihotra) as long as one lives etc., and actions which involve crutely to animals etc. are not sinful. Vedantin: That is wrong because of the assertion of the distinction between firm adherence (nistha) to Knowledge and to action, which are based on two (different) convictions (buddhi). The nature of the Self, the supreme Reality, determined by the Lord in the text beginning with Those who are not to be grieved for (11) and running to the end of the verse, Even considering your own duty (31), is called Sankhya. Sankhya-buddhi [Sankhya is that correct (samyak) knowledge of the Vedas which reveals (khyayate) the reality of the Self, the supreme Goal. The Reality under discussion, which is related to this sankhya by way of having been revealed by it, is Sankhya.] (Conviction about the Reality) is the conviction with regard to That (supreme Reality) arising from the ascertainment of the meaning of the context [Ascertainment৷৷.of the context, i.e., of the meaning of the verses starting from, Never is this One born, and never does It die, etc. (20).] that the Self is not an agent because of the absence in It of the six kinds of changes, viz birth etc. [Birth, continuance, growth, transformation, decay and death.] Sankhyas are those men of Knowledge to whom that (conviction) becomes natural. Prior to the rise of this Conviction (Sankhya-buddhi), the ascertained [Ast. and A.G. omit this word ascertainment, nirupana-Tr.] of the performance of the disciplines leading to Liberation which is based on a discrimination between virtue and vice, [And adoration of God]. and which presupposes the Selfs difference from the body etc. and Its agentship and enjoyership is called Yoga. The conviction with regard to that (Yoga) is Yoga-buddhi. The performers of rites and duties, for whom this (conviction) is appropriate, are called yogis. Accordingly, the two distinct Convictions have been pointed out by the Lord in the verse, This wisdom (buddhi) has been imparted to you from the standpoint of Self-realization (Sankhya). But listen to this (wisdom) from the standpoint of (Karma-) yoga (39). And of these two, the Lord will separately speak, with reference to the Sankhyas, of the firm adherence to the Yoga of Knowledge. [Here Yoga and Knowledge are identical. Yoga is that through which one gets connected, identified. with Brahman.] which is based on Sankya-buddhi, in, Two kinds of adherences were spoken of by Me in the form of the Vedas, in the days of yore. [This portion is ascending to G1.Pr. and A.A.; Ast. omits this and otes exactly the first line of 3.3. By saying, in the form of the Vedas, the Lord indicates that the Vedas, which are really the knowledge inherent in God and issue out of Him, are identical with Himself.-Tr.] similarly, in, through the Yoga of Action for the yogis (3.3), He will separately speak of the firm adherence to the Yoga [Here also Karma and Yoga are identical, and lead to Liberation by bringing about purity of heart which is followed by steadfastness in Knowledge.] of Karma which is based on Yoga-buddhi (Conviction about Yoga). Thus, the two kinds of steadfastness that based on the conviction about the nature of the Self, and that based on the conviction about rites and duties have been distinctly spoken of by the Lord Himself, who saw that the coexistence of Knowledge and rites and duties is not possible in the same person, they being based on the convictions of non-agentship and agentship, unity and diversity (respectively). As is this teaching about the distinction (of the two adherences), just so has it been revealed in the Satapatha Brahmana: Desiring this world (the Self) alone monks and Brahmanas renounce their homes (cf. Br. 4.4.22). After thus enjoining renunciation of all rites and duties, it is said in continuation, What shall we acheive through childeren, we who have attained this Self, this world (result). [The earlier otation implies an injuction (vidhi) for renunciation, and the second is an arthavada, or an emphasis on that injunction. Arthavada: A sentence which usually recommends a vidhi, or precept, by stating the good arising from its proper observance, and the evils arising from its omission; and also by adducing historical instances in its support.-V.S.A] Again, there itself it is said that, before accepting a wife a man is in his natural state [The state of ignorance owing to non-realization of Reality. Such a person is a Brahmacarin, who goes to a teacher for studying the Vedas]. And (then) after his eniries into rites and duties, [The Brahmacarin first studies the Vedas and then enires into their meaning. Leaving his teachers house after completing his course, he becomes a house holder.] he for the attainment of the three worlds [This world, the world of manes and heaven.-Tr.] desired (see Br. 1.4.17) as their means a son and the two kinds of wealth consists of rites and duties that lead to the world of manes, and the divine wealth of acisition of vidya (meditation) which leads to heaven. In this way it is shown that rites and duties enjoined by the Vedas etc. are meant only for one who is unenlightened and is passessed of desire. And in the text, After renouncing they take to mendicancy (see Br. 4.4.22), the injunction to renounce is only for one who desires the world that is the Self, and who is devoid of hankering (for anything else). Now, if the intention of the Lord were the combination of Knowledge with Vedic rites and duties, then this utterance (of the Lord) (3.3) about the distinction would have been illogical. Nor would Arjunas estion, If it be Your opinion that wisdom (Knowledge) is superior to action (rites and duties)৷৷., etc. (3.1) be proper. If the Lord had not spoken earlier of the impossibility of the pursuit of Knowledge and rites and duties by the same person (at the same time), then how could Arjuna falsely impute to the Lord by saying, If it be your opinion that wisdom is superior to action৷৷৷৷ (of having spoken) what was not heard by him, viz the higher status of Knolwedge over rites and duties? Morevoer, if it be that the combination of Knowledge with rites and duties was spoken of for all, then it stands enjoined, ipso facto, on Arjuna as well. Therefore, if instruction had been given for practising both, then how could the estion about either of the two arise as in, Tell me for certain one of these (action and renunciation) by which I may attain the highest Good (3.2)? Indeed, when a physician tells a patient who has come for a cure of his biliousness that he should take things which are sweet and soothing, there can arise no such reest as, Tell me which one of these two is to be taken as a means to cure biliousness! Again, if it be imagined that Arjuna put the estion because of his noncomprehension of the distinct meaning of what the Lord had said, even then the Lord ought to have answered in accordance with the estion: The combination of Knowledge with rites and duties was spoken of by Me. Why are you confused thus? On the other hand, it was not proper to have answered, Two kinds of steadfastness were spoken of by Me it the days of yore, in a way that was inconsistent and at variance with the estion. Nor even do all the statements about distinction etc. become logical if it were intended that Knowledge was to be combined with rites and duties enjoined by the Smrtis only. Besides, the accusation in the sentence, Why then do you urge me to horrible action (3.1) becomes illogical on the part of Arjuna who knew that fighting was a Ksatriyas natural duty enjoined by the Smrtis. Therefore, it is not possible for anyone to show that in the scripture called the Gita there is any combination, even in the least, of Knowledge of the Self with rites and duties enjoined by the Srutis or the Smrtis. But in the case of a man who had engaged himself in rites and duties because of ignorance and defects like the attachment, and then got his mind purified through sacrifices, charities or austerities (see Br. 4.4.22), there arises the knowledge about the supreme Reality that all this is but One, and Brahman is not an agent (of any action). With regard to him, although there is a cessation of rites and duties as also of the need for them, yet, what may, appear as his diligent continuance, just as before, in those rites and duties for setting an example before people that is no action in which case it could have stood combined with Knowledge. Just as the actions of Lord Vasudeva, in the form of performance of the duty of a Ksatriya, do not get combined with Knowledge for the sake of achieving the human goal (Liberation), similar is the case with the man of Knowledge because of the absence of hankering for results and agentship. Indeed, a man who has realized the Truth does not thingk I am doing (this) nor does he hanker after its result. Again, as for instance, person hankering after such desirable things as heaven etc. may light up a fire for performing such rites as Agnihotra etc. which are the mans to attain desirable things; [The Ast. reading is: Agnihotradi-karma-laksana-dharma-anusthanaya, for the performance of duties in the form of acts like Agnihotra etc.-Tr.] then, while he is still engaged in the performance of Agnihotra etc. as the means for the desirable things, the desire may get destroyed when the rite is half-done. He may nevertheless continue the performance of those very Agnihotra etc.; but those performance of those very Agnihotra etc.; but those Agnihotra etc. cannot be held to be for this personal gain. Accordingly does the Lord also show in various places that, even while perfroming actions, he does not act, he does not become tainted (5.7). As for the texts, ৷৷.as was performed earlier by the ancient ones (4.15), For Janaka and others strove to attain Liberation through action itself (3.20), they are to be understood analytically. Objection: How so? Vedantin: As to that, if Janaka and others of old remained engaged in activity even though they were knowers of Reality, they did so for preventing people from going astray, while remaining established in realization verily through the knowledge that the organs rest (act) on the objects of the organs (3.28). The idea is this that, though the occasion for renunciation of activity did arise, they remained established in realization along with actions; they did not give up their rites and duties. On the other hand, if they were not knowers of Reality, then the explanation should be this; Through the discipline of dedicating rites and duties to God, Janaka and others remained established in perfection (samsiddhi) either in the form of purification of mind or rise of Knowledge. This very idea [The idea that rites and duties become the cause of Knowledge through the purification of the mind.] will be expressed by the Lord in, (the yogis) undertake action for the purification of oneself (i.e. of the heart, or the mind) (5.11). After having said, A human being achieves success by adoring Him through his own duties [By performing ones own duty as enjoined by scriptures and dedicating their results to God, ones mind becomes purified. Then, through Gods grace one becomes fit for steadfastness in Knowledge. From that steadfatness follows Liberation. Therefore rites and duites do not directly lead to Liberation. (See Common. under 5.12) (18.46), He will again speak of the steadfastness in Knowledge of a person who has attained success, in the text, (Understand৷৷.from Me৷৷.that process by which) one who has achieved success attains Brahman (18.50). So, the definite conclusion in the Gita is that Liberation is attained only from the knowledge of Reality, and not from its combination with action. And by pointing out in the relevant contexts the (aforesaid) distinction, we shall show how this conclusion stands. That being so, Lord Vasudeva found that for Arjuna, whose mind was thus confused about what ought to be done [The ast. and A.A., have an additional word mithyajnanavatah, meaning who had false ignorance.-Tr.] and who was sunk in a great ocean of sorrow, there could be no rescue other than through the knowledge of the Self. And desiring to rescue Arjuna from that, He said, (You grieve for) those who are not to be grieved for, etc. by way of introducing the knowledge of the Self. [In this Gita there are three distinct parts, each part consisting of six chapters. These three parts deal with the three words of the great Upanisadic saying, Tattvamasi, thou art That, with a view to finding out their real meanings. The first six chapters are concerned with the word tvam (thou); the following six chapters determine the meaning of the word tat (that); and the last six reveal the essential identity of tvam and tat. The disciplines necessary for realization this identity are stated in the relevant places.]
2.7-10 Karpanya-etc. upto vacah. By the portion in between the two armies etc., [the Sage] indicates this : Beings possessed by doubt, Arjuna had not abstained from the war totally; for, he says thus : Please teach me, who am taking refuge in you. Therefore while he still remains just in between both knowledge and ignorance, he is taught by the glorious Bhagavat.
2.9 - 2.10 Sanjaya said Thus, the Lord, the Supreme Person, introduced the Sastra regarding the self for the sake of Arjuna - whose natural courage was lost due to love and compassion in a misplaced situation, who thought war to be unrighteous even though it was the highest duty for warriors (Ksatriyas), and who took refuge in Sri Krsna to know what his right duty was -, thinking that Arjunas delusion would not come to an end except by the knowledge of the real nature of the self, and that war was an ordained duty here which, when freed from attachment to fruits, is a means for self-knowledge. Thus, has it been said by Sri Yamunacarya: The introduction to the Sastra was begun for the sake of Arjuna, whose mind was agitated by misplaced love and compassion and by the delusion that righteousness was unrighteousness, and who took refuge in Sri Krsna. The Supreme Person spoke these words as if smiling, and looking at Arjuna, who was thus overcome by grief resulting from ignorance about the real nature of the body and the self, but was nevertheless speaking about duty as if he had an understanding that the self is distinct from the body, and while he (Arjuna), torn between contradictory ideas, had suddenly become inactive standing between the two armies that were getting ready to fight. Sri Krsna said, as if in ridicule, to Arjuna the words beginning with, There never was a time when I did not exist (II. 12), and ending with I will release you from all sins; grieve not! (XVIII. 66) - which have for their contents the real nature of the self, of the Supreme Self, and of the paths of work (Karma), knowledge (Jnana) and devotion (Bhakti) which constitute the means for attaining the highest spiritual fulfilment.
“You have shown such lack of judgment!” Laughing at him as a friend, Krishna could put Arjuna in an ocean of embarrassment for his unworthy actions. However, because now Arjuna took the position of student, laughing would be improper. Thus Krishna suppressed that laugh by closing his lips. Instead he slightly smiled (prahasann iva). The Lord of the senses (hrsikesa) was previously controlled by the words of Arjuna out of love for him (BG 1.24), and now he became the controller of Arjuna’s mind, again out of love, for the benefit of Arjuna. Arjuna’s dejection and Krishna’s consolation were seen directly by both armies (senayor ubhayor madhye).
What happened then after this? In answer it is stated: to Arjuna who was lamenting between the two armies the Supreme Lord spoke as if smiling , meaning spoke with a beaming countenance.
Lord Krishna, the resplendent one, situated between the 2 armies, with a slight smile upon His face spoke to the grief stricken Arjuna who was enveloped by the entanglement of fraternal delusion.
There is no commentary for this verse.
In this way although Arjuna had decided to refrain from the battle still Dhritarastra should not expect that the future of his sons was to be bright and happy as long as the Supreme Lord Krishna, the controller of the animate and inanimate who descended personally to destroy the miscreants is present in this world. To emphasize this reality Sanjaya said to him O Bharata referring to his anscestor, the great monarch of all the world King Bharata telling frankly that the joy he is feeling regarding Arjunas seemingly abstention from the battle and the termination of the war was not appropriate. Lord Krishna with a subtle smile upon his face then spoke to Arjuna who was lamenting at a most inappropriate time between the 2 opposing armies. The word prahasan meaning smiling is used to subtlely indicate sarcasam and evoke anger at the impropriety of such limpid sensitivity by Arjuna who in his own right is a mighty warrior respected and reknowed by all the mightiest warriors of his time. This smile indicating sarcasm is justified by the use of the word iva as it were indicating that due to the nature of the situation, being the 2 armies immeadiately ready for battle, Arjunas reluctancy and Lord Krishna accepting him as a disciple. So in order to substantiate Arjunas fitness to receive spiritual knowledge this subtle smile is used to remove any lingering vestiges of pride Arjuna might have had regarding his knowledge, intelligence and prowess.
Tam uvaacha hrisheekeshah prahasanniva bhaarata; Senayor ubhayor madhye visheedantam idam vachah.
tam—to him; uvācha—said; hṛiṣhīkeśhaḥ—Shree Krishna, the master of mind and senses; prahasan—smilingly; iva—as if; bhārata—Dhritarashtra, descendant of Bharat; senayoḥ—of the armies; ubhayoḥ—of both; madhye—in the midst of; viṣhīdantam—to the grief-stricken; idam—this; vachaḥ—words