कृषिगौरक्ष्यवाणिज्यं वैश्यकर्म स्वभावजम्।
परिचर्यात्मकं कर्म शूद्रस्यापि स्वभावजम्।।18.44।।
।।18.44।।खेती करना? गायोंकी रक्षा करना और शुद्ध व्यापार करना -- ये सबकेसब वैश्यके स्वाभाविक कर्म हैं? तथा चारों वर्णोंकी सेवा करना शूद्रका भी स्वाभाविक कर्म है।
18.44 Svabyavajam, the natural; vaisya-karma, duties of the Vaisyas, of the Vaisya caste; are krsi-gauraksyavanijyam, agriculture, cattle rearing and trade: Krsi is tilling of land. Orre who rears cattle (go) is goraksa; the abstract form of that word is gauraksyam, animal-huandry. Vanijyam means the occupation of a trader, consisting of buying and selling. Sudrasya, of the Sudra; api, too; svabhavajam, the natural; karma, duty; is paricaryatmakam, in the form of service. When rightly pursued, the natural result of these duties enjoined for the castes is the attainment of heaven-which act is evident from such Smrti texts as, People belonging to the castes and stages of life, who are true to their own duties, experience after death the fruit of their actions. And after that, as a result of the remnants of their merits they are born in some excellent region, caste and family, with greater piety, longevity, learning, conduct, wealth, happiness and intelligence (Ap. Dh. Su. 18.104.22.168), etc. And in the Puranas also it is particularly mentioned that poeple belonging to the (different) castes and stages of life come to have specific results in the form of different worlds. But this result that is going to be stated follows from a different cause:
18.44 See Comment under 18.60
18.44 Agriculture is cultivation to produce crops. The meaning of cattle breeding is the protection and rearing of cattle. Trade is the activity causing the amassing of wealth through buying and selling. This is the duty of Vaisya born of his inherent nature. The duty of a Sudra, born of his inherent nature, is service to the three Orders mentioned earlier. All these have been described to stress that the occupational activities of the four stations are auxiliary to the performance of sacrifices etc., which are ordained by the Sastra. Sacrifices etc., are common to the first three stations. Control of the senses etc., are common to those who, among the first three stations, are anxious for release. As a Brahmana possesses preponderance of Sattva, and as the control of the senses, mind etc., can be performed by him easily and naturally, control of the senses etc., have been prescribed as his duty. As control of the mind, senses etc., can be performed only with difficulty by the Ksatriyas and the Vaisyas owing to the preponderance of Rajas and Tamas respectively in them, these have not been stated as their duty. The occupation of a Brahmana is officiating as priest in sacrifices, teaching the Vedas and receiving gifts. The occupation of a Ksatriya is protecting the people and that of the Vaisyas is farming etc., as mentioned before. The duty and occupation of the Sudra is service to the three stations.
Krishigaurakshyavaanijyam vaishyakarma swabhaavajam; Paricharyaatmakam karma shoodrasyaapi swabhaavajam.
kṛiṣhi—agriculture; gau-rakṣhya—dairy farming; vāṇijyam—commerce; vaiśhya—of the mercantile and farming class; karma—work; svabhāva-jam—born of one’s intrinsic qualities; paricharyā—serving through work; ātmakam—natural; karma—duty; śhūdrasya—of the worker class; api—and; svabhāva-jam—born of one’s intrinsic qualities