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Bhagavad Gita Chapter 18 Verse 42

भगवद् गीता अध्याय 18 श्लोक 42

शमो दमस्तपः शौचं क्षान्तिरार्जवमेव च।
ज्ञानं विज्ञानमास्तिक्यं ब्रह्मकर्म स्वभावजम्।।18.42।।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी ( भगवद् गीता 18.42)

।।18.42।।मनका निग्रह करना इन्द्रियोंको वशमें करना धर्मपालनके लिये कष्ट सहना बाहरभीतरसे शुद्ध रहना दूसरोंके अपराधको क्षमा करना शरीर? मन आदिमें सरलता रखना वेद? शास्त्र आदिका ज्ञान होना यज्ञविधिको अनुभवमें लाना और परमात्मा? वेद आदिमें आस्तिक भाव रखना -- ये सबकेसब ब्राह्मणके स्वाभाविक कर्म हैं।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी तेजोमयानंद

।।18.42।। शम? दम? तप? शौच? क्षान्ति? आर्जव? ज्ञान? विज्ञान और आस्तिक्य ये ब्राह्मण के स्वाभाविक कर्म हैं।।

हिंदी टीका - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी

।।18.42।। व्याख्या --   शमः -- मनको जहाँ लगाना चाहें? वहाँ लग जाय और जहाँसे हटाना चाहें? वहाँसे हट जाय -- इस प्रकार मनके निग्रहको शम कहते हैं।दमः -- जिस इन्द्रियसे जब जो काम करना चाहें? तब वह काम कर लें और जिस इन्द्रियको जब जहाँसे हटाना चाहें? तब वहाँसे हटा लें -- इसी प्रकार इन्द्रियोंको वशमें करना दम है।तपः -- गीतामें शरीर? वाणी और मनके तपका वर्णन आता है (17। 14 -- 16)? उस तपको लेते हुए भी यहाँ वास्तवमें तप का अर्थ है -- अपने धर्मका पालन करते हुए जो कष्ट हो अथवा कष्ट आ जाय? उसको प्रसन्नतापूर्वक सहना अर्थात् कष्टके आनेपर चित्तमें प्रसन्नताका होना।शौचम् -- अपने मन? बुद्धि? इन्द्रियाँ? शरीर आदिको पवित्र रखना तथा अपने खानपान? व्यवहार आदिकी पवित्रता रखना -- इस प्रकार शौचाचारसदाचारका ठीक पालन करनेका नाम शौच है।क्षान्तिः -- कोई कितना ही अपमान करे? निन्दा करे? दुःख दे और अपनेमें उसको दण्ड देनेकी योग्यता? बल? अधिकार भी हो? फिर भी उसको दण्ड न देकर उसके क्षमा माँगे बिना ही उसको प्रसन्नतापूर्वक क्षमा कर देनेका नाम क्षान्ति है।आर्जवम् -- शरीर? वाणी आदिके व्यवहारमें सरलता हो और मनमें छल? कपट? छिपाव आदि दुर्भाव न हों अर्थात् सीधासादापन हो? उसका नाम आर्जव है।ज्ञानम् -- वेद? शास्त्र? पुराण? इतिहास आदिका अच्छी तरह अध्ययन होना और उनके भावोंका ठीक तरहसे बोध होना तथा कर्तव्यअकर्तव्यका बोध होना ज्ञान है। विज्ञानम् -- यज्ञमें स्रुक्? स्रुवा आदि वस्तुओंका किस अवसरपर किस विधिसे प्रयोग करना चाहिये -- इसका अर्थात् यज्ञविधिका तथा अनुष्ठान आदिकी विधिका अनुभव कर लेने (अच्छी तरह करके देख लेने) का नाम विज्ञान है।आस्तिक्यम् -- परमात्मा? वेदादि शास्त्र? परलोक आदिका हृदयमें आदर हो? श्रद्धा हो और उनकी सत्यतामें कभी सन्देह न हो तथा उनके अनुसार अपना आचरण हो? इसका नाम आस्तिक्य है।ब्रह्मकर्म स्वभावजम् -- ये शम? दम आदि ब्राह्मणके स्वाभाविक कर्म (गुण) हैं अर्थात् इन कर्मों(गुणों)को धारण करनेमें ब्राह्मणको परिश्रम नहीं पड़ता।जिन ब्राह्मणोंमें सत्त्वगुणकी प्रधानता है? जिनकी वंशपरम्परा परम शुद्ध है और जिनके पूर्वजन्मकृत कर्म भी शुद्ध हैं? ऐसे ब्राह्मणोंके लिये ही शम? दम आदि गुण स्वाभाविक होते हैं और उनमें किसी गुणके न होनेपर अथवा किसी गुणमें कमी होनेपर भी उसकी पूर्ति करना उन ब्राह्मणोंके लिये सहज होता है।चारों वर्णोंकी रचना गुणोंके तारतम्यसे की गयी है? इसलिये गुणोंके अनुसार उसउस वर्णमें वेवे कर्म स्वाभाविक प्रकट हो जाते हैं और दूसरे कर्म गौण हो जाते हैं। जैसे ब्राह्मणमें सत्त्वगुणकी प्रधानता होनेसे उसमें शम? दम आदि कर्म (गुण) स्वाभाविक आते हैं तथा जीविकाके कर्म गौण हो जाते हैं और दूसरे वर्णोंमें रजोगुण तथा तमोगुणकी प्रधानता होनेसे उन वर्णोंके जीविकाके कर्म भी स्वाभाविक कर्मोंमें सम्मिलित हो जाते हैं। इसी दृष्टिसे गीतामें ब्राह्मणके स्वभावज कर्मोंमें जीविकाके कर्म न कह करके शम? दम आदि कर्म (गुण) ही कहे गये हैं। सम्बन्ध --   अब क्षत्रियके स्वाभाविक कर्म बताते हैं।

हिंदी टीका - स्वामी चिन्मयानंद जी

।।18.42।। इस श्लोक में सत्त्वगुण प्रधान ब्राह्मण के कर्तव्यों की सूची प्रस्तुत की गयी है। यद्यपि यहाँ कर्म शब्द का प्रयोग किया गया है? परन्तु इस सूची में केवल आन्तरिक गुणों का ही उल्लेख मिलता है। इसका अभिप्राय यह है कि ब्राह्मण का कर्तव्य इन गुणों को स्वयं में सम्पादित कर उनमें दृढ़ निष्ठा प्राप्त करना है। ये गुण उसके स्वाभाविक लक्षण बन जाने चाहिए।शम इसका अर्थ है मनसंयम। मन की विषयाभिमुखी प्रवृत्ति का संयमन शम कहलाता है।दम विषय ग्रहण करने वाली ज्ञानेन्द्रियों तथा प्रतिक्रिया व्यक्त करने वाली कर्मेन्द्रियों पर संयमन होना दम है।तप पूर्व अध्याय में शरीर? वाणी और मन के तप का वर्णन किया गया था। तप के आचरण से हमारी शक्तियों का अपव्यय अवरुद्ध हो जाता है। इस प्रकार संचित की गयी शक्ति का आत्मविकास की साधना में सदुपयोग किया जा सकता है।शौच बाह्य वातावरण? अपने वस्त्र? शरीर तथा मन की शुद्धि को शौच कहते हैं। ब्राह्मण को स्वच्छता के प्रति सतत सजग रहना चाहिए।क्षान्ति इसका अर्थ है क्षमा। किसी के अपराध अथवा दुर्व्यवहार करने पर भी उसे क्षमा करना क्षान्ति है। ऐसा व्यक्ति किसी से द्वेष नहीं करेगा और सब के साथ समान भाव से रहेगा।आर्जवम् हृदय के सरल? निष्कपट भाव को आर्जव कहते हैं। इस ऋजुता के कारण पुरुष निर्भय बन जाता है। उच्च जीवन मूल्यों को जीने के विषय में वह निम्नस्तरीय जीवन के साथ कभी समझौता नहीं करता।उपर्युक्त शमादि छ गुणों द्वारा ब्राह्मण पुरुष का जगत् में आचरण एवं व्यवहार स्पष्ट किया गया है। दूसरी पंक्ति में उसके आध्यात्मिक जीवन का चित्रण किया गया है।ज्ञान इस शब्द से यहाँ शास्त्रों का ज्ञान इंगित किया गया है। इसमें शास्त्र के सिद्धांत? भौतिक जगत्? जगत् का अनुभव करने वाली उपाधियाँ तथा उनके धर्म और कार्य? जीवन का लक्ष्य इत्यादि का सैद्धांतिक ज्ञान समाविष्ट है।विज्ञान उपनिषत्प्रतिपादित आत्मज्ञान का अनुभव स्वानुभव कहलाता है। ज्ञान का उपदेश दिया जा सकता है? परन्तु विज्ञान का नहीं। स्वसंवेद्य आत्मा का अनुभव अन्य व्यक्ति के द्वारा दिया जाना असंभव है। इसके लिए ब्राह्मण को स्वयं ही प्रयत्न करना होगा।आस्तिक्य वेदान्त प्रमाण में श्रद्धा हुए बिना उसमें उपदिष्ट लक्ष्य में आस्तिक्य भाव उत्पन्न नहीं हो सकता? और इस आस्तिकता के बिना उपर्युक्त किसी भी कर्म को करने में प्रवृत्ति नहीं हो सकती। अत इस श्रद्धा का होना अनिवार्य है। श्रद्धा से ज्ञान और तत्पश्चात्? ज्ञान से विज्ञान की प्राप्ति हो सकती है। इस श्लोक में कथित गुणों को सम्पादित करना ही ब्राह्मण का कर्तव्य है।भगवान् आगे कहते हैं

English Translation - Swami Gambirananda

18.42 The natural duties of the Brahmanas are the control of the internal and external organs, austerity, purity, forgiveness, straightforwardness, knowledge as also wisdom [Knowledge refers to the understanding of subjects presented by the scriptures; wisdom means making them matters of ones own experience.] and faith.

English Translation - Swami Sivananda

18.42 Serenity, self-restraint, austerity, purity, forgiveness and also uprightness, knowledge, realisation and belief in God are the duties of the Brahmanas, born of (their own) nature.

English Translation - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

18.42. Quietude, self-control, as well as purity, for-bearance, and also straightforwardness, knowledge, wisdom, and faith in another world are the duties of the Brahmanas, born of their nature.

English Commentary - Swami Sivananda

18.42 शमः serenity? दमः selfrestraint? तपः austerity? शौचम् purity? क्षान्तिः forgiveness? आर्जवम् uprightness? एव even? च and? ज्ञानम् knowledge? विज्ञानम् realisation? आस्तिक्यम् belief in God? ब्रह्मकर्म (are) the duties of Brahmanas? स्वभावजम् born of nature.Commentary Sama is control of the mind. Dama is control of the senses. Serenity and selfrestraint have already been explained in XVII.2. Austerity of the three kinds has also been explained in XVII.14 to 16.Astikyam Faith in the words of the Guru? in the teachings of the scriptures? in the existence of God? in the life beyond or hereafter and in ones own Self.The mind is absorbed in the Self. This gives peace. Selfrestraint is the helpmate of peace. In obeying the inunctions of the scriptures alone you will attain peace and spiritual progress. You must not argue too much. You must have reverence for and faith in the teaching.As the sandalwood tree is fragrant with its own sweet scent? as a Champaka tree is adorned by its lovely flowers? so also a Brahmana is adorned by these nine virtues which are inseparable from him.Now? O Arjuna? listen to the duties of a Kshatriya.

English Translation of Sanskrit Commentary By Sri Shankaracharya's

18.42 Svabhavajam brahma-karma, the natural duties of the Brhamanas, of the Brahmana caste; are samah, control of the internal organs; damah, control of the external organs-these bear the meanings as explained earlier (see 6.3, 10.4, 16.1); tapah, austerity-bodily austerity, as explained before (17.14); saucam, purity, as already explained (in 13.7, 16.3); ksantih, forgiveness; arjavam, straightforwardness, simplicity; jnanam, knowledge; eva ca, as also vijnanam, wisdom; astikyam, faith, the idea of truth [Truth of the scritpures, existence of God, etc. In place of asti-bhavah Ast reads astika-bhavah, the feeling of conviction with regard to the existence of God and the other world. Tr.] respect for the teaching of the scriptures. By svabhavajam (natural) is conveyed the very same idea as was expressed in classified according to the gunas born from Nature (41).

English Translation of Commentary - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

18.42 See Comment under 18.60

English Translation of Ramanuja's Sanskrit Commentary

18.42 Sama is the control of the external sense-organs. Dama is the control of the mind. Tapas is the chastisement of the body by controlling enjoyments, as enjoined by the Sastras. Sauca is fitness for performing acts as enjoined by the Sastras. Ksanti is preserving the composure of the mind, though injured by others. Arjava is straightforwardness expressing itself in correct outward manifestation to others in consonance with ones own mind. Jnana is knowledge about the real nature of the higher and lower truths. Vijnana is the knowledge pertaining to exceptional attributes belonging to the Supreme Reality. Astikya or faith is firm conviction in the truth of all things enjoined in the Vedas. The meaning is that it is unshakable by any reason whatever. Astikya is positive conviction in the truth to the following effect: (1) The Lord Vasudeva, the Supreme Person, is signified by the term, Supreme Brahman. (2) He is devoid of even the slightest trace or evil. (3) He possesses countless hosts of auspicious and excellent attributes such as knowledge, strength etc., boundless and natural. (4) To reveal His nature is the sole purpose of the whole of Vedas and the Vedanta and He can be known only through them. (5) He is the sole cause of the universe (6) He is the foundation of the entire universe. (7) He is the actuator of all. (8) All actions taught in the Vedas form His worship. (9) When worshipped through them, He confers fruits known as Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksa. That such is the meaning has been declared in the following text: Indeed I am to be known from all the Vedas (15.15); I am the origin of all; from Me proced everything (10.8), All this is strung on Me (7.7), Knowing me as the enjoyer of all sacrifices and austerities ৷৷. he attains peace (10.29), There is nothing greater than myself, Arjuna (7.7) He from whom proceeds the activity of all beings and by whom all this is pervaded - by worshipping Him with his duty, will a man reach perfection (18.46); and He who knows Me as unborn, without a beginning and the great Lord of the worlds ৷৷. (10.3) Such are the duties of the Brahmana arising from his inherent nature.

Commentary - Chakravarthi Ji

This verse describes the natural activities of the brahmana who has a predominance of sattva. Control of the inner sense organ (samah), control of the external senses (damah), austerity of body, mind and words, jnana and vijnana, which arise from understanding the scriptures, and firm faith in the purport of the scriptures (astikyam) are the activities of the brahmana arising from his nature.

Rudra Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The natural duties of a brahmin or priestly class are given by Lord Krishna. Serenity is control of the mind. Self-control is controlling the impulses of the external senses. Purity is internal and external cleanliness. Forbearance is forgiveness. Straightforwardness means without duplicity. Knowledge is understanding the Vedic scriptures. Realisation is experiencing direct cognition. Faith is the conviction that the Supreme Lord Krishna is the supreme controller of all. All these duties of brahmins are born of their nature in sattva guna the mode of goodness.

Brahma Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

There is no commentary for this verse.

Shri Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The natural duties appropriate for the Brahmins the priestly class are the following: 1) Samah is control of the inner sense the mind. 2) Damah is restraint of the external senses. 3) Tapas is austerity of the body as prescribed in Vedic scriptures like fasting. 4) Saucam is purity, sanctifying oneself to perform Vedic ordained duties. 5) Ksantih is forbearance, maintaining composure from provocation of others. 6) Arjavam is uprightness, expressing to others what one thinks without duplicity. 7) Jnanam is knowledge of the Vedic scriptures. 8) Vijnanam is realising the conclusions of the Vedic scriptures. 9) Astikam is absolute, irreversible faith the veracity of the Vedic scriptures which is impervious to any attempt to dissuade it. Such a resolute conviction is aware that: A) the Supreme Lord Krishna is the ultimate creator, maintainer and sustainer of all creation and that He is localised within every living being throughout all existence as Paramatma the omnipresent, supreme soul and that His all pervasive impersonal aspect is the Brahman the spiritual substratum pervading all existence and that His personal sound frequency is the transcendental sound vibration OM. B) The Supreme Lord Krishna and any of His authorised incarnations as revealed in Vedic scriptures is the indomitable antithesis to all that is evil and unrighteous. C) The Supreme Lord Krishna and His incarnations possess unlimited, glorious attributes and resplendent qualities such as omnipotence, omniscience, omnipresence, full power, full beauty, full cognizance, full renunciation, full opulence etc. which are eternal and transcendental. D) The Supreme Lord Krishna is the sole object to be known in Vedic scriptures. E) He is the sole cause of all creation. F) He is the sole foundation of all creation. G) He is the Supreme controller of all creation. H) All prescribed Vedic activities enjoined to perform are variations of His worship I) Worshipped as such He confers blessings on humans according to their deeds. This reality has already been evidenced in verses throughout Srimad Bhagavad-Gita like: In chapter 5, verse 29: One who understands that Lord Krishna is the supreme controller of all achieves liberation. In chapter 7, verse 6: Lord Krishna is the sole cause of creation and destruction of all existence and in verse 7: There is nothing superior to Lord Krishna. All creation is dependent upon Him. In chapter 10 verse 3: One who knows Lord Krishna is the supreme controller of all the worlds is not deluded among mortals and in verse 8: The wise know that Lord Krishna is the source of both the material and the spiritual worlds. In chapter 15 verse 15: Lord Krishna is the supreme soul within the heart of all living entities by the Vedas alone He is to be known and coming in chapter 18 verse 46: As everything is pervaded by Him, one attains perfection from performing prescribed Vedic activities to Lord Krishna. In this way this topic has been well evidenced.

Kumara Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The natural duties appropriate for the Brahmins the priestly class are the following: 1) Samah is control of the inner sense the mind. 2) Damah is restraint of the external senses. 3) Tapas is austerity of the body as prescribed in Vedic scriptures like fasting. 4) Saucam is purity, sanctifying oneself to perform Vedic ordained duties. 5) Ksantih is forbearance, maintaining composure from provocation of others. 6) Arjavam is uprightness, expressing to others what one thinks without duplicity. 7) Jnanam is knowledge of the Vedic scriptures. 8) Vijnanam is realising the conclusions of the Vedic scriptures. 9) Astikam is absolute, irreversible faith the veracity of the Vedic scriptures which is impervious to any attempt to dissuade it. Such a resolute conviction is aware that: A) the Supreme Lord Krishna is the ultimate creator, maintainer and sustainer of all creation and that He is localised within every living being throughout all existence as Paramatma the omnipresent, supreme soul and that His all pervasive impersonal aspect is the Brahman the spiritual substratum pervading all existence and that His personal sound frequency is the transcendental sound vibration OM. B) The Supreme Lord Krishna and any of His authorised incarnations as revealed in Vedic scriptures is the indomitable antithesis to all that is evil and unrighteous. C) The Supreme Lord Krishna and His incarnations possess unlimited, glorious attributes and resplendent qualities such as omnipotence, omniscience, omnipresence, full power, full beauty, full cognizance, full renunciation, full opulence etc. which are eternal and transcendental. D) The Supreme Lord Krishna is the sole object to be known in Vedic scriptures. E) He is the sole cause of all creation. F) He is the sole foundation of all creation. G) He is the Supreme controller of all creation. H) All prescribed Vedic activities enjoined to perform are variations of His worship I) Worshipped as such He confers blessings on humans according to their deeds. This reality has already been evidenced in verses throughout Srimad Bhagavad-Gita like: In chapter 5, verse 29: One who understands that Lord Krishna is the supreme controller of all achieves liberation. In chapter 7, verse 6: Lord Krishna is the sole cause of creation and destruction of all existence and in verse 7: There is nothing superior to Lord Krishna. All creation is dependent upon Him. In chapter 10 verse 3: One who knows Lord Krishna is the supreme controller of all the worlds is not deluded among mortals and in verse 8: The wise know that Lord Krishna is the source of both the material and the spiritual worlds. In chapter 15 verse 15: Lord Krishna is the supreme soul within the heart of all living entities by the Vedas alone He is to be known and coming in chapter 18 verse 46: As everything is pervaded by Him, one attains perfection from performing prescribed Vedic activities to Lord Krishna. In this way this topic has been well evidenced.

Transliteration Bhagavad Gita 18.42

Shamo damastapah shaucham kshaantiraarjavameva cha; Jnaanam vijnaanam aastikyam brahmakarma swabhaavajam.

Word Meanings Bhagavad Gita 18.42

śhamaḥ—tranquility; damaḥ—restraint; tapaḥ—austerity; śhaucham—purity; kṣhāntiḥ—patience; ārjavam—integrity; eva—certainly; cha—and; jñānam—knowledge; vijñānam—wisdom; āstikyam—belief in a hereafter; brahma—of the priestly class; karma—work; svabhāva-jam—born of one’s intrinsic qualities