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Bhagavad Gita Chapter 18 Verse 32

भगवद् गीता अध्याय 18 श्लोक 32

अधर्मं धर्ममिति या मन्यते तमसाऽऽवृता।
सर्वार्थान्विपरीतांश्च बुद्धिः सा पार्थ तामसी।।18.32।।

English Translation - Swami Gambirananda

18.32 O Parhta, that intellect is born of tamas which, being covered by darkness, considers vice as virtue, and verily perceives all things contrary ot what they are.

English Translation - Swami Sivananda

18.32 That, which, enveloped in darkness, sees Adharma as Dharma and all things perverted that intellect, O Arjuna, is Tamasic (dark).

English Translation - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

18.32. The intellect which, containing darkness (ignorance), conceives the unrighteous one as righteous and all things topsy-turvy-that intellect is deemed to be of the Tamas (Strand).

English Commentary - Swami Sivananda

18.32 अधर्मम् Adharma? धर्मम् Dharma? इति thus? या which? मन्यते thinks? तमसा by darkness? आवृता enveloped? सर्वार्थान् all things? विपरीतान् perverted? च and? बुद्धिः intellect? सा that? पार्थ O Partha? तामसी Tamasic (dark).Commentary That intellect which regards righteous acts as evil? and considers right things to be false? which treats everything in a contrary sense and looks upon virtues as if they were vices and takes everything that the scriptures declare to be good as being entirely wrong? is Tamasic. It views all things in a perverted light.Thus? O Arjuna? I have explained to thee the three aspects of the intellect. Now listen to the explanation of the characteristics of the three aspects of firmness.

English Translation of Sanskrit Commentary By Sri Shankaracharya's

18.32 O Partha, sa, that; buddhih, intellect; tamasi, is born of tamas; ya, which; tamasavrta, being covered by darkness; manyate, considers, understands; adharmam, vice, what is prohibited; iti, as; dharmam, virtue, what is prescribed; and ca, verily; perceives sarvarthan, all things, all objects of knowledge without exception; viparitan, contrary to what they are.

English Translation of Commentary - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

18.30-32 Pravrttim etc. upto Tamasi mata. Incorrectly ; not properly.

English Translation of Ramanuja's Sanskrit Commentary

18.32 That Buddhi is of the nature of Tamas which is enveloped in Tamas and reverses every value. The meaning is that it regards Adharma as Dharma and Dharma as Adharma, existent as non-existent, and non-existent as existent, and higher truth as the lower and the lower truth as the higher, and thus reverses every value.

Commentary - Chakravarthi Ji

Ya manyate is used for yaya manyate. The intelligence by which one considers everything opposite of the truth is tamasic intelligence. The statements in these verses, such as this verse, which literally says “the intelligence which considers adharma to dharma” but actually means “the intelligence by which a man considers adharma to be dharma” are similar to saying, “The axe cuts the tree” instead of saying “the man cuts the tree using an axe.”

Rudra Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Lord Krishna asserts that those whose buddhi or intellect is situated in tama guna or mode of ignorance are enveloped in darkness with a mentality whose understanding is distorted. They are unable to discriminate between what is real and what is false. What is to be done and what should not be done. Embracing inferior conceptions that are devoid of actual knowledge. They desire what ought to be rejected and reject what ought to be desired hence their delusion increases.

Brahma Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

There is no commentary for this verse.

Shri Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Now Lord Krishna states that the buddhi or intellect of those in tama guna or mode of ignorance are enveloped in the darkness of consciousness. What they perceive is a distortion of reality. They think what is worthy is worthless and what is worthless is worthy, what is fact is fiction and what is fiction is fact what is inferior is superior and what is superior they consider inferior. They are easily led astray having no grasp of truth and no scope for what is real and what is unreal and thus endlessly they revolve in samsara the perpetual cycle of birth and death..

Kumara Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Now Lord Krishna states that the buddhi or intellect of those in tama guna or mode of ignorance are enveloped in the darkness of consciousness. What they perceive is a distortion of reality. They think what is worthy is worthless and what is worthless is worthy, what is fact is fiction and what is fiction is fact what is inferior is superior and what is superior they consider inferior. They are easily led astray having no grasp of truth and no scope for what is real and what is unreal and thus endlessly they revolve in samsara the perpetual cycle of birth and death..

Transliteration Bhagavad Gita 18.32

Adharmam dharmamiti yaa manyate tamasaavritaa; Sarvaarthaan vipareetaamshcha buddhih saa paartha taamasee.

Word Meanings Bhagavad Gita 18.32

adharmam—irreligion; dharmam—religion; iti—thus; yā—which; manyate—imagines; tamasa-āvṛitā—shrouded in darkness; sarva-arthān—all things; viparītān—opposite; cha—and; buddhiḥ—intellect; sā—that; pārtha—Arjun, the son of Pritha; tāmasī—of the nature of ignorance