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Bhagavad Gita Chapter 18 Verse 21

भगवद् गीता अध्याय 18 श्लोक 21

पृथक्त्वेन तु यज्ज्ञानं नानाभावान्पृथग्विधान्।
वेत्ति सर्वेषु भूतेषु तज्ज्ञानं विद्धि राजसम्।।18.21।।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी ( भगवद् गीता 18.21)

।।18.21।।परन्तु जो ज्ञान अर्थात् जिस ज्ञानके द्वारा मनुष्य सम्पूर्ण प्राणियोंमें अलगअलग अनेक भावोंको अलगअलग रूपसे जानता है? उस ज्ञानको तुम राजस समझो।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी तेजोमयानंद

।।18.21।। जिस ज्ञान के द्वारा मनुष्य समस्त भूतों में नाना भावों को पृथक्पृथक् जानता है? उस ज्ञान को तुम राजस जानो।।

हिंदी टीका - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी

।।18.21।। व्याख्या --   पृथक्त्वेन तु (टिप्पणी प0 904.1) यज्ज्ञानं नानाभावान् पृथग्विधान् -- राजस ज्ञानमें राग की मुख्यता होती है -- रजो रागात्मकं विद्धि (गीता 14। 7)। रागका यह नियम है कि वह जिसमें आ जाता है? उसमें किसीके प्रति आसक्ति? प्रियता पैदा करा देता है और किसीके प्रति द्वेष पैदा करा देता है। इस रागके कारण ही मनुष्य? देवता? यक्षराक्षस? पशुपक्षी? कीटपतङ्ग? वृक्षलता आदि जितने भी चरअचर प्राणी हैं? उन प्राणियोंकी विभिन्न आकृति? स्वभाव? नाम? रूप? गुण आदिको लेकर राजस ज्ञानवाला मनुष्य उनमें रहनेवाली एक ही अविनाशी आत्माको तत्त्वसे अलगअलग समझता है।वेत्ति सर्वेषु भूतेषु तज्ज्ञानं विद्धि राजसम् -- इसी तरह जिस ज्ञानसे मनुष्य अलगअलग शरीरोंमें अन्तःकरण? स्वभाव? इन्द्रियाँ? प्राण आदिके सम्बन्धसे प्राणियोंको भी अलगअलग मानता है? वह ज्ञान राजस कहलाता है। राजस ज्ञानमें जडचेतनका विवेक नहीं होता। सम्बन्ध --   अब तामस ज्ञानका वर्णन करते हैं।

हिंदी टीका - स्वामी चिन्मयानंद जी

।।18.21।। जब हम इन्द्रिय? मन और बुद्धि के माध्यम से जगत् का अवलोकन करते हैं? तब? निसन्देह उसमें हमें असंख्य प्रकार के भेद दृष्टिगोचर होते हैं। परन्तु जो वस्तु जिस रूप में दिखाई देती है? उसके उसी रूप को सत्य समझ लेना अविवेक का लक्षण है। राजसी पुरुष का मन सदैव चंचल और अस्थिर रहने के कारण वह कभी शान्त मन से विचार नहीं कर पाता और यही कारण है कि वह दृष्टिगोचर भेद? जैसे वनस्पति? पशु? मनुष्य आदि को परस्पर सर्वथा भिन्न और सत्य मान लेता है। ऐसे ज्ञान को राजस ज्ञान कहते हैं।

English Translation - Swami Gambirananda

18.21 But know that knowledge to be originating from rajas which, amidst all things, apprehends the different entities of various kinds as distinct [As possessing distinct selves.].

English Translation - Swami Sivananda

18.21 But that knowledge which sees in all beings various entities of distinct kinds as different from one another know thou that knowledge to be Rajasic.

English Translation - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

18.21. That instrument-of-knowledge, by means of which one considers the varied natures of different sorts in all beings as [really] different-that is regarded to be of the Rajas (Strand).

English Commentary - Swami Sivananda

18.21 पृथक्त्वेन as different from one another? तु but? यत् which? ज्ञानम् knowledge? नानाभावान् various entities? पृथग्विधान् of distinct kinds? वेत्ति knows? सर्वेषु (in) all? भूतेषु in beings? तत् that? ज्ञानम् knowledge? विद्धि know? राजसम् Rajasic.Commentary Knowledge which sees As knowledge cannot be an agent? this should be interpreted to mean knowledge by which one sees.Entities Selves or souls.Different from one another Regarding them as different in different bodies.The knowledge that is led by the idea of separateness is passionate. Enveloping as it does the manifold creation with the veil of separateness? it deludes even the wise man. Owing to passionate knowledge? beings appear to be separate and the perception of unity is also lost sight of. That knowledge which beholds multiplicity in created objects and differentiates them as being small or great? according to their form and size? is of passionate nature and tainted. A man with passionate knowledge sees diversity everywhere. He beholds the many only.Now I will explain to thee? O Arjuna? knowledge that is of the ality of darkness? in order that thou mayest avoid it.

English Translation of Sanskrit Commentary By Sri Shankaracharya's

18.21 Tu, but; viddhi, know; tat, that; jnanam, knowledge; to be rajasam, originating from rajas; yat, which; sarvesu bhutesu, amidst all things; vetti, apprehends-since knowledge cannot be an agent of hends-since knowledge cannot be an agent of action, therefore the meaning implied is, that, knowledge৷৷.through which one apprehends৷৷.-; nana-bhavan, the different entities; prthagvidhan, of various kinds, i.e., those possessing diverse characteristics and different from oneself; prthakrvena, as distinct, as separate in each body.

English Translation of Commentary - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

18.21 See Comment under 18.22

English Translation of Ramanuja's Sanskrit Commentary

18.21 Whatever knowledge perceives in Brahmana etc., at the time of work, the entity known as the Atman as of diverse nature because the bodies of those beings are tall or fair and are fit to attain the fruits of work - know that knowledge to be Rajasika. The point is this: It is not a condemnation of the plurality of Atman. The Atman, though distinct, is uniform everywhere. The bodily attributes do not affect it. The knowledge lacking this understanding is stigmatised as Rajasa.

Commentary - Chakravarthi Ji

This verse speaks of rajasic knowledge. That knowledge which one sees the soul as different in each body that it accepts, accepting the asuric idea that the soul perishes with the body, with a different soul in every body that arises; that knowledge by which one knows various opinions arising from such asuric scriptures, such as “the soul is the shelter of happiness and distress, the soul is not the shelter of happiness and distress, the soul is unconscious, the soul is conscious, the soul is all pervasive , the soul is atomic, the souls are many, the soul is one” is known as rajasic knowledge.

Rudra Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Now the nature of knowledge in raja guna or mode of passion is explained by Lord Krishna. The knowledge where one imagines all jivas or embodied beings as distinct, possessing different atmas or souls diversely conditioned by pleasure and happiness and pain and suffering is situated in raja guna.

Brahma Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

That knowledge which is contrary to the Vedic scriptures and the antithesis to the omnipotent absolute authority of the Supreme Lord Krishna is known to be situated in raja guna the mode of passion. The words nana-bhavan mean multiplicity of natures. Those who are oblivious that the Supreme Lord is the one underlying reality pervading all creation, simultaneously existing within the etheric heart of every jiva or embodied being in existence; are situated in raja guna. Now begins the summation. If one is unaware of the Supreme Lord Krishnas unparalleled position as the absolute sovereign ruler of all existence, or is bewildered about His indomitable, paramount position or thinks that any other god can manifest creation or are influenced by inferior concepts, doctrines and philosophies concerning creation, the jiva and the Supreme Lord; such erroneous and fallacious thinking devoid of a connection to reality impels one to obstinately and belligerently try to justify and validate their illusory belief systems. Such fools of miniscule knowledge and misguided intelligence are unable to mount a rational argument supporting their viewpoint and odiously cling to their bogus suppositions and faulty claims.

Shri Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The word prthaktvena means separate individuality alluding to differences in appearance between jivas or embodied beings. The words nana-bhavan refers to plurality of substance in falsely surmising that the atma varies in quality or quantity with the variance of the physical body inhabited by the jiva or to wrongly conclude that the atma varies in size and potency according to the body it is in. This mentality is indicative of those situated in raja guna the mode of passion and includes those desirous of receiving rewards for their actions.

Kumara Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The word prthaktvena means separate individuality alluding to differences in appearance between jivas or embodied beings. The words nana-bhavan refers to plurality of substance in falsely surmising that the atma varies in quality or quantity with the variance of the physical body inhabited by the jiva or to wrongly conclude that the atma varies in size and potency according to the body it is in. This mentality is indicative of those situated in raja guna the mode of passion and includes those desirous of receiving rewards for their actions.

Transliteration Bhagavad Gita 18.21

Prithaktwena tu yajjnaanam naanaabhaavaan prithagvidhaan; Vetti sarveshu bhooteshu tajjnaanam viddhi raajasam.

Word Meanings Bhagavad Gita 18.21

pṛithaktvena—unconnected; tu—however; yat—which; jñānam—knowledge; nānā-bhāvān—manifold entities; pṛithak-vidhān—of diversity; vetti—consider; sarveṣhu—in all; bhūteṣhu—living entities; tat—that; jñānam—knowledge; viddhi—know; rājasam—in the mode of passion