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Bhagavad Gita Chapter 18 Verse 19

भगवद् गीता अध्याय 18 श्लोक 19

ज्ञानं कर्म च कर्ता च त्रिधैव गुणभेदतः।
प्रोच्यते गुणसंख्याने यथावच्छृणु तान्यपि।।18.19।।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी ( भगवद् गीता 18.19)

।।18.19।।गुणसंख्यान (गुणोंके सम्बन्धसे प्रत्येक पदार्थके भिन्नभिन्न भेदोंकी गणना करनेवाले) शास्त्रमें गुणोंके भेदसे ज्ञान और कर्म तथा कर्ता तीनतीन प्रकारसे ही कहे जाते हैं? उनको भी तुम यथार्थरूपसे सुनो।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी तेजोमयानंद

।।18.19।। ज्ञान? कर्म और कर्ता भी गुणों के भेद से सांख्यशास्त्र (गुणसंख्याने) में त्रिविध ही कहे गये हैं उनको भी तुम मुझ से यथावत् श्रवण करो।।

हिंदी टीका - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी

।।18.19।। व्याख्या --   प्रोच्यते गुणसंख्याने -- जिस शास्त्रमें गुणोंके सम्बन्धसे प्रत्येक पदार्थके भिन्नभिन्न भेदोंकी गणना की गयी है? उसी शास्त्रके अनुसार मैं तुम्हें ज्ञान? कर्म तथा कर्ताके भेद बता रहा हूँ।ज्ञानं कर्म च कर्ता च त्रिधैव गुणभेदतः -- पीछेके श्लोकमें भगवान्ने कर्मकी प्रेरणा होनेमें तीन हेतु बताये तथा तीन ही हेतु कर्मके बननेमें बताये। इस प्रकार कर्मसंग्रह होनेतकमें कुल छः बातें बतायीं (टिप्पणी प0 901)। अब इस श्लोकमें भगवान् ज्ञान? कर्म तथा कर्ता -- इन तीनोंका विवेचन करनेकी ही बात कहते हैं। कर्मप्रेरकविभागमेंसे विवेचन करनेके लिये केवल ज्ञान लिया गया है? क्योंकि किसी भी कर्मकी प्रेरणामें पहले ज्ञान ही होता है। ज्ञानके बाद ही कार्यका आरम्भ होता है। कर्मसंग्रहविभागमेंसे केवल कर्म और कर्ता लिये गये हैं। यद्यपि कर्मके होनेमें कर्ता मुख्य है? तथापि साथमें कर्मको भी लेनेका कारण यह है कि कर्ता जब कर्म करता है? तभी कर्मसंग्रह होता है। अगर कर्ता कर्म न करे तो कर्मसंग्रह होगा ही नहीं। तात्पर्य यह हुआ कि कर्मप्रेरणामें ज्ञान तथा कर्मसंग्रहमें कर्म और कर्ता मुख्य हैं। इन तीनों -- (ज्ञान? कर्म और कर्ता -- ) के सात्त्विक होनेसे ही मनुष्य निर्लिप्त हो सकता है? राजस और तामस होनेसे नहीं। अतः यहाँ कर्मप्रेरकविभागमें ज्ञाता और ज्ञेय को तथा कर्मसंग्रहविभागमें करण को नहीं लिया गया है।कर्मप्रेरकविभाग के ज्ञाता और ज्ञेय का विवेचन क्यों नहीं किया कारण कि ज्ञाता जब क्रियासे सम्बन्ध जोड़ता है? तब वह कर्ता कहलाता है और उस कर्ताके तीन (सात्त्विक? राजस और तामस) भेदोंके अन्तर्गत ही ज्ञाताके भी तीन भेद हो जाते हैं। परन्तु ज्ञाता जब ज्ञप्तिमात्र रहता है? तब उसके तीन भेद नहीं होते क्योंकि उसमें गुणोंका सङ्ग नहीं है। गुणोंका सङ्ग होनेसे ही उसके तीन भेद होते हैं। इसलिये वृत्तिज्ञान ही सात्त्विक? राजस तथा तामस होता है।जिसे जाना जाय? उस विषयको ज्ञेय कहते हैं। जाननेके विषय अनेक हैं? इसलिये इसके अलग भेद नहीं किये गये। परन्तु जाननेयोग्य सब विषयोंका एकमात्र लक्ष्य सुख प्राप्त करना ही रहता है। जैसे? कोई विद्या पढ़ता है? कोई धन कमाता है? कोई अधिकार पानेकी चेष्टा करता है तो इन सब विषयोंको जानने? पानेकी चेष्टाका लक्ष्य एकमात्र सुख ही रहता है। विद्या पढ़नेमें यही भाव रहता है कि ज्यादा पढ़कर ज्यादा धन कमाऊँगा? मान पाऊँगा और उनसे मैं सुखी होऊँगा। ऐसे ही हरेक कर्मका लक्ष्य परम्परासे सुख ही रहता है। इसलिये भगवान्ने ज्ञेयके तीन भेद सात्त्विक? राजस और तामस सुख के नामसे आगे (18 । 36 -- 39में) किये हैं।ऐसे ही भगवान्ने करणके भी तीन भेद नहीं किये क्योंकि इन्द्रियाँ आदि जितने भी करण हैं? वे सब साधनमात्र हैं। इसलिये उनके तीन भेद नहीं होते। परन्तु इन सभी करणोंमें बुद्धि की ही प्रधानता है क्योंकि मनुष्य करणोंसे जो कुछ भी काम करता है? उसको वह बुद्धिपूर्वक (विचारपूर्वक) ही करता है। इसलिये भगवान्ने करणके तीन भेद सात्त्विक? राजस और तामस बुद्धिके नामसे आगे (18। 30 -- 32 में) किये हैं।बुद्धिको दृढ़तासे रखनेमें धृति बुद्धिकी सहायक बनती है। ज्ञानयोगकी साधनामें भगवान्ने दो जगह (6। 25 में तथा 18। 51में) बुद्धिके साथ धृति पद भी दिया है। इससे यह मालूम देता है कि ज्ञानमार्गमें बुद्धिके साथ धृतिकी विशेष आवश्यकता है। इसलिये भगवान्ने धृतिके भी तीन भेद (18। 33 -- 35 में) बताये हैं।त्रिधैव पदमें यह भाव है कि ये भेद तीन (सात्त्विक? राजस और तामस) ही होते हैं? कम और ज्यादा नहीं होते अर्थात् न दो होते हैं और न चार होते हैं। कारण कि सत्त्व? रज और तम -- ये तीन गुण ही प्रकृतिसे उत्पन्न हैं -- सत्त्वं रजस्तम इति गुणाः प्रकृतिसम्भवाः (गीता 14। 5)। इसलिये इन तीनों गुणोंको लेकर तीन ही भेद होते हैं।यथावत् -- गुणसंख्यानशास्त्रमें इस विषयका जैसा वर्णन हुआ है? वैसाकावैसा तुम्हें सुना रहा हूँ अपनी तरफसे कुछ कम या अधिक करके नहीं सुना रहा हूँ।श्रृणु -- इस विषयको ध्यानसे सुनो। कारण कि सात्त्विक? राजस और तामस -- इन तीनोंमेंसे सात्त्विक चीजें तो कर्मोंसे सम्बन्धविच्छेद करके परमात्मतत्त्वका बोध करानेवाली हैं? राजस चीजें जन्ममरण देनेवाली हैं और तामस चीजें पतन करनेवाली अर्थात् नरकों और नीच योनियोंमें ले जानेवाली हैं। इसलिये इनका वर्णन सुनकर सात्त्विक चीजोंको ग्रहण तथा राजसतामस चीजोंका त्याग करना चाहिये।तानि -- इन ज्ञान आदिका तुम्हारे स्वरूपके साथ कोई सम्बन्ध नहीं है। तुम्हारा स्वरूप तो सदा निर्लेप है।अपि -- इनके भेदोंको जाननेकी भी बड़ी भारी आवश्यकता है क्योंकि इनको ठीक तरहसे जाननेपर यस्य नाहंकृतो भावो ৷৷. न हन्ति न निबध्यते (18। 17) -- इस श्लोकका ठीक अनुभव हो जायगा अर्थात् अपने स्वरूपका बोध हो जायगा। सम्बन्ध --   अब भगवान् सात्त्विक ज्ञानका वर्णन करते हैं।

हिंदी टीका - स्वामी चिन्मयानंद जी

।।18.19।। आगामी श्लोकों में विवेच्य विषय को यहाँ केवल सूचित किया गया है। चतुर्दश अध्याय में प्रकृति के सत्त्व? रज और तम इन तीन गुणों के लक्षण? व्यापार एवं प्रभाव का विस्तृत वर्णन किया गया था। इन तीन गुणों में से किसी एक के आधिक्य के कारण अथवा इनके विभिन्न अनुपात में संयोग से? या फिर इनके प्राधान्य के क्रमपरिवर्तन के कारण ही विभिन्न व्यक्तियों के स्वभाव तथा कार्यों में इतना वैचित्र्य दिखाई देता है। इतना ही नहीं? अपितु किसी एक व्यक्ति के जीवन में भी समयसमय पर इन गुणों के कारण परिवर्तन होता रहता है।यहाँ गुणसंख्याने शब्द से कपिल मुनि जी का सांख्यशास्त्र अभिप्रेत है। सांख्य दर्शन में त्रिगुणों के व्यापार का विशेष वर्णन किया गया है। यथावत् का अर्थ है यथान्याय और यथाशास्त्र? अर्थात् शास्त्र और युक्ति से युक्त। अर्जुन तो उपदेश का श्रवण कर ही रहा था? तथापि शृणु कहने का अर्थ यह प्रतीत होता है कि भगवान् चाहते हैं कि अर्जुन आगे के विषय को विशेष ध्यान देकर सुने। विवेच्य विषय का विशेष महत्त्व है।सर्वप्रथम त्रिविध ज्ञान बताते हैं

English Translation - Swami Gambirananda

18.19 Knowledge, action and agent are stated in the teaching about the gunas to be only of three kinds according to the differences of the gunas. Hear about them also as they are.

English Translation - Swami Sivananda

18.19 Knowledge, action and actor are declared in the science of the Gunas (Sankhya philosophy) to be of three kinds only, according to the distinction of the Gunas. Of these also, hear duly.

English Translation - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

18.19. The instrument of knowledge, the object and the agent are just three kinds because of the differences in the Strands-thus it is declared in enumerating the Strands. These also you must listen to [from Me] as they are.

English Commentary - Swami Sivananda

18.19 ज्ञानम् knowledge? कर्म action? च and? कर्ता actor? च and? त्रिधा of three kinds? एव only? गुणभेदतः according to the distinction of Gunas? प्रोच्यते are declared? गुणसंख्याने in the science of Gunas (Sankhya philosophy)? यथावत् duly? श्रृणु hear? तानि them? अपि also.Commentary The three alities overpower the whole of creation with their special nature and bring it entirely under their control. The nature of action? the actor and his knowledge are threefold according to the Gunas that is predominant. If all the three are Sattvic? then the action will not bind the man.Karta The doer of the actions.The science of the Gunas here referred to is Kapilas system of philosophy. Though the Sankhya system is opposed to Vedanta with reference to the Supreme Truth? viz.? the oneness or nonduality of Brahman? yet it is an authority on the science of the Gunas.I shall describe knowledge? action and actor? as also their various distinctions caused by different Gunas? scientifically and rationally. Hear My teachings? O Arjuna? with rapt attention. You will be immensely benefited.

English Translation of Sanskrit Commentary By Sri Shankaracharya's

18.19 Jnanam, knowledge; karma, action-not the objective case in the technical sense, which is defined as that which is most cheirshed by the subject; and karta, agent, the accomplisher of actions; procyate, are stated; guna-sankhyane, in the teaching about the gunas, in the philosophy of Kapila; to be eva, only (-only is used for emphasis, by way of showing that they have no classification other than that based on the gunas-); tridha, of three kinds; guna-bhedatah, according to the differences of the gunas, i.e. according to the differences of sattva etc. Even that philosophy teaching about the gunas is certainly vaild so far as it concerns the experiencer of the gunas, though it is contradictory so far as the non-duality of the supreme Reality, Brahman, is concerned. Those followers of Kapila are acknoweldge authorities in the ascertainment of the functions of the gunas and their derivatives. Hence, that scripture, too, is being referred to by way of eulogy of the subject-matter going to be spoken of. Therefore there is no contradiction. Srnu, hear; tani, about them; api, also; yathavat, as they are, as established by reason and as propounded in the scriptures. Hear about knowledge etc. and all their diversities created by the differences of the gunas. The idea is , Concentrate your mind on the subject going to be taught. And now the threefold classification of knowledge is being stated:

English Translation of Commentary - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

18.19 Jnanam etc. In enumerating the Strands : In the consdered conclusion of the Sankhya where the Strands are decided numerically, these instruments of knowledge etc., are declared to be of three types. that you must listen to. This is what is conveyed by the association of words (or ideas) here. By instrument-of-knowledge (Jnanam) the two-fold instruments viz. that of knowledge and of activity, are spoken of. Similarly object (karman) speaks of both the object of knowledge and the object of activity and agent (kartr) refers to both the knower and the performer. Now the three verses. Sarvabhutesu etc. (20-22) speak of the three-foldness of the instrument of knowledge. That is why the Instrumental Yena is employed. The nature of all the instruments of knowledge and of action is described by this much of portion. The three-foldness of object of both the types viz. the object of knowledge and the object of action is described by the tripple verses Niyatam etc. (23-25). The three-fold nature of the agent of both the categories viz. the knower and the doer is briefly explained by the three verses Muktasangah etc. (26-28). The three types of the intellect is examined by three verses, Pravrttim etc. (30-32), in order to explain the different nature of the two-fold instruments (i.e. of knowledge and of action). By this means the three-fold nature of other instrumetns is also indicated. The instrument reires technical know-how, and this technical know-how, of course, consists of the pentad that includes content and so on. However, because faith [included in this pentad] has already been dealt with (XVII, 2ff.), and because the desire to know and the aversion to know [both belonging to the pentad] are obtained by inference through the firmness and happiness [of the pentad], the three-fold division of the last two is explained by the verses Dhrtya yaya etc. (33-35) and Sukham tu idanim etc. (36-39). All this [the Lord] declares [one by one] ;-

English Translation of Ramanuja's Sanskrit Commentary

18.19 The knowledge of action which ought to be done, the act to be performed, and the performer of the act are threefold, each of them being divided in accordance with Sattva etc., Listen about these, which are differentiated according to the Gunas.

Commentary - Chakravarthi Ji

No commentary by Sri Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakur.

Rudra Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The question of what subsequently transpires as a result is explained as knowledge. In the science of the three gunas or modes of material nature they are described according to their influence and effects. In the Sankhya philosophy of analytical reasoning by Kapila-deva an incarnation of Lord Krishna, it is declared that knowledge, action and agent are of only three types according to the distinction of whether they are situated in sattva guna the mode of goodness, raja guna the mode of passion or tama guna the mode of ignorance. Knowledge which will be described is also of only three types. The emphasis of only used twice regarding the three types negates any conceptions of the jiva or embodied being as independent from the influence of the gunas in any way. Previously the various binding nature of the three gunas has been described. The 14th chapter: verse six explains how sattva guna captivates the jiva by attachment to happiness and knowledge, verse seven explains how raja guna binds the jiva by infatuation and covetousness and verse eight explains how tama guna enslaves the jiva by slothfulness and forgetfulness. In chapter 17, verse 4 it is explained that those in sattva guna worship the demigods who are in charge of universal maintenance such as Brahma or Shiva. Those in raja guna worship Durga, Kali, yaksas which are entities extremely lusty and raksasas which are blood drinking demons. While those in tama guna worship ghosts and spirits. Later it has been declared that one should strive exclusively for sattva guna discarding raja and tama guna and that one should only partake of vegetarian foods in sattva guna which are pure, wholesome, energising and invigorating. Such foods are milk products from the cow, fruits, grains and vegetables. In order to reinforce and emphasise that action, its factors and rewards are related explicitly in the context of the gunas as they all are totally of a material nature arising from prakriti the material substratum pervading physical existence and have no connection to the atma or immortal soul which is of an exclusive spiritual nature. This difference is to be noted.

Brahma Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Here Lord Krishna reiterates the path of sadhana or spiritual development and will explains in the next three verses the distinctions between the three gunas or modes of material nature. The science of attributes is the expertise in distinguishing the attributes and is clarified in the Sankhya philosophy of analytical deduction by Kapila-deva an incarnation of Lord Krishna.

Shri Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Knowledge is understanding the action to be performed. The effort is the means and method to perform the action and included with the agent as the performer of the action. The phrase guna-sankhya refers to the Sankhya philosophy of analytical deduction by Lord Krishnas incarnation of Kapila- deva, which describes the characteristics of the three gunas or modes of material nature and their relationship to knowledge and agent as described in the next three verses.

Kumara Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Knowledge is understanding the action to be performed. The effort is the means and method to perform the action and included with the agent as the performer of the action. The phrase guna-sankhya refers to the Sankhya philosophy of analytical deduction by Lord Krishnas incarnation of Kapila- deva, which describes the characteristics of the three gunas or modes of material nature and their relationship to knowledge and agent as described in the next three verses.

Transliteration Bhagavad Gita 18.19

Jnaanam karma cha kartaa cha tridhaiva gunabhedatah; Prochyate gunasankhyaane yathaavacchrinu taanyapi.

Word Meanings Bhagavad Gita 18.19

jñānam—knowledge; karma—action; cha—and; kartā—doer; cha—also; tridhā—of three kinds; eva—certainly; guṇa-bhedataḥ—distinguished according to the three modes of material nature; prochyate—are declared; guṇa-saṅkhyāne—Sānkhya philosophy, which describes the modes of material nature; yathā-vat—as they are; śhṛiṇu—listen; tāni—them; api—also