ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं परिज्ञाता त्रिविधा कर्मचोदना।
करणं कर्म कर्तेति त्रिविधः कर्मसंग्रहः।।18.18।।
18.18 Knowledge, the knowable and the knower form the threefold impulse to action; the organ, the action and the agent form the threefold basis of action.
18.18 ज्ञानम् knowledge? ज्ञेयम् the knowable? परिज्ञाता the knower? त्रिविधा threefold? कर्मचोदना impulse to action? करणम् the organ? कर्म the action? कर्ता the agent? इति thus? त्रिविधः threefold? कर्मसंग्रहः the basis of action.Commentary Knowledge? the knower and the thing to be known? are together the seed of this world. This is known as the Triputi or the traid. It is the conjunction of these three that impels a man to threefold action? viz.? mental? verbal and physical. This triad is the driving force of all the activities of man. He rejoices at the sight of palatable sweetmeats and delicious fruits but is terrified at the sight of a cobra or tiger. The sight of pleasant or unpleasant objects affects him and he attempts either to possess the agreeable objects or to avoid the disagreeable ones.The Antahkarana (the inner instrument) consists of the mind? intellect? subconscious mind and egoism. The ear? the skin? the tongue? the nose and the eye are the five organs of knowledge. The individual soul? propelled by these five senses? is led into activity. He does actions with the help of the five organs of action? viz.? speech? hands? feet? genitals and anus.Jnanam Any knowledge knowledge in general knowledge of worldly objects? etc.Jneyam The object to be known objects in general.Parijnata The knower? the experiencer or the enjoyer? putting on the nature of the limiting adjuncts? a creature of ignorance.This triad forms the threefold impulse to all action? to action in general. The performance of an action in order to get a thing or to avoid an object is possible only when there is the conjunction of the three? viz.? knowledge? knowable and knower.Karanam The organ That by which something is done. The actions done by the five causes of action? viz.? the body? etc.? which are grouped under the three classes according to their respective seats? viz.? mind? speech and body? are all due to the interplay of the organ? etc.Karta The agent or the doer he who sets the organs in motion or action and puts on the nature of the limiting adjunct or vehicle in which he acts. All actions inhere in these three (the organ? the doer and the action itself) and they are? therefore? said to form the basis or the threefold constituents of action.As action? the various factors of action and the fruits are all made up of the Gunas? the Lord describes them in the following verses.
Jnaanam jneyam parijnaataa trividhaa karmachodanaa; Karanam karma karteti trividhah karmasangrahah.
jñānam—knowledge; jñeyam—the object of knowledge; parijñātā—the knower; tri-vidhā—three factors; karma-chodanā—factors that induce action; karaṇam—the instrumens of action; karma—the act; kartā—the doer; iti—thus; tri-vidhaḥ—threefold; karma-saṅgrahaḥ—constituents of action