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Bhagavad Gita Chapter 18 Verse 14

भगवद् गीता अध्याय 18 श्लोक 14

अधिष्ठानं तथा कर्ता करणं च पृथग्विधम्।
विविधाश्च पृथक्चेष्टा दैवं चैवात्र पञ्चमम्।।18.14।।

English Translation - Swami Gambirananda

18.14 The locus as also the agent, the different kinds of organs, the many and distinct activities, and, the divine is here the fifth.

English Translation - Swami Sivananda

18.14 The seat (body), the doer, the various senses, the different functions of various sorts, and the presiding deity, also, the fifth.

English Translation - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

18.14. The basis, as well as the agent, and diverse instruments, and distinct activity of various kinds and Destiny, which is certainly the fifth [factor].

English Commentary - Swami Sivananda

18.14 अधिष्ठानम् the seat or body? तथा also? कर्ता the doer? करणम् the senses? च and? पृथग्विधम् of different? विविधाः various? च and? पृथक् different? चेष्टाः functions? दैवम् the presiding deity? च and? एव even? अत्र here? पञ्चमम् the fifth.Commentary Now listen to the characteristics of these five? of which the body is the first. It is termed the support or the seat. The body is the seat of desire? hatred? happiness? misery? knowledge and the like. The individual soul experiences through the body the pleasure and pain that arise through contact with matter. Egoism is the agent or the doer or the enjoyer. Nature does actions but through delusion the individual soul takes to himself the credit of their execution and? therefore? he is called the agent.Karta The enjoyer putting on the nature or properties of the limiting adjuncts with which he comes into contact.Karanam prithagvidham Various organs such as the organ of hearing? by which the individual soul hears the sound? etc. organs of knowledge and action and the mind.Daivam The presiding deity such as the Sun and the other gods by whose help the eye and the other organs perform their respective functions destiny.Cheshta Play of energy in the organs or the senses during the action.Absence of any of these factors will make action impossible.

English Translation of Sanskrit Commentary By Sri Shankaracharya's

18.14 Adhisthanam, the locus, the body, which is the seat, the basis, of the manifestation of desire, hatred, happiness, sorrow, knowledge, etc.; tatha, as also karta, the agent, the enjoyer [The individual Self which has intelligence etc. as its limiting adjuncts, due to which it appears to possess their characteristics and become identified with them.] who has assumed the characteristics of the limiting adjuncts; prthak vidham, the different kinds of; karanam, organs, the ears etc. which, twelve [The five organs of knowledge (eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin), the five organs of actions (hands, feet, speech, organ of excertion and that of generation), the mind and the intellect.] in number, are of different kinds for the experience of sound etc.; the vividhah, many; and prthak, distinct; cesta, activities connected with air-exhalation, inhalation, etc.; ca eva, and; daivam, the divine, i.e. the Sun and the others who are the presiding deities of the eye etc.; is atra, here, in relation to these four; pancamam, the fifth-completing the five.

English Translation of Commentary - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

18.14 See Comment under 18.17

English Translation of Ramanuja's Sanskrit Commentary

18.14 - 18.15 For all actions, performed through body, words or mind, whether they be authorized by the Sastras or not, the causes are these five. (1) The body, which is a conglomeration of the great elements, is known as the seat, since it is governed by the individual self. (2) The agent is the individual self. That this individual self is the knower and the agent is established in the Vedanta-Sutras: For this reason, (the individual self) is the knower (2.3.18) and The agent, on account of the scripture having a purport (2.3.33.). (3) The organs of various kinds are the five motor organs like that of speech, hands, feet etc., along with the mind. They are of various kinds, viz., they have different functions in completing an action. (4) The different and distinctive functions of vital air - here the expression functions (Cesta) means several functions. Distinctive are the functions of this fivefold vital air which sustains the body and senses through its divisions of Prana, Apana etc. (5) Divinity is the fifth among these causes. The purport is this: Among these, which constitute the conglomeration of causes of work the Divinity is the fifth. It is the Supreme Self, the Inner Ruler, who is the main cause in completing the action. It has been already affirmed: I am seated in the hearts of all. From Me are memory, knowledge and their removal also (15.15), and He will say further: The Lord, O Arjuna, lives in the heart of every being casuing them to spin round and round by His power as if set on a wheel (18.61). The agency of the individual self is dependent on the Supreme Self as established in the aphorism: But from the Supreme, because the scripture says so (B. S., 2.3.41). Now an objection may be raised in this way: If the agency of the individual self is dependent on the Supreme Self and the individual self cannot be charged with moral responsibility, then the scriptures containing injunctions and prohibitions become useless, as the individual self cannot be enjoined to act in regard to any action. The objection is disposed off by the author of the Vedanta-Sutras in the aphorism: But with a view to the effects made on account of the purposelessness of injunctions and prohibitions (2.3.42). The purport is this: By means of his senses, body etc., granted by the Supreme Self - having Him for their support, empowered by Him, and thus deriving power from Him - the individual self begins, of his own free will, the effort for directing the senses etc., for the purpose of performing actions conditioned by his body and organs. The individual self Itself, of Its own free will, is responsible for activity, since the Supreme Self, abiding within, causes It to act only by granting His permission, just as works such as moving heavy stones and timber are collectively the labour of many persons and they are together responsible for the effect. But each one of them (severally) also is responsible for it. In the same way each individual is answerable to Natures law in the form of positive and negative ?ndments.

Commentary - Chakravarthi Ji

The five causes are listed. Adhisthanam means the body. Karta means the ahankara, which ties together the soul with the body. Karanam means the senses such as eyes or ears, of many types (prthak vidham). Cesta refers to the life airs such as prana and apana, which have various functions (prthak). Daiva refers to the antaryami who sets everything in motion.

Rudra Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The question may be submitted how is it possible that one performing actions derives no reactions from their activities. Apprehending such a doubt Lord Krishna in order to exemplify that for one who has given up attachment to the reward of actions and who is free from the ego sense of I and mine there is no connection to reactions from any action. This he elaborates in this verse and the next four. He says to understand the meaning of His words, learn the five causes that are about to be given regarding the accomplishment and production of all actions. To imbibe the cessation of the conception as the doer of actions it is necessary to comprehend these five causes. So to emphasise them Lord Krishna states as declared etc. Here the word sankhya refers to Vedantic philosophy of analytical rationalism established by Kapila Deva, an empowered incarnation of the Supreme Lord Krishna. That by which the atma or immortal soul is thoroughly known is declared sankhya or wisdom of the ultimate truth which is the final point and apex of all knowledge which is the ultimate conclusion found in the Vedic scriptures. The five causes of all actions to manifest are the body, the ego which is the juncture of spirit and matter, the life airs which automatically function and pervade throughout creation, the senses such as the eyes which include the diety of the sun which presides over the eyes and also the other four senses with their presiding dieties and finally the inner ruler and controller of them all as the atma or soul which is powered by paramatma the Supreme Soul.

Brahma Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

In this verse Lord Krishna again reiterates sannyasa or renunciation by abandonment of actions. The words sankhye kritante refers to the system of analysis established in the sankhya philosophy of analytical conclsion by Kapila-deva, who appeared as the son of Kardama Muni from the womb of Devahuti and who is an empowered incarnation of the Supreme Lord Krishna. His is the original sankhya philosophy acknowledging the existence of the Supreme Lord as the goal and is in full accordance with the Vedic scriptures. It should not be confused by an imitation sankhya philosophy by a Kapila Muni which bases its precepts on analysis of matter and is atheistic, not accepting the reality of the Supreme Lord hence contrary to the Vedic scriptures and unacceptable. The word adhisthanam means the body, the life airs, the ego, the senses, and their inner director the atma or immortal soul controlled by paramatma the Supreme Soul residing simultaneously in the individual etheric heart of all living entities. Paramatma is an effortless expansion of the Supreme Lord Krishnas purusa avatar known as Ksisirodaksayi Vishnu. All embodied beings acesta refers to actions both involutary such as the heart beating and breathing as well as volutary actions such as using the hands to perform yagna or ritualistic propitiation and worship of the Supreme Lord or utilising the mind to meditate upon the Supreme Lord. By such actions impressions are established which impel one towards the divine. The divine is transcendental and cannot be seen although the liberated can perceive it in their consciousness it is not visible. It has been said that the body, the life airs, the ego, the senses and the atma are the instruments of all activities with paramatma as the unseen controller of them all.

Shri Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The word sankhya means rational, analytical reasoning and refes to the sankhya philosophy established by Lord Krishnas incarnation of Kapila Deva. The word kritante means deriving the perfect conclusion of the categorical and essential nature of all things based upon the tenents, ordinances and injunctions of the Vedic scriptures. The five causes Lord krishna will reveal are component factors combining to manifest individual acts. The word nibodha meaning comprehend denotes that they must be contemplated and reflected upon. The absolute conclusion of the Vedic scriptures verily regards Lord Krishnas expansion as paramatma the Supreme Soul existing simultaneously in the etheric heart of all living entities as the sole author of all acts. The body, the prana or life airs, the ego, the senses, the are the four instuments of the atma or individual soul which is powered by paramatma the Supreme Soul. Evidence confirming this is found in the Taittiriya Upanisad II.III.I beginning prana deva anu prananti meaning: That which is within the body is the prana and that which is seated within the body is the the atma and that which rules the immortal atma is paramatma.

Kumara Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The word sankhya means rational, analytical reasoning and refes to the sankhya philosophy established by Lord Krishnas incarnation of Kapila Deva. The word kritante means deriving the perfect conclusion of the categorical and essential nature of all things based upon the tenents, ordinances and injunctions of the Vedic scriptures. The five causes Lord krishna will reveal are component factors combining to manifest individual acts. The word nibodha meaning comprehend denotes that they must be contemplated and reflected upon. The absolute conclusion of the Vedic scriptures verily regards Lord Krishnas expansion as paramatma the Supreme Soul existing simultaneously in the etheric heart of all living entities as the sole author of all acts. The body, the prana or life airs, the ego, the senses, the are the four instuments of the atma or individual soul which is powered by paramatma the Supreme Soul. Evidence confirming this is found in the Taittiriya Upanisad II.III.I beginning prana deva anu prananti meaning: That which is within the body is the prana and that which is seated within the body is the the atma and that which rules the immortal atma is paramatma.

Transliteration Bhagavad Gita 18.14

Adhishthaanam tathaa kartaa karanam cha prithagvidham; Vividhaashcha prithakcheshtaa daivam chaivaatra panchamam.

Word Meanings Bhagavad Gita 18.14

adhiṣhṭhānam—the body; tathā—also; kartā—the doer (soul); karaṇam—senses; cha—and; pṛithak-vidham—various kinds; vividhāḥ—many; cha—and; pṛithak—distinct; cheṣhṭāḥ—efforts; daivam—Divine Providence; cha eva atra—these certainly are (causes); pañchamam—the fifth