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Bhagavad Gita Chapter 18 Verse 1

भगवद् गीता अध्याय 18 श्लोक 1

अर्जुन उवाच
संन्यासस्य महाबाहो तत्त्वमिच्छामि वेदितुम्।
त्यागस्य च हृषीकेश पृथक्केशिनिषूदन।।18.1।।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी तेजोमयानंद

।।18.1।। अर्जुन ने कहा -- हे महाबाहो हे हृषीकेश हे केशनिषूदन मैं संन्यास और त्याग के तत्त्व को पृथक्पृथक् जानना चाहता हूँ।।

Kumara Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The preceding chapters 16 and 17 elaborated the following subjects by Lord Krishna: 1) The only means of achieving the four purusarthas or goals of human existence which are kama or pleasure, artha or wealth, dharma or righteousness and moksa or liberation from material existence which is the quintessence of them all is to adhere to and follow the ordinances and injunctions of the Vedic scriptures by the performance of yagna or ritualistic propitiation and worship to the Supreme Lord Krishna, tapah or austerities and penance authorised in the Vedic scriptures and danam or charity to the Vaisnava Brahmins from one of the four bonafide sampradayas as revealed in Vedic scriptures. 2) That all Vedic rituals and observances are always predicated first with the pranava OM the transcendental sound vibration of the Supreme Lord denoting the first breath making this reverberating hum which the Sanskrit root is pranu. 3) The distinction of that representing the brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence and leading to moksa is symbolised by TAT and that representing prakriti or the material substratum pervading physical existence confering kama, artha and dharma is symbolised by SAT. 4) That yagna or ritualistic propitiation and worship performed for the satisfaction of the Supreme Lord when devoid of any desires for rewards becomes successful 5) That those initiated Vaisnava brahmanas performing yagnas achieved their ordainment as a result of the prominence of sattva guna or mode of goodness permeating their character enhanced by the sole intake of only sattvic foods. In this final chapter Lord Krishna concisely delineates the following subject matters: 1) Sannyasa the renunciation of action and tyaja the renunciation of actions rewards 2) The exact nature and mood of tyaja. 3) The comprehension that the Supreme Lord Krishna is the repository and agency of everything. 4) A description of the effects of the three gunas or modes of material nature illustrating that sattva guna alone leads to moksa or liberation from material existence and is thus the only guna worthy of cultivation. 5) How activities appropriated in the varnas or four caste system indicates the natural propensities of a jiva or embodied being based on karma or reactions to past actions are actually authorised acts of worship to the Supreme Lord accomplishing His attainment. 6) The quintessential conclusion of the divine discourse Srimad Bhagavad- Gita is that bhakti or exclusive loving devotion to the Supreme Lord Krishna or any of His authorised incarnations and expansions as revealed in Vedic scriptures is the paramount goal of all existence. The question enquired about is the distinct difference between sannyasa and tyaja as well as their similarities. Both are subtle not easy to understand. Both are situated in renunciation and both lead to moksa. Literally sannyasa means putting away and literally tyaja means giving up. Sannyasa expresses abandonment of desires for actions and tyaja exhibits the abandonment for the rewards of actions. The Mundaka Upanisad III.II.VI beginning veda ta vijnano sunisch means: Those of restrained senses who lead a life of renunciation with Vedic knowledge achieve liberation. Not by action, not by wealth, not by progeny can this be achieved. Those enlightened jivas who have ascertained what is the essence of the Vedic scriptures and assimilating it within their hearts by renunciation dissolve all their karmas and achieve moksa and the final beatitude. In order to illustrate the nature of both sannyasa and tyaja and prove that they are one and the same Lord Krishna first corrects the misapprehension that they are different.