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Bhagavad Gita Chapter 18 Verse 1

भगवद् गीता अध्याय 18 श्लोक 1

अर्जुन उवाच
संन्यासस्य महाबाहो तत्त्वमिच्छामि वेदितुम्।
त्यागस्य च हृषीकेश पृथक्केशिनिषूदन।।18.1।।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी ( भगवद् गीता 18.1)

।।18.1।।(टिप्पणी प0 868) अर्जुन बोले -- हे महाबाहो हे हृषीकेश हे केशिनिषूदन मैं संन्यास और त्यागका तत्त्व अलगअलग जानना चाहता हूँ।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी तेजोमयानंद

।।18.1।। अर्जुन ने कहा -- हे महाबाहो हे हृषीकेश हे केशनिषूदन मैं संन्यास और त्याग के तत्त्व को पृथक्पृथक् जानना चाहता हूँ।।

हिंदी टीका - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी

।।18.1।। व्याख्या --   संन्यासस्य महाबाहो ৷৷. पृथक्केशिनिषूदन -- यहाँ महाबाहो सम्बोधन सामर्थ्यका सूचक है। अर्जुनद्वारा इस सम्बोधनका प्रयोग करनेका भाव यह है कि आप सम्पूर्ण विषयोंको कहनेमें समर्थ हैं अतः मेरी जिज्ञासाका समाधान आप इस प्रकार करें? जिससे मैं विषयको सरलतासे समझ सकूँ।हृषीकेश सम्बोधन अन्तर्यामीका वाचक है। इसके प्रयोगमें अर्जुनका भाव यह है कि मैं संन्यास और त्यागका तत्त्व जानना चाहता हूँ अतः इस विषयमें जोजो आवश्यक बातें हों? उनको आप (मेरे पूछे बिना भी) कह दें।केशिनिषूदन सम्बोधन विघ्नोंको दूर करनेवालेका सूचक है। इसके प्रयोगमें अर्जुनका भाव यह है कि जिस प्रकार आप अपने भक्तोंके सम्पूर्ण विघ्नोंको दूर कर देते हैं? उसी प्रकार मेरे भी सम्पूर्ण विघ्नोंको अर्थात् शङ्काओँ और संशयोंको दूर कर दें।जिज्ञासा प्रायः दो प्रकारसे प्रकट की जाती है --,(1) अपने आचरणमें लानेके लिये और (2) सिद्धान्तको समझनेके लिये। जो केवल पढ़ाई करनेके लिये (सीखनेके लिये) सिद्धान्तको समझते हैं? वे केवल पुस्तकोंके विद्वान् बन सकते हैं और नयी पुस्तक भी बना सकते हैं? पर अपना कल्याण नहीं कर सकते (टिप्पणी प0 869)। अपना कल्याण तो वे ही कर सकते हैं? जो सिद्धान्तको समझकर उसके अनुसार अपना जीवन बनानेके लिये तत्पर हो जाते हैं।यहाँ अर्जुनकी जिज्ञासा भी केवल सिद्धान्तको जाननेके लिये ही नहीं है? प्रत्युत सिद्धान्तको जानकर उसके अनुसार अपना जीवन बनानेके लिये है।एषा तेऽभिहिता सांख्ये (गीता 2। 39) में आये सांख्य पदको ही यहाँ संन्यास पदसे कहा गया है। भगवान्ने भी सांख्य और संन्यासको पर्यायवाची माना है जैसे -- पाँचवें अध्यायके दूसरे श्लोकमें संन्यासः? चौथे श्लोकमें सांख्ययोगौ? पाँचवें श्लोकमें यत्सांख्यैः और छठे श्लोकमें संन्यासस्तु पदोंका एक ही अर्थमें प्रयोग हुआ है। इसलिये यहाँ अर्जुनने सांख्यको ही संन्यास कहा है।इसी प्रकार बुद्धिर्योगे त्विमां श्रृणु (गीता 2। 39) में आये योग पदको ही यहाँ त्याग पदसे कहा गया है। भगवान्ने भी योग (कर्मयोग) और त्यागको पर्यायवाची माना है जैसे -- दूसरे अध्यायके अड़तालीसवें श्लोकमें सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा तथा इक्यावनवें श्लोकमें फलं त्यक्त्वा? तीसरे अध्यायके तीसरे श्लोकमें कर्मयोगेन योगिनाम्? चौथे अध्यायके बीसवें श्लोकमें त्यक्त्वा कर्मफलासङ्गम्? पाँचवें श्लोकमें तद्योगैरपि गम्यते? ग्यारहवें श्लोकमें सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा तथा बारहवें श्लोकमें त्यागात् पदोंका एक ही अर्थमें प्रयोग हुआ है। इसलिये यहाँ अर्जुनने कर्मयोगको ही त्याग कहा है।अच्छी तरहसे रखनेका नाम संन्यास है -- सम्यक् न्यासः संन्यासः। तात्पर्य है कि प्रकृतिकी चीज सर्वथा प्रकृतिमें देने (छोड़ देने) और विवेकद्वारा प्रकृतिसे अपना सर्वथा सम्बन्धविच्छेद कर लेनेका नाम संन्यास है।कर्म और फलकी आसक्तिको छोड़नेका नाम त्याग है। छठे अध्यायके चौथे श्लोकमें आया है कि जो कर्म और फलमें आसक्त नहीं होता? वह योगारूढ़ हो जाता है। सम्बन्ध --   अर्जुनकी जिज्ञासाके उत्तरमें पहले भगवान् आगेके दो श्लोकोंमें अन्य दार्शनिक विद्वानोंके चार मत बताते हैं।

हिंदी टीका - स्वामी चिन्मयानंद जी

।।18.1।। यद्यपि अर्जुन की जिज्ञासा शैक्षणिक रुचि की है? तथापि भगवान् श्रीकृष्ण पूर्ण गम्भीरता के साथ उसका उत्तर देते हैं। जब शिष्य अपना सन्देह या जिज्ञासा प्रकट करता है? तब निश्चय ही वह स्वयं अपनी कठिनाई नहीं जान पाता है। अत गुरु का यह कर्तव्य हो जाता है कि शिष्य की कठिनाई को समझकर उसका समाधान करे। यहाँ भगवान् श्रीकृष्ण का यही प्रयत्न है।यह सम्पूर्ण अध्याय त्याग और संन्यास के अर्थ के चारों ओर घूमता रहता है। त्याग के बिना संन्यास अनाकलनीय है? असम्भव है? और यदि कोई ऐसा प्रयत्न करता है? तो उसका संन्यास केवल पाखण्ड ही कहा जायेगा। यह अध्याय हमारी उन वासनाओं? प्रवृत्तियों? उद्देश्यों आदि का वर्णन करता है? जो सर्वथा त्याज्य है। इनके ज्ञान से अवांछनीय गुणों का वास्तविक त्याग संभव हो सकता है। इस तथ्य को ध्यान में रखकर इस अध्याय का अध्ययन करना चाहिए? अन्यथा? निश्चय ही? यह हमें प्रभावित नहीं कर पायेगा।केशनिषूदन केशि नामक एक असुर अश्व का रूप धारण करके बालकृष्ण की हत्या करने आया था? परन्तु भगवान् ने उसे ही दो भागों में विदीर्ण कर दिया था। अत वे केशिनिषूदन के नाम से प्रसिद्ध हुए।इन शब्दों के तत्त्वनिर्णय हेतु

English Translation - Swami Gambirananda

18.1 Arjuna said O mighty-armed Hrsikesa, O slayer of (the demon) Kesi, I want to know serverally the truth about sannyasa as also about tyaga.

English Translation - Swami Sivananda

18.1 Arjuna said I desire to know severally, O mighty-armed, the essence or truth of renunciation, O Hrishikesa, as also of abandonment, O slayer of Kesi.

English Translation - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

18.1. Arjuna said O Mighty-armed ! I desire to know severally the distinctive nature of renunciation and of relinishment, O Hrsikesa ! O Slayer of Kesin !

English Commentary - Swami Sivananda

18.1 संन्यासस्य of renunciation? महाबाहो O mightyarmed? तत्त्वम् the essence of truth? इच्छामि (I) wish? वेदितुम् to know? त्यागस्य of Tyaga or abandonment? च and? हृषीकेशः O Krishna? पृथक् severally? केशिनिषूदन् slayer of Kesi.Commentary The teaching of the whole of the GitaSastra is summed up beautifully in this discourse. This last discourse is a brief masterly summary of all that is told in the previous chapters. Arjuna wishes to know the distinction between Sannyasa and Tyaga.Kesi was an Asura whom Lord Krishna slew. So? Lord Krishna is addressed as Kesinishudana by Arjuna.The words Sannyasa and Tyaga have been used here and there in the preceding discourses? but their connotations are not lucidly distinguished. Therefore Lord Krishna clearly explains to Arjuna the right significance of the two terms in the following verse.

English Translation of Sanskrit Commentary By Sri Shankaracharya's

18.1 O mighty-armed Hrsikesa, kesi-nisudana, O slayer of (the demon) Kesi; icchami, I want; veditum, to know; prthak, severally, through their mutual distinctions; tattvam, the truth, the intrinsic nature, i.e. the real meaning; sannyasasya, of sannyasa, i.e. the meaning of the word sannyasa, ca, as also; tyagasya, of tyaga, i.e. the meaning of the word tyaga. Kesi was a demon who had assumed the form of a horse, and Lord Vasudeva had killed him. Hence He is addressed by that name (Kesi-nisudana) by Arjuna. The word sannyasa and tyaga, used in various places in the preceding chapters, are not explicit in their implications. Therefore, in order to determine them for Arjuna who had put the estion,-

English Translation of Commentary - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

18.1 Samnyasaya etc. It has been delcared earlier that He [alone] is a man of relinishment and is also a man of wisdom (II, 50); and He [alone] is a man of renunciation and a man of Yoga; but not he who remains without his fires (VI, 1), and so on. Thus, becuase a man of relinishment and a man of renunciation are both found mentioned, now arises this estion from a person (Arjuna) who is desirous of understanding their difference. Now [by giving] the answer -

English Translation of Ramanuja's Sanskrit Commentary

18.1 Arjuna said Both Sannyasa and Tyaga as a means for release are enjoined in such Srutis: Not by rituals, nor by progeny, nor by rituals, nor by progeny, nor by wealth but by Tyaga alone do some attain immortality ৷৷. (Ma. Na., 5.14). Ascertaining the truth about the Supreme Reality from a knowledge of Vedanta, and becoming purified in mind by the means of Sannyasa Yoga, these Yatis (ascetics), at the dissolution of their bodies, attain the Lord who is higher than the freed selves and become liberated from bondage (Man. U., 3.2.6). I want to know separately the truth, viz., whether Tyaga and Sannyasa are synonymous or not. The import is this. Do these two terms Sannyasa and Tyaga have different meanings or do they signify the same thing? If they signify different things, I want to know their different natures. If they are synonymous, their identical nature should be elucidated. Then, in order to prove that the nature of both is identical and that it is such and such, the Lord explains, showing the disagreements among some disputants:

Commentary - Chakravarthi Ji

The eighteenth chapter speaks of the three types of sannyasa, jnana and karma, defines liberation and indicates bhakti as the highest secret of all. “You stated in the previous chapter ‘Uttering the word tat, without seeking results, sacrifices, austerities and charities are performed by those with desire for liberation from the atat material world.’ Those with a desire for liberation are sannyasis. But there seems to be others who are detached from all the results of their work, as mentioned by you when you said sarva-karma-phala-tydgam tatah kuru yatatmavan: give up all the result of your work with great attention. (BG 12.11) What is the tyaga of these others?” Wanting to know the distinction, Arjuna asks a question in this verse. “If the words sannyasa and tydga have different meanings I desire to know the distinct essence of these two. But if they mean the same thing, in your opinion or others’ opinion, I desire to know what is that one meaning as well. “O controller of the senses (hrsikesa), you have made this doubt arise in me since you are the instigator of my intelligence. O killer of Kesi (kesi nisudana), you kill this doubt of mine just as you killed Kesi. O Mighty-armed one (maha baho), you have great strength in your arms, and I have insignificant strength in my arms. You have become friendly with such an expansion as me, rather than with your other expansions with vast knowledge. Therefore I am not afraid to ask this question, since you have become somewhat friendly with me.”

Rudra Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

In order to ascertain exactly what is the final conclusion of all the teachings and instructions that have been imparted up until now; the Supreme Lord Krishna concisely summarises the entire Bhagavad-Gita in this concluding chapter by clearly distinguishing the difference between renunciation of actions caused by the impulses of desire and renunciation of the desire for rewards for ones actions. In previous chapters Lord Krishna has elaborated on the mental renunciation of all actions in chapter 5, verse 13 as well as renunciation of actions through yoga or the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness in chapter 9, verse 28. He has also explained renouncing attachment to actions while renouncing their rewards in chapter 4, verse 20 and likewise explained the renunciation of the rewards resulting from actions in chapter 12, verse 11. It should be understood that the infinitely merciful and totally omniscient Supreme Lord Krishna never teaches or exemplifies contradictory knowledge. Whatever and wherever His divine lila or pastimes are manifesting they are always perfection and the epitome of dharma or eternal righteousness. Everything He does or expounds upon whether instructional or by example is always fully harmonious with the Vedas and in completely complimentary to the conclusions of all the Vedic scriptures. So to distinctly know the difference between renunciation of performing actions and to reconcile it harmoniously with renunciation for the results of actions is the poignant and penetrating question requested to be answered here.

Brahma Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Hari OM! In this final chapter the Supreme Lord Krishna summarises in brief all of the perennial principles and eternal truths that were presented in the previous 17 chapters and establishes the collective conclusion to all of them.

Shri Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The preceding chapters 16 and 17 elaborated the following subjects by Lord Krishna: 1) The only means of achieving the four purusarthas or goals of human existence which are kama or pleasure, artha or wealth, dharma or righteousness and moksa or liberation from material existence which is the quintessence of them all is to adhere to and follow the ordinances and injunctions of the Vedic scriptures by the performance of yagna or ritualistic propitiation and worship to the Supreme Lord Krishna, tapah or austerities and penance authorised in the Vedic scriptures and danam or charity to the Vaisnava Brahmins from one of the four bonafide sampradayas as revealed in Vedic scriptures. 2) That all Vedic rituals and observances are always predicated first with the pranava OM the transcendental sound vibration of the Supreme Lord denoting the first breath making this reverberating hum which the Sanskrit root is pranu. 3) The distinction of that representing the brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence and leading to moksa is symbolised by TAT and that representing prakriti or the material substratum pervading physical existence confering kama, artha and dharma is symbolised by SAT. 4) That yagna or ritualistic propitiation and worship performed for the satisfaction of the Supreme Lord when devoid of any desires for rewards becomes successful 5) That those initiated Vaisnava brahmanas performing yagnas achieved their ordainment as a result of the prominence of sattva guna or mode of goodness permeating their character enhanced by the sole intake of only sattvic foods. In this final chapter Lord Krishna concisely delineates the following subject matters: 1) Sannyasa the renunciation of action and tyaja the renunciation of actions rewards 2) The exact nature and mood of tyaja. 3) The comprehension that the Supreme Lord Krishna is the repository and agency of everything. 4) A description of the effects of the three gunas or modes of material nature illustrating that sattva guna alone leads to moksa or liberation from material existence and is thus the only guna worthy of cultivation. 5) How activities appropriated in the varnas or four caste system indicates the natural propensities of a jiva or embodied being based on karma or reactions to past actions are actually authorised acts of worship to the Supreme Lord accomplishing His attainment. 6) The quintessential conclusion of the divine discourse Srimad Bhagavad- Gita is that bhakti or exclusive loving devotion to the Supreme Lord Krishna or any of His authorised incarnations and expansions as revealed in Vedic scriptures is the paramount goal of all existence. The question enquired about is the distinct difference between sannyasa and tyaja as well as their similarities. Both are subtle not easy to understand. Both are situated in renunciation and both lead to moksa. Literally sannyasa means putting away and literally tyaja means giving up. Sannyasa expresses abandonment of desires for actions and tyaja exhibits the abandonment for the rewards of actions. The Mundaka Upanisad III.II.VI beginning veda ta vijnano sunisch means: Those of restrained senses who lead a life of renunciation with Vedic knowledge achieve liberation. Not by action, not by wealth, not by progeny can this be achieved. Those enlightened jivas who have ascertained what is the essence of the Vedic scriptures and assimilating it within their hearts by renunciation dissolve all their karmas and achieve moksa and the final beatitude. In order to illustrate the nature of both sannyasa and tyaja and prove that they are one and the same Lord Krishna first corrects the misapprehension that they are different.

Kumara Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The preceding chapters 16 and 17 elaborated the following subjects by Lord Krishna: 1) The only means of achieving the four purusarthas or goals of human existence which are kama or pleasure, artha or wealth, dharma or righteousness and moksa or liberation from material existence which is the quintessence of them all is to adhere to and follow the ordinances and injunctions of the Vedic scriptures by the performance of yagna or ritualistic propitiation and worship to the Supreme Lord Krishna, tapah or austerities and penance authorised in the Vedic scriptures and danam or charity to the Vaisnava Brahmins from one of the four bonafide sampradayas as revealed in Vedic scriptures. 2) That all Vedic rituals and observances are always predicated first with the pranava OM the transcendental sound vibration of the Supreme Lord denoting the first breath making this reverberating hum which the Sanskrit root is pranu. 3) The distinction of that representing the brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence and leading to moksa is symbolised by TAT and that representing prakriti or the material substratum pervading physical existence confering kama, artha and dharma is symbolised by SAT. 4) That yagna or ritualistic propitiation and worship performed for the satisfaction of the Supreme Lord when devoid of any desires for rewards becomes successful 5) That those initiated Vaisnava brahmanas performing yagnas achieved their ordainment as a result of the prominence of sattva guna or mode of goodness permeating their character enhanced by the sole intake of only sattvic foods. In this final chapter Lord Krishna concisely delineates the following subject matters: 1) Sannyasa the renunciation of action and tyaja the renunciation of actions rewards 2) The exact nature and mood of tyaja. 3) The comprehension that the Supreme Lord Krishna is the repository and agency of everything. 4) A description of the effects of the three gunas or modes of material nature illustrating that sattva guna alone leads to moksa or liberation from material existence and is thus the only guna worthy of cultivation. 5) How activities appropriated in the varnas or four caste system indicates the natural propensities of a jiva or embodied being based on karma or reactions to past actions are actually authorised acts of worship to the Supreme Lord accomplishing His attainment. 6) The quintessential conclusion of the divine discourse Srimad Bhagavad- Gita is that bhakti or exclusive loving devotion to the Supreme Lord Krishna or any of His authorised incarnations and expansions as revealed in Vedic scriptures is the paramount goal of all existence. The question enquired about is the distinct difference between sannyasa and tyaja as well as their similarities. Both are subtle not easy to understand. Both are situated in renunciation and both lead to moksa. Literally sannyasa means putting away and literally tyaja means giving up. Sannyasa expresses abandonment of desires for actions and tyaja exhibits the abandonment for the rewards of actions. The Mundaka Upanisad III.II.VI beginning veda ta vijnano sunisch means: Those of restrained senses who lead a life of renunciation with Vedic knowledge achieve liberation. Not by action, not by wealth, not by progeny can this be achieved. Those enlightened jivas who have ascertained what is the essence of the Vedic scriptures and assimilating it within their hearts by renunciation dissolve all their karmas and achieve moksa and the final beatitude. In order to illustrate the nature of both sannyasa and tyaja and prove that they are one and the same Lord Krishna first corrects the misapprehension that they are different.

Transliteration Bhagavad Gita 18.1

Arjuna Uvaacha: Sannyaasasya mahaabaaho tattwamicchaami veditum; Tyaagasya cha hrisheekesha prithak keshinishoodana.

Word Meanings Bhagavad Gita 18.1

arjunaḥ uvācha—Arjun said; sanyāsasya—of renunciation of actions; mahā-bāho—mighty-armed one; tattvam—the truth; ichchhāmi—I wish; veditum—to understand; tyāgasya—of renunciation of desires for enjoying the fruits of actions; cha—and; hṛiṣhīkeśha—Krishna, the Lord of the senses; pṛithak—distinctively; keśhī-niṣhūdana—Krishna, the killer of the Keshi demon