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Bhagavad Gita Chapter 17 Verse 5

भगवद् गीता अध्याय 17 श्लोक 5

अशास्त्रविहितं घोरं तप्यन्ते ये तपो जनाः।
दम्भाहङ्कारसंयुक्ताः कामरागबलान्विताः।।17.5।।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी ( भगवद् गीता 17.5)

।।17.5।।जो मनुष्य शास्त्रविधिसे रहित घोर तप करते हैं जो दम्भ और अहङ्कारसे अच्छी तरह युक्त हैं जो भोगपदार्थ? आसक्ति और हठसे युक्त हैं जो शरीरमें स्थित पाँच भूतोंको अर्थात् पाञ्चभौतिक शरीरको तथा अन्तःकरणमें स्थित मुझ परमात्माको भी कृश करनेवाले हैं उन अज्ञानियोंको तू आसुर निश्चयवाले (आसुरी सम्पदावाले) समझ।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी तेजोमयानंद

।।17.5।। जो लोग शास्त्रविधि से रहित घोर तप करते हैं तथा दम्भ? अहंकार? काम और राग से भी युक्त होते हैं।।

हिंदी टीका - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी

।।17.5।। व्याख्या --   अशास्त्रविहितं घोरं तप्यन्ते ये तपो जनाः -- शास्त्रमें जिसका विधान नहीं है? प्रत्युत निषेध है? ऐसे घोर तपको करनेमें उनकी रुचि होती है अर्थात् उनकी रुचि सदा शास्त्रसे विपरीत ही होती है। कारण कि तामसी बुद्धि (गीता 18। 32) होनेसे वे स्वयं तो शास्त्रोंको जानते नहीं और दूसरा कोई बता भी दे तो वे न उसको मानना चाहते हैं तथा न वैसा करना ही चाहते हैं।दम्भाहंकारसंयुक्ताः -- उनके भीतर यह बात गहरी बैठी हुई रहती है कि आज संसारमें जितने भजन? ध्यान? स्वाध्याय आदि करते हैं? वे सब दम्भ करते हैं? दम्भके बिना दूसरा कुछ है ही नहीं। अतः वे खुद भी दम्भ करते हैं। उनके भीतर अपनी बुद्धिमानीका? चतुराईका? जानकारीका अभिमान रहता है कि हम बड़े जानकार आदमी हैं हम लोगोंको समझा सकते हैं? उनको रास्तेपर ला सकते हैं हम शास्त्रोंकी बातें क्यों सुनें हम कोई कम जानते हैं क्या हमारी बातें सुनो तो तुम्हारेको पता चले आदिआदि।कामरागबलान्विताः -- काम शब्द भोगपदार्थोंका वाचक है। उन पदार्थोंमें रँग जाना? तल्लीन हो जाना? एकरस हो जाना राग है और उनको प्राप्त करनेका अथवा उनको बनाये रखनेका जो हठ? दुराग्रह है? वह बल है। इनसे वे सदा युक्त रहते हैं। उन आसुर स्वभाववाले लोगोंमें यह भाव रहता है कि मनुष्यशरीर पाकर इन भोगोंको नहीं भोगा तो मनुष्यशरीर पशुकी तरह ही है। सांसारिक भोगसामग्रीको मनुष्यने प्राप्त नहीं किया? तो फिर उसने क्या किया मनुष्यशरीर पाकर मनचाही भोगसामग्री नहीं मिली? तो फिर उसका जीवन ही व्यर्थ है? आदिआदि। इस प्रकार वे प्राप्त सामग्रीको भोगनेमें सदा तल्लीन रहते हैं और धनसम्पत्ति आदि भोगसामग्रीको प्राप्त करनेके लिये हठपूर्वक? जिदसे तप किया करते हैं।कर्शयन्तः शरीरस्थं भूतग्रामम् -- वे शरीरमें स्थित पाँच भूतों(पृथ्वी? जल? तेज? वायु और आकाश) को कृश करते हैं? शरीरको सुखाते हैं और इसीको तप समझते हैं। शरीरको कष्ट दिये बिना तप नहीं होता -- ऐसी उनकी स्वाभाविक धारणा रहती है।आगे चौदहवें? पन्द्रहवें और सोलहवें श्लोकमें जहाँ शरीर? वाणी और मनके तपका वर्णन हुआ है? वहाँ शरीरको कष्ट देनकी बात नहीं है। वह तप बड़ी शान्तिसे होता है। परन्तु यहाँ जिस तपकी बात है? वह शास्त्रविरुद्ध घोर तप है और अविधिपूर्वक शरीरको कष्ट देकर किया जाता है।मां चैवान्तःशरीरस्थम् -- भगवान् कहते हैं कि ऐसे लोग अन्तःकरणमें स्थित मुझ परमात्माको भी कृश करते हैं? दुःख देते हैं। कैसे वे मेरी आज्ञा? मेरे मतके अनुसार नहीं चलते? प्रत्युत उसके विपरीत चलते हैं।अर्जुनने पूछा था कि वे कौनसी निष्ठावाले हैं -- सात्त्विक हैं कि राजसतामस दैवीसम्पत्तिवाले हैं कि आसुरीसम्पत्तिवाले तो भगवान् कहते हैं कि उनको आसुर निश्चयवाले समझो -- तान्विद्धि आसुरनिश्चयान्। यहाँ आसुरनिश्चयान् पद सामान्य आसुरीसम्पत्तिवालोंका वाचक नहीं है? प्रत्युत उनमें भी जो अत्यन्तनीच -- विशेष नास्तिक हैं? उनका वाचक है।विशेष बातचौथे श्लोकमें शास्त्रविधिको न जाननेवाले श्रद्धायुक्त मनुष्योंके द्वारा किये जानेवाले पूजनके लिये यजन्ते पद आया है परन्तु यहाँ शास्त्रविधिका त्याग करनेवाले श्रद्धारहित मनुष्योंके द्वारा किये जानेवाले पूजनके लिये तप्यन्ते पद आया है। इसका कारण यह है कि आसुर निश्चयवाले मनुष्योंकी तप करनेमें ही पूज्यबुद्धि होती है -- तप ही उनका यज्ञ होता है और वे मनगढ़ंत रीतिसे शरीरको कष्ट देनेको ही तप मानते हैं। उनके,तपका लक्षण है -- शरीरको सुखाना? कष्ट देना। वे तपको बहुत महत्त्व देते हैं? उसे बहुत अच्छा मानते हैं परन्तु भगवान्को? शास्त्रको नहीं मानते। तप भी वही करते हैं? जो शास्त्रके विरुद्ध है। बहुत ज्यादा भूखे रहना? काँटोंपर सोना? उलटे लटकना? एक पैरसे खड़े होना? शास्त्राज्ञासे विरुद्ध अग्नि तपना? अपने शरीर? मन? इन्द्रियोंको किसी तरह कष्ट पहुँचाना आदि -- ये सब आसुर निश्चयवालोंके तप होते हैं।सोलहवें अध्यायके तेईसवें श्लोकमें शास्त्रविधिको जानते हुए भी उसकी उपक्षा करके दानसेवा? उपकार आदि शुभकर्मोंको करनेकी बात आयी है? जो इतनी बुरी नहीं है क्योंकि उनके दान आदि कर्म शास्त्रविधियुक्त तो नहीं हैं? पर शास्त्रनिषिद्ध भी नहीं हैं। परन्तु यहाँ जो शास्त्रोंमें विहित नहीं हैं? उनको ही श्रेष्ठ मानकर मनमाने ढंगसे विपरीत कर्म करनेकी बात है। दोनोंमें फरक क्या हुआ तेईसवें श्लोकमें कहे लोगोंको सिद्धि? सुख और परमगति नहीं मिलेगी अर्थात् उनके नाममात्रके शुभकर्मोंका पूरा फल नहीं मिलेगा। परन्तु यहाँ कहे लोगोंको तो नीच योनियों तथा नरकोंकी प्राप्ति होगी क्योंकि इनमें दम्भ? अभिमान आदि हैं। ये शास्त्रोंको मानते भी नहीं? सुनते भी नहीं और कोई सुनाना चाहे तो सुनना चाहते भी नहीं। सोलहवें अध्यायके तेईसवें श्लोकमें शास्त्रका उपेक्षापूर्वक त्याग है? इसी अध्यायके पहले श्लोकमें शास्त्रका अज्ञतापूर्वक त्याग है और यहाँ शास्त्रका विरोधपूर्वक त्याग है। आगे तामस यज्ञादिमें भी शास्त्रकी उपेक्षा है। परन्तु यहाँ श्रद्धा? शास्त्रविधि? प्राणिसमुदाय और भगवान् -- इन चारोंके साथ विरोध है। ऐसा विरोध दूसरी जगह आये राजसीतामसी वर्णनमें नहीं है। सम्बन्ध --   अगर कोई मनुष्य किसी प्रकार भी यजन न करे? तो उसकी श्रद्धा कैसे पहचानी जायगी -- इसे बतानेके लिये भगवान् आहारकी रुचिसे आहारीकी निष्ठाकी पहचानका प्रकरण आरम्भ करते हैं।

हिंदी टीका - स्वामी चिन्मयानंद जी

।।17.5।। See Commentary under 17.6

English Translation - Swami Gambirananda

17.5 Those persons who, given to ostentation and pride, and possessed of passion, attachment and strength, undertake severe austerities not sanctioned in the scriptures;

English Translation - Swami Sivananda

17.5 Those men who practise terrific austerities not enjoined by the scriptures, given to hypocrisy and egoism, impelled by the force of lust and attachment.

English Translation - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

17.5. Those men, who practise terrible austerities, not as enjoined in the scriptures; who are bound to hypocricy and conceit, and are endowed with (i.e. impelled by) the force of passion for the desired objects;

English Commentary - Swami Sivananda

17.5 अशास्त्रविहितम् not enjoined by the scriptures? घोरम् terrific? तप्यन्ते practise? ये who? तपः austerity? जनाः men? दम्भाहङ्कारसंयुक्ताः given to hypocrisy and egoism? कामरागबलान्विताः by the force of lust and attachment.Commentary There are some who think that the mortification of the body is the proper means to attain the goal of life. They do this in order to attract the people and get money for the gratification of their senses. They stand on one leg with raised hands. This is not real Tapas. This is Tamasic Tapas. Bodily torture will not bring emancipation. These men are not acainted with even the first elements of the scriptures. They mock at the religious practices of the wise? elderly persons and jeer at learned men. They are puffed up with the vanity of their own greatness. They are proud of their wealth. They perform unauthorised austerities. These persons do severe austerities contrary to the scriptures on the strength of desire and attachment.They take even the lives of children to propitiate their deity. Instead of killing their egoism? they kill many innocent animals in the name of sacrifice but in reality they kill them to satisfy their own palate. Most horrible indeed They speak ill of the scriptures and wander about in the forest of delusion and infatuation. They follow the dictates of passion. They inflict pain on themselves and on others. They practise austerities which cause pain to themselves and to other living beings. Pitiable indeed is their lot. They are doomed to destruction.Kamaragabalanvitah may also be interpreted as possessed of lust? attachment and power.Dambha Ostentation The man of Dambha is desirous that all people should take him for a virtuous man and so he expresses to others his righteous nature. In reality he is not virtuous. He pretends to be what he is not.Ahankara Egoism The egoistic man thinks and feels that he is superior to others in the possession of all virtuous alities.Raga Extreme attachment to sensual objects.Bala Great power of enduring severe pain on account of Raga for sensual objects (pain that accrues from exertion in attaining and preserving the objects).Kama Lust Desire for any object.

English Translation of Sanskrit Commentary By Sri Shankaracharya's

17.5 Ye, those; janah, persons; who tapyante, undertake, perform; ghoram, severe; tapah, austerity, productive of pain to oneself as also to creatures; asastra-vihitam, not sanctioned by the scriptures; they, being dambh-ahankara-samyuktah, given to ostentation and pride; and kama-raga-bala-anvitah, impelled by the strength of passion and attachment, or possessed of passion, attachment and strength [Kama-raga can also mean desirable objects and the desire to enjoy them.]-.

English Translation of Commentary - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

17.5 See Comment under 17.6

English Translation of Ramanuja's Sanskrit Commentary

17.5 - 17.6 Those men who perform terrible pernances not enjoined by the Sastras - this is illustrative of sacrifices etc., of a similar nature. Those who perform sacrifices, etc., sacrifices which are not enjoined by the Sastras and demand much exertion, those who are possessed of ostentation and conceit and are goaded by sensual desire, attachment and passion - they torture the group of elements such as earth etc., in their bodies. They also torture the individual self which is a part of Myself and is within their bodies. Those who perform such sacrifices etc., know them to be demoniacal in their resolves. The resolve of demons is demoniac resolve. The demons are those who act contrary to My ?ndments. Since they act contrary to My ?ndments, they do not have even a iota of joy, but as stated earlier, they fall a prey to a multitude of calamities. They fall into a foul Naraka (16.16). Now, Sri Krsna, resuming the subject, details the differences according to the Gunas with reference to sacrifice, etc., enjoined by the Sastras. To begin with, he describes three kinds of food, since the growth of Sattva etc., has its source in food, as Srutis declare thus: For my dear, the mind consists of food (Cha. U., 6.5.4) and when the food is pure, the man becomes pure (Cha. U., 7.26.2).

Commentary - Chakravarthi Ji

“You asked the question ‘What is the position of those who, giving up the rules of scripture but with faith, without enjoyment of objects, perform worship?’ Now hear the answer.” The Lord answers in two verses. They perform austerities which are harmful to living entities (ghoram). The mention of austerities is representative of other acts such a japa and sacrifice as well. They perform all these acts against the rules of scriptures. The absence of desire for enjoyment and being filled with faith (sraddhanvitah) are understood in this context. They are endowed with ostentation (dambhah) and pride (ahamkarah) because without those two, they could not transgress the rules of scripture. They also have desire for eternal youth, eternal life, kingdom and such things (kama), attachment to their particular austerity (raga), and ability to perform the austerity (bala), like that Hiranyakasipu and others. Endowed with these qualities, they starve or cause suffering (karsyantah) to all elements such as earth (bhuta gramam), to me (mam) and to my amsa the jiva, situated in their bodies. Know these people to be also situated on the level of asuras.

Rudra Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Further incriminations regarding those situated in raja guna and tama guna or the mode of passion and the mode of ignorance respectively are given here. Some jivas or embodied beings who know nothing about the Vedic scriptures are anyway endowed with the divine nature and situated in sattva guna the mode of goodness right from birth. This is due to having been attracted to spiritual activities and righteousness in previous lives. The impressions from those lifetimes gave the impetus towards the divine nature and the opportunity in the present life to attain the association of the devotees of the Supreme Lord Krishna. Others of mediocre nature in raja guna and of inferior nature in tama guna with deluded and depraved faith are extremely unfortunate. They follow pagan, heretical practices and rituals symbolising and involving blood sacrifices. They commit heinous, inerasable sins such as the slaughter of cows for which there is no atonement for. They commit cruel human sacrifices and blood drinking in their diabolical and depraved cravings and lust for power. They execute terrible inhuman deeds that are an aberration to creation. Degrading themselves and the atma or immortal soul existing within their own body and within the bodies of others. Know them to be without a doubt endowed with the demoniac nature. Without any discrimination they masochistically and sadistically execute extreme and painful rituals in their demented desire to surpass mortality. Yet they must perish and die anyway and because they executed such cruel and inhuman deeds which transgressed the ordinances and injunctions of the Vedic scriptures as well as engaging in prohibitive activities without any compunction they will be forced to suffer the full consequences of their sinful misdeeds and flagrant improprieties in hell.

Brahma Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The Anabhimian scripture states that those unfortunate jivas or embodied beings who oppress and chastise the Resplendent Supreme Lord who dwells within as Paramatma the supreme soul which resides within the etheric heart of every living entity in existence are of miniscule consciousness with meager perception. Thus without the vision of perception they oppress Him within their hearts and the hearts of others. The word asura means without light and is in general referred to those of the demoniac nature. Those who are void of light are void of light perception and also void of the light of perceptivity. The Agniveshya scripture states that those endowed with the divine nature are exclusively in sattva guna or the mode of goodness and study the Vedic scriptures and are receptive to Lord Krishna. While those that are of the demoniac nature are a combination of raja guna or mode of passion and tama guna or mode of ignorance and they never study the Vedic scriptures and even if by chance they get an opportunity to hear from them they cannot fathom the values contained therein because they are inimical to the Supreme Lord.

Shri Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The word acetasah means indiscriminate. Such indiscriminate jivas or embodied beings torture and afflict their own body and the bodies of others in the pursuit of fulfilling their depraved and macabre rituals for dominion over material existence. The words raga balanvitah means by ostentatious displays of mental control and bodily power in such extremes that even the Supreme Lord feels tormented in His all pervasive form as the atma or immortal soul within all living entities. The words mam eva ca refers specifically to His inner presence. Hence whosoever executes rituals that are contrary to the ordinances and injunctions of the Vedic scriptures and engages in sacrifices that are prohibited in the Vedic scriptures, or practices penances which cause great pain and suffering upon themselves and others, molest the very elements contained within the body for its welfare to be abused and the atma to be disrespected are verily to be known as possessing the demoniac nature. The demoniac transgress the ordinances and injunctions of the Vedic scriptures and are known as asuras which means without light denoting without the light of divine consciousness. Due to their bellicose and belligerent disposition of opposing the Supreme Lords commands, the demoniac purposely act contrary in defiance. Because of this they are unable to derive even the most miniscule satisfaction and lasting happiness for their immense efforts. All they derive from their scheming conjures of evil actions is accommodation in the hellish planets direct at the conclusion of their life cycle. By their own demoniac actions and sinful activities they have voluntarily hurled themselves into such a dire predicament without relief. Next Lord Krishna will explain how natures differ according to the qualities of the three gunas or modes of material nature that a jiva is situated in and influenced by. As the three gunas are directly affected by the food a jiva chooses to eat and helps determine their present birth. The threefold nature of foods as they are situated in one of the three gunas of sattva guna, raja guna and tama guna corresponding to the mode of goodness, the mode of passion and the mode of ignorance will be described first. This is confirmed in the Chandogya Upanisad VI.V.IV beginning anna-mayam hi sommya manah it states: The mind is verily composed of the food that is eaten is further confirmed in verse VII.XXVI.II beginning rahara shudda sattva shuddhi which states: Taking pure food in pure condition after its been first offered to the Supreme Lord. As the purity of the food eaten so is the purity of the mind for pure food enhances the mind with purity.

Kumara Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The word acetasah means indiscriminate. Such indiscriminate jivas or embodied beings torture and afflict their own body and the bodies of others in the pursuit of fulfilling their depraved and macabre rituals for dominion over material existence. The words raga balanvitah means by ostentatious displays of mental control and bodily power in such extremes that even the Supreme Lord feels tormented in His all pervasive form as the atma or immortal soul within all living entities. The words mam eva ca refers specifically to His inner presence. Hence whosoever executes rituals that are contrary to the ordinances and injunctions of the Vedic scriptures and engages in sacrifices that are prohibited in the Vedic scriptures, or practices penances which cause great pain and suffering upon themselves and others, molest the very elements contained within the body for its welfare to be abused and the atma to be disrespected are verily to be known as possessing the demoniac nature. The demoniac transgress the ordinances and injunctions of the Vedic scriptures and are known as asuras which means without light denoting without the light of divine consciousness. Due to their bellicose and belligerent disposition of opposing the Supreme Lords commands, the demoniac purposely act contrary in defiance. Because of this they are unable to derive even the most miniscule satisfaction and lasting happiness for their immense efforts. All they derive from their scheming conjures of evil actions is accommodation in the hellish planets direct at the conclusion of their life cycle. By their own demoniac actions and sinful activities they have voluntarily hurled themselves into such a dire predicament without relief. Next Lord Krishna will explain how natures differ according to the qualities of the three gunas or modes of material nature that a jiva is situated in and influenced by. As the three gunas are directly affected by the food a jiva chooses to eat and helps determine their present birth. The threefold nature of foods as they are situated in one of the three gunas of sattva guna, raja guna and tama guna corresponding to the mode of goodness, the mode of passion and the mode of ignorance will be described first. This is confirmed in the Chandogya Upanisad VI.V.IV beginning anna-mayam hi sommya manah it states: The mind is verily composed of the food that is eaten is further confirmed in verse VII.XXVI.II beginning rahara shudda sattva shuddhi which states: Taking pure food in pure condition after its been first offered to the Supreme Lord. As the purity of the food eaten so is the purity of the mind for pure food enhances the mind with purity.

Transliteration Bhagavad Gita 17.5

Ashaastravihitam ghoram tapyante ye tapo janaah; Dambhaahamkaarasamyuktaah kaamaraagabalaanvitaah.

Word Meanings Bhagavad Gita 17.5

aśhāstra-vihitam—not enjoined by the scriptures; ghoram—stern; tapyante—perform; ye—who; tapaḥ—austerities; janāḥ—people; dambha—hypocrisy; ahankāra—egotism; sanyuktāḥ—possessed of; kāma—desire; rāga—attachment; bala—force; anvitāḥ—impelled by; karṣhayantaḥ—torment; śharīra-stham—within the body; bhūta-grāmam—elements of the body; achetasaḥ—senseless; mām—me; cha—and; eva—even; antaḥ—within; śharīra-stham—dwelling in the body; tān—them; viddhi—know; āsura-niśhchayān—of demoniacal resolves