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Bhagavad Gita Chapter 17 Verse 19

भगवद् गीता अध्याय 17 श्लोक 19

मूढग्राहेणात्मनो यत्पीडया क्रियते तपः।
परस्योत्सादनार्थं वा तत्तामसमुदाहृतम्।।17.19।।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी ( भगवद् गीता 17.19)

।।17.19।।जो तप मूढ़तापूर्वक हठसे अपनेको पीड़ा देकर अथवा दूसरोंको कष्ट देनेके लिये किया जाता है? वह तप तामस कहा गया है।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी तेजोमयानंद

।।17.19।। जो तप मूढ़तापूर्वक स्वयं को पीड़ित करते हुए अथवा अन्य लोगों के नाश के लिए किया जाता है? वह तप तामस कहा गया है।।

हिंदी टीका - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी

।।17.19।। व्याख्या --   मूढग्राहेणात्मनो यत्पीडया क्रियते तपः -- तामस तपमें मूढ़तापूर्वक आग्रह होनेसे अपनेआपको पीड़ा देकर तप किया जाता है। तामस मनुष्योंमें मूढ़ताकी प्रधानता रहती है अतः जिसमें शरीरको? मनको कष्ट हो? उसीको वे तप मानते हैं।परस्योत्सादनार्थं वा -- अथवा वे दूसरोंको दुःख देनेके लिये तप करते हैं। उनका भाव रहता है कि शक्ति प्राप्त करनेके लिये तप (संयम आदि) करनेमें मुझे भले ही कष्ट सहना पड़े? पर दूसरोंको नष्टभ्रष्ट तो करना ही है। तामस मनुष्य दूसरोंको दुःख देनेके लिये उन तीन (कायिक? वाचिक और मानसिक) तपोंके आंशिक भागके सिवाय मनमाने ढंगसे उपवास करना? शीतघामको सहना आदि तप भी कर सकता है।तत्तामसमुदाहृतम् -- तामस मनुष्यका उद्देश्य ही दूसरोंको कष्ट देनेका? उनका अनिष्ट करनेका रहता है। अतः ऐसे उद्देश्यसे किया गया तप तामस कहलाता है।[सात्त्विक मनुष्य फलकी इच्छा न रखकर परमश्रद्धासे तप करता है? इसलिये वास्तवमें वही मनुष्य कहलानेलायक हैं। राजस मनुष्य सत्कार? मान? पूजा तथा दम्भके लिये तप करता है? इसलिये वह मनुष्य कहलानेलायक नहीं है क्योंकि सत्कार? मान आदि तो पशुपक्षियोंको भी प्रिय लगते हैं और वे बेचारे दम्भ भी नहीं करते तामस मनुष्य तो पशुओंसे भी नीचे हैं क्योंकि पशुपक्षी स्वयं दुःख पाकर दूसरोंको दुःख तो नहीं देते? पर यह तामस मनुष्य तो स्वयं दुःख पाकर दूसरोंको दुःख देता है।] सम्बन्ध --   अब भगवान् आगेके तीन श्लोकोंमें क्रमशः सात्त्विक? राजस और तामस दानके लक्षण बताते हैं।

हिंदी टीका - स्वामी चिन्मयानंद जी

।।17.19।। इस श्लोक का अर्थ स्वत स्पष्ट है। एक तपस्वी साधक को तप के वास्तविक स्वरूप? उसके प्रयोजन तथा विधि का सम्यक् ज्ञान होना चाहिए। इस ज्ञान के अभाव में साधक अपने व्यक्तित्व के सुगठन तथा आत्मसाक्षात्कार के मार्ग पर अग्रसर नहीं हो सकता।वेदोपदिष्ट तप का विपरीत अर्थ समझने पर मनुष्य उसके द्वारा केवल स्वयं को ही पीड़ित कर सकता है। ऐसे आत्मपीड़न से शुद्ध आत्मा का सौन्दर्य अभिव्यक्त नहीं हो सकता वह तो हमारे पूर्णस्वरूप का केवल उपाहासास्पद व्यंगचित्र ही चित्रित कर सकता है। मूढ़ तामस तप का फल कुरूप व्यक्तित्व? विकृत भावनाएं और हीन आदर्श ही हो सकता है।दान के भी तीन प्रकार होते हैं? जिन्हें अगले श्लोक में बताया जा रहा है

English Translation - Swami Gambirananda

17.19 That austerity which is undertaken with a foolish intent, by causing pain to oneself, or for the destruction of others-that is said to be born of tamas.

English Translation - Swami Sivananda

17.19 That austerity which is practised out of a foolish notion, with self-torture, or for the purpose of destroying another, is declared to be Tamasic.

English Translation - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

17.19. What austerity is practised with foolish obstinacy [and] with self-torture only in order to destroy other person-that is declared to be of the Tamas.

English Commentary - Swami Sivananda

17.19 मूढग्राहेण out of a foolish notion? आत्मनः of the self? यत् which? पीडया with torture? क्रियते is practised? तपः austerity? परस्य of another? उत्सादनार्थम् for the purpose of destroying? वा or? तत् that? तामसम् Tamasic? उदाहृतम् is declared.Commentary Some burn sulphur in a pot and place it on their head. Some thrust hooks of iron into their flesh. Some hang themselves with their head downwards over fire and swallow smoke. Some stand in cold water immersed up to the neck. Some torture the body by lighting fires on the four sides (with the sun as the fifth fire -- this is known as the Panchagni Tapas). Some sit in the centre of a circle of fire. Such austerities are Tamasic. These will not help one to attain knowledge of the Self.

English Translation of Sanskrit Commentary By Sri Shankaracharya's

17.19 Yat, that; tapah, austerity; which is kriyate, under-taken; mudha-grahena, with a foolish intent, with a conviction arising out of non-discriminating; pidaya, causing pain; atmanah, to oneself (to ones body etc.); va, or; utsadanartham, for the destruction; parasya, of another; tat, that; is udahrtam, said to be; an austerity tamasam, born of tamas. Now the classification of charity is being spoken of:

English Translation of Commentary - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

17.17-19 Sraddhaya etc. upto tamasam udahrtam. There is faith in all the three-fold austerity. the faith of a man of the Sattva is full of austerity itself. The faith of a man of the Rajas is in the Rajas i.e, showing (or hyprocricy) etc. But, the faith (or desire) of a man well established in the Tamas is merely in ruining others. Thus the sage speaks of all the three-fold austerity practised with faith.

English Translation of Ramanuja's Sanskrit Commentary

17.19 Deluded persons are those who lack correct understanding. That austerity which is practised from deluded notion, viz., from the obstinate determination by deluded persons, by self-torture regardless of ones own capacity or which is performed for causing sufferings to others - that is said to be Tamasika.

Commentary - Chakravarthi Ji

Muda grahena means to be performed out of foolishness. Parasya utsadana artham means performed with the intention of harming others.

Rudra Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Now Lord Krishna explains tapah or austerities that are indicative of tama guna the mode of ignorance. The austerities that consist of foolish concoctions as well as diabolical practices due to an acute lack of discrimination, which is sadistic and masochistic, which causes mental and physical anguish to oneself such as flagellation and causes acute suffering to others such as blood rituals and human and animal sacrifices are irrevocably situated completely in the darkness of tama guna.

Brahma Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Shri Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Now Lord Krishna explains the austerities that are of tama guna or mode of ignorance. The word mudha means foolish. The word grahena means endeavour. Those who foolishly endeavour are the ignorant. Those who torture and give pain to themselves and diabolically cause injury and suffering to others are depraved and their dark resolves are at the pinnacle of nescience. Whatever activity they enact by such convoluted resolves regardless of success or failure is in the darkness of tama guna.

Kumara Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Now Lord Krishna explains the austerities that are of tama guna or mode of ignorance. The word mudha means foolish. The word grahena means endeavour. Those who foolishly endeavour are the ignorant. Those who torture and give pain to themselves and diabolically cause injury and suffering to others are depraved and their dark resolves are at the pinnacle of nescience. Whatever activity they enact by such convoluted resolves regardless of success or failure is in the darkness of tama guna.

Transliteration Bhagavad Gita 17.19

Moodhagraahenaatmano yat peedayaa kriyate tapah; Parasyotsaadanaartham vaa tattaamasamudaahritam.

Word Meanings Bhagavad Gita 17.19

mūḍha—those with confused notions; grāheṇa—with endeavor; ātmanaḥ—one’s own self; yat—which; pīḍayā—torturing; kriyate—is performed; tapaḥ—austerity; parasya—of others; utsādana-artham—for harming; vā—or; tat—that; tāmasam—in the mode of ignorance; udāhṛitam—is described to be