Share this page on following platforms.
Download Bhagwad Gita 17.13 Download BG 17.13 as Image

⮪ BG 17.12 Bhagwad Gita BG 17.14⮫

Bhagavad Gita Chapter 17 Verse 13

भगवद् गीता अध्याय 17 श्लोक 13

विधिहीनमसृष्टान्नं मन्त्रहीनमदक्षिणम्।
श्रद्धाविरहितं यज्ञं तामसं परिचक्षते।।17.13।।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी ( भगवद् गीता 17.13)

।।17.13।।शास्त्रविधिसे हीन? अन्नदानसे रहित? बिना मन्त्रोंके? बिना दक्षिणाके और बिना श्रद्धाके किये जानेवाले यज्ञको तामस यज्ञ कहते हैं।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी तेजोमयानंद

।।17.13।। शास्त्रविधि से रहित? अन्नदान से रहित? बिना मन्त्रों? बिना दक्षिणा और बिना श्रद्धा के किये हुए यज्ञ को तामस यज्ञ कहते हैं।।

हिंदी टीका - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी

।।17.13।। व्याख्या --   विधिहीनम् -- अलगअलग यज्ञोंकी अलगअलग विधियाँ होती हैं और उसके अनुसार यज्ञकुण्ड? स्रुवा आदि पात्र? बैठनेकी दिशा? आसन आदिका विचार होता है। अलगअलग देवताओंकी अलगअलग सामग्री होती है जैसे -- देवीके यज्ञमें लाल वस्त्र और लाल सामग्री होती है। परन्तु तामस यज्ञमें इन विधियोंका पालन नहीं होता? प्रत्युत उपेक्षापूर्वक विधिका त्याग होता है।असृष्टान्नम् -- तामस मनुष्य जो द्रव्ययज्ञ करते हैं? उसमें ब्राह्मणादिको अन्नदान नहीं किया जाता। तामस मनुष्योंका यह भाव रहता है कि मुफ्तमें रोटी मिलनेसे वे आलसी हो जायेंगे? कामधंधा नहीं करेंगे।मन्त्रहीनम् -- वेदोंमें और वेदानुकूल शास्त्रोंमें कहे हुए मन्त्रोंसे ही द्रव्ययज्ञ किया जाता है। परन्तु तामस यज्ञमें वैदिक तथा शास्त्रीय मन्त्रोंसे यज्ञ नहीं किया जाता। कारण कि तामस पुरुषोंका यह भाव रहता है कि आहुति देनेमात्रसे यज्ञ हो जाता है? सुगन्ध हो जाती है? गंदे परमाणु नष्ट हो जाते हैं? फिर मन्त्रोंकी क्या जरूरत है आदि।अदक्षिणम् -- तामस यज्ञमें दान नहीं किया जाता। कारण कि तामस पुरुषोंका यह भाव रहता है कि हमने यज्ञमें आहुति दे दी और ब्राह्मणोंको अच्छी तरहसे भोजन करा दिया? अब उनको दक्षिणा देनेकी क्या जरूरत रही यदि हम उनको दक्षिणा देंगे तो वे आलसीप्रमादी हो जायँगे? पुरुषार्थहीन हो जायँगे? जिससे दुनियामें बेकारी फैलेगी दूसरी बात? जिन ब्राह्मणोंको दक्षिणा मिलती है? वे कुछ कमाते ही नहीं? इसलिये वे पृथ्वीपर भाररूप रहते हैं? इत्यादि। वे तामस मनुष्य यह नहीं सोचते कि ब्राह्मणादिको अन्नदान? दक्षिणा आदि न देनेसे वे तो प्रमादी बनें? चाहे न बनें पर शास्त्रविधिका? अपने कर्तव्यकर्मका त्याग करनेसे हम तो प्रमादी बन ही गयेश्रद्धाविरहितं यज्ञं तामसं परिचक्षते -- अग्निमें आहुति देनेके विषयमें तामस मनुष्योंका यह भाव रहता है कि अन्न? घी? जौ? चावल? नारियल? छुहारा आदि तो मनुष्यके निर्वाहके कामकी चीजें हैं। ऐसी चीजोंको अग्निमें फूँक देना कितनी मूर्खता है (टिप्पणी प0 849.1) अपनी प्रसिद्धि? मानबड़ाईके लिये वे यज्ञ करते भी हैं तो बिना शास्त्रविधिके? बिना अन्नदानके? बिना मन्त्रोंके और बिना दक्षिणाके करते हैं। उनकी शास्त्रोंपर? शास्त्रोक्त मन्त्रोंपर और उनमें बतायी हुई विधियोंपर तथा शास्त्रोक्त विधिपूर्वक की गयी यज्ञकी क्रियापर और उसके पारलौकिक फलपर भी श्रद्धाविश्वास नहीं होते। कारण कि उनमें मूढ़ता होती है। उनमें अपनी तो अक्ल होती नहीं और दूसरा कोई समझा दे तो उसे मानते नहीं।इस तामस यज्ञमें यः शास्त्रविधिमुत्सृज्य वर्तते कामकारतः (गीता 16। 23) और अश्रद्धया हुतं दत्तं तपस्तप्तं कृतं च यत् (गीता 17। 28) -- ये दोनों भाव होते हैं। अतः वे इहलोक और परलोकका जो फल चाहते हैं? वह उनको नहीं मिलता -- न सिद्धिमवाप्नोति न सुखं न परां गतिम्? न च तत्प्रेत्य नो इह। तात्पर्य है कि उनको उपेक्षापूर्वक किये गये शुभकर्मोंका इच्छित फल तो नहीं मिलेगा? पर अशुभकर्मोंका फल (अधोगति) तो मिलेगा ही -- अधो गच्छन्ति तामसाः (14। 18)। कारण कि अशुभ फलमें अश्रद्धा ही हेतु है और वे अश्रद्धापूर्वक ही शास्त्रविरुद्ध आचरण करते हैं अतः इसका दण्ड तो उनको मिलेगा ही।इन यज्ञोंमें कर्ता? ज्ञान? क्रिया? धृति? बुद्धि? सङ्ग? शास्त्र? खानपान आदि यदि सात्त्विक होंगे? तो वह यज्ञ सात्त्विक हो जायगा यदि राजस होंगे? तो वह यज्ञ राजस हो जायगा और यदि तामस होंगे? तो वह यज्ञ,तामस हो जायगा। सम्बन्ध --   ग्यारहवें? बारहवें और तेरहवें श्लोकमें क्रमशः सात्त्विक? राजस और तामस यज्ञका वर्णन करके अब आगेके तीन श्लोकोंमें क्रमशः शारीरिक? वाचिक और मानसिक तपका वर्णन करते हैं (जिसका सात्त्विक? राजस और तामसभेद आगे करेंगे)।

हिंदी टीका - स्वामी चिन्मयानंद जी

।।17.13।। इस श्लोक में कथित प्रकार से किया हुआ यज्ञ न यज्ञकर्ता के लिए सुखवर्धक सिद्ध होता है और न समाज के अन्य लोगों के लिए लाभदायक।अन्नदान रहित धर्मशास्त्र की भाषा में? हमारे जीवन की मूलभूत आवश्यकताओं को अन्न शब्द के द्वारा सूचित किया जाता है। आधुनिक काल की भाषा में भोजनवस्त्रऔर गृह के द्वारा उन्हें इंगित किया जाता है। मनुष्य का कर्तव्य है कि वह अपने पास उपलब्ध वस्तुओं का दान उन लोगों को दें? जिन्हें उनकी आवश्यकता होती है। ऐसा दान प्रेम के बिना कभी संभव ही नहीं हो सकता। तमोगुणी पुरुष यज्ञ कर्म के अनुष्ठान में भी शास्त्रोक्त दान नहीं करता है।कर्मकाण्ड के अनुष्ठान में मन्त्रों का उच्चारण तथा शिक्षित पुरोहितों को दक्षिणा देना आवश्यक होता है? परन्तु तमोगुणी पुरुष इन सब नियमों की ओर ध्यान ही नहीं देता है। अत उसके द्वारा अनुष्ठित यज्ञ तामस कहलाता है।अगले तीन श्लोकों में तप के वास्तविक स्वरूप को दर्शाकर? तत्पश्चात् गुण भेद से त्रिविध तपों का वर्णन किया गया है

English Translation - Swami Gambirananda

17.13 They declare that sacrifice as done through tamas which is contrary to injunction, in which food is not distributed, in which mantras are not used, in which offerings are not made to priests, and which is devoid of faith.

English Translation - Swami Sivananda

17.13 They declare that sacrifice to be Tamasic which is contrary to the ordinances of the scriptures, in which no food is distributed, which is devoid of Mantras, gifts and faith.

English Translation - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

17.13. That sacrifice they declare to be of the Tamas (Strand) which is devoid of scriptural injunction, in which there is no [recitation of] Vedic hymns, where no food and [sacrifical] fee are distributed, and which is totally devoid of faith.

English Commentary - Swami Sivananda

17.13 विधिहीनम् without keeping to ordinance? असृष्टान्नम् in which no food is distributed? मन्त्रहीनम् which is devoid of Mantras? अदक्षिणम् which is devoid of gifts? श्रद्धाविरहितम् which is devoid of faith? यज्ञम् sacrifice? तामसम् Tamasic? परिचक्षते (they) declare.Commentary A sacrifice performed by a Tamasic man is never guided by any consideration for the prescribed rites or incantation. You will find every irregularity in this sacrifice. No food is distributed. No fees which are prescribed in the scriptures are given to the priests. The Mantras are not changed properly. The hymns recited are defective in utterance and accent. Sometimes there is no recitation at all. There is no faith. A man who performs such a sacrifice does not get any merit.

English Translation of Sanskrit Commentary By Sri Shankaracharya's

17.13 Paricaksate, they delclare; that yajnam, sacrifice; as tamasam, done through tamas; which is vidhi-hinam, contrary to injunction, opposed to what is enjoined; asrstannam, in which food is not distributed-a sacrifice in which food (annam) is not distributed (asrstam) to Brahmanas; mantra-hinam, in which mantras are not used, which is bereft of mantras, intonation and distinct pronunciation; adaksinam, in which offerings are not made to priests as prescribed; and which is sraddha-virahitam, devoid of faith. After that, now is being stated the three kinds of austerity:

English Translation of Commentary - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

17.11-13 Aphala-etc. upto paricaksate. Stabilizing mind : by firmly believing. Also for the sake of display etc. Display : an intention Let the world take me to be of this natrue. That which is devoid of scriptural injunction : that which is devoid of rituals prescribed in the scriptures. The same [feature] is elaborated by the attributives That in which no food is distributed etc.

English Translation of Ramanuja's Sanskrit Commentary

17.13 They say that sacrifice is Tamasa, which is bereft of the authority of injunction of Brahmanas of learning and good conduct as Do this sacrifice, which is Asrstanna viz., which uses offerings (materials) not sanctioned by the Sastras; which is performed without recitation of hymns; and which is bereft of gifts and faith. Now, to explain the threefold division of austerities according to their source in the Gunas, Sri Krsna describes their differences in respect of the body, speech and mind:

Commentary - Chakravarthi Ji

Asrsta annam means without giving food in charity.

Rudra Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Furthermore Lord Krishna states that rituals contrary to the Vedic scriptures meaning those which are forbidden and prohibited in the Vedic scriptures as well as ceremonies not endorsed by the Vedic scriptures meaning all those where the ordinances and injunctions of the Vedic scriptures are not observed; both are irrevocably locked in tama guna the mode of ignorance. Whatever religious activity or ritual that is enacted anywhere in creation, if it is devoid of duly initiated Vaisnavas and brahmanas chanting prescribed Vedic mantras, if it is devoid of propitiation and worship to the Supreme Lord Krishna or any of His authorised incarnations as revealed in Vedic scriptures and if it is devoid of faith in the Supreme Lord Krishna it is known to be irrefutably and irrevocably situated in the inertia of tama guna.

Brahma Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Shri Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Any religious ritual or ceremony of any kind that is vidhi-hinam or devoid of following the ordinances and injunctions of the Vedic scriptures and without being conducted by Vaisnavas and brahmanas who are pre-eminent both in precept and in practice is recognizably known to be fully situated in tama guna the mode of ignorance. The words asrsta-annam means without the sanctified food and ingredients required to perform a bonafide yagna or propitiation and worship. The prohibition is that no ingredient may be acquired from those without faith in Lord Krishna; so it is a mandatory requirement that all ingredients are to be received only from devotees. Those situated in tama guna cannot fulfil this mandate. So in conclusion whatever religious activity that is performed without adhering to the authority of the Vedic scriptures, without Vaisnavas and brahmanas chanting Vedic mantras and without adoration of the Supreme Lord Krishna or any of His authorised incarnations and expansions is not valid and being bogus is totally situated in tama guna. If such activities were anyway somehow or other able to be clandestinely orchestrated by unqualified schemers it would still have no efficacy due to the absence of devotion to Lord Krishna and lack of faith in the absolute authority of the Vedic scriptures.

Kumara Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Any religious ritual or ceremony of any kind that is vidhi-hinam or devoid of following the ordinances and injunctions of the Vedic scriptures and without being conducted by Vaisnavas and brahmanas who are pre-eminent both in precept and in practice is recognizably known to be fully situated in tama guna the mode of ignorance. The words asrsta-annam means without the sanctified food and ingredients required to perform a bonafide yagna or propitiation and worship. The prohibition is that no ingredient may be acquired from those without faith in Lord Krishna; so it is a mandatory requirement that all ingredients are to be received only from devotees. Those situated in tama guna cannot fulfil this mandate. So in conclusion whatever religious activity that is performed without adhering to the authority of the Vedic scriptures, without Vaisnavas and brahmanas chanting Vedic mantras and without adoration of the Supreme Lord Krishna or any of His authorised incarnations and expansions is not valid and being bogus is totally situated in tama guna. If such activities were anyway somehow or other able to be clandestinely orchestrated by unqualified schemers it would still have no efficacy due to the absence of devotion to Lord Krishna and lack of faith in the absolute authority of the Vedic scriptures.

Transliteration Bhagavad Gita 17.13

Vidhiheenam asrishtaannam mantraheenam adakshinam; Shraddhaavirahitam yajnam taamasam parichakshate.

Word Meanings Bhagavad Gita 17.13

vidhi-hīnam—without scriptural direction; asṛiṣhṭa-annam—without distribution of prasādam; mantra-hīnam—with no chanting of the Vedic hymns; adakṣhiṇam—with no remunerations to the priests; śhraddhā—faith; virahitam—without; yajñam—sacrifice; tāmasam—in the mode of ignorance; parichakṣhate—is to be considered