अभयं सत्त्वसंशुद्धिः ज्ञानयोगव्यवस्थितिः।
दानं दमश्च यज्ञश्च स्वाध्यायस्तप आर्जवम्।।16.1।।
।।16.1।।श्रीभगवान् बोले -- भयका सर्वथा अभाव अन्तःकरणकी शुद्धि ज्ञानके लिये योगमें दृढ़ स्थिति सात्त्विक दान इन्द्रियोंका दमन यज्ञ स्वाध्याय कर्तव्यपालनके लिये कष्ट सहना शरीरमनवाणीकी सरलता।
16.1 Abhayam, fearlessness; sattva-samsuddhih, purtiy of the mind (sattva), mentally avoiding fraud, trickery, falsehood, etc. in dealings, i.e., honest behaviour; jnana-yoga-vyavasthitih, persistence in knowledge and yoga-jnana means knowledge of such subjects as the Self, learnt from scriptures and teachers; yoga means making those things that have been learnt matters of ones own personal experience through concentration by means of withdrawl of the organs etc.; persistence, steadfastness, in those two, knowledge and yoga;-this [This-refers to all the three from fearlessness to persistence in knowledge and yoga.] is the principal divine characteristic which is sattvika (born of the sattva ality). That nature which may occur in persons competent in their respective spheres, [Persons treading the path of Jnana-yoga or Karma-yoga have sattvika alities. Some of the alities mentioned in the first three verses occur only in the former, whereas the others are found in both or only in the latter.-Tr.]-that is said to be their sattvika attribute. Danam, charity, distribution of food etc. according to ones ability; and damah, control of the external organs-the control of the internal organ, santih, will be referred to later; yajnah, sacrifices-Agnihotra etc. sanctioned by the Vedas, and sacrifices in honour of gods and others [Others: Those in honour of the manes, humans and other beings. Brahma-yajna, the fifth sacrifice, is referred to separately by svadhyaya.] sanctioned by the Smrtis: svadhyayah, study of the Rg-veda etc. for unseen results; tapah, austerity, those concerning the body, etc., which will be stated (17.14-16); arjavam, rectitude, straigthforwardness at all times-. Further,
16.1 See Coment under 16.5
16.1 The Lord said Fear is the pain arising from the awareness of the cause which brings about pain in the form of either dissociation from the objects of attainment or association with the objects of aversion. The absence of this is fearlessness. Purity of mind is the condition of Sattva, viz., the state of the internal organ being untouched by Rajas and Tamas. Devotion to meditation on the knowledge (of the self) is firm adherence to the discrimination between the pure nature of the self and Prakrti. Alms-giving is the giving away of ones wealth earned through right means to the deserving. Self-control is the practice of withdrawal of the mind from sense-objects. Worship is the performance of the fivefold duties (sacrifices) etc., of life in the spirit of worship of the Lord without attachment to the fruits. The study of the Vedas is devotion to the Vedic study with the conviction that all the teachings of the Vedas deal with the Lord, with His glorious nature and with the mode of worshipping Him. Austerity is the practice of penances like Krchra, Candrayana, vow on the twelfth day of the lunar fortnight, etc., which foster capability for performing acts pleasing to the Lord. Uprightness consists of the oneness of thought, word and deed in ones dealings with others.
Sri Bhagavaan Uvaacha: Abhayam sattwasamshuddhih jnaanayogavyavasthitih; Daanam damashcha yajnashcha swaadhyaayastapa aarjavam.
śhrī-bhagavān uvācha—the Supreme Divine Personality said; abhayam—fearlessness; sattva-sanśhuddhiḥ—purity of mind; jñāna—knowledge; yoga—spiritual; vyavasthitiḥ—steadfastness; dānam—charity; damaḥ—control of the senses; cha—and; yajñaḥ—performance of sacrifice; cha—and; svādhyāyaḥ—study of sacred books; tapaḥ—austerity; ārjavam—straightforwardness; ahinsā—non-violence; satyam—truthfulness; akrodhaḥ—absence of anger; tyāgaḥ—renunciation; śhāntiḥ—peacefulness; apaiśhunam—restraint from fault-finding; dayā—compassion; bhūteṣhu—toward all living beings; aloluptvam—absence of covetousness; mārdavam—gentleness; hrīḥ—modesty; achāpalam—lack of fickleness; tejaḥ—vigor; kṣhamā—forgiveness; dhṛitiḥ—fortitude; śhaucham—cleanliness; adrohaḥ—bearing enmity toward none; na—not; ati-mānitā—absence of vanity; bhavanti—are; sampadam—qualities; daivīm—godly; abhijātasya—of those endowed with; bhārata—scion of Bharat