अभयं सत्त्वसंशुद्धिः ज्ञानयोगव्यवस्थितिः।
दानं दमश्च यज्ञश्च स्वाध्यायस्तप आर्जवम्।।16.1।।
।।16.1।। श्री भगवान् ने कहा -- अभय? अन्तकरण की शुद्धि? ज्ञानयोग में दृढ़ स्थिति? दान? दम? यज्ञ? स्वाध्याय? तप और आर्जव।।
In the previous three chapters the topics explained by the Supreme Lord Krishna were: 1) The essential nature of physical matter and spirit as the atma or immortal soul. 2) The fact that when the atma and physical matter are conjoined it is a result due to attachment to the gunas or three modes of material nature and when the atma is independent of matter it is a result due to being unattached to the gunas. 3) That both the atma and physical matter in whatever condition constitute two distinct aspects of the Supreme Lords potencies. 4) That the Supreme Lord as the source of all that exists yet is factually distinct and separate from all aspects of His creation both achit or matter and chit or spirit which are contained within Him. This includes every jiva or embodied being in all creation; both baddha-jivas who are bound and mukta-jivas who are liberated. The Supreme Lord possesses all transcendental and divine powers such as: immortality, sovereignty, omnipotence, omniscience, omni-presence, etc. Lord Krishna will substantiate the reality of what has previously been declared in accordance to the ordinances and injunctions of the Vedic scriptures which are the absolute authority. This is done by initiating a comparison between the divine nature and the demoniac nature as it is verified throughout creation. The divine nature expresses complete allegiance to righteousness and adherence to the authority of the Vedic scriptures. The demoniac nature does not follow righteousness, neither does it accept the absolute authority of the Vedic scriptures; contrarily adopting inauspicious activities befitting impure concoctions and unrighteous conceptions. Lord Krishna begins by describing the 26 divine qualities: 1) abhayam is fearlessness due to the absence of anxiety which arises from the dread of harm to the physical body or the prospect of losing what is precious. 2) sattva-samsuddhih is purification of ones existence and denotes purity of heart consisting of pure goodness undefiled with the taint of passion and ignorance. 3) jnana-yoga-vyavasthitih means situated in the knowledge of devotion resulting from discriminating the atma or immortal soul from physical matter as the individual consciousness attains communion with the ultimate consciousness. 4) danam is the charity given to worthy recipients from what one legitimately owns. 5) damah is self restraint, controlling the mind to be uninfluenced by sense objects. 6) yagna is Vedically authorised ritualistic ceremonies in propitiation and devotion to the Supreme Lord Krishna exclusively for His satisfaction without any self interests. This also applies to His authorised incarnations and expansions. 7) svadhyayah is devoted study of Vedic scriptures, knowing that they alone teach the glories of the Supreme Lord and are the quintessence of all that is spiritual. 8) tapas is austerity and penance. Performing expiatory activities is a duty for all human beings such as Ekadasi which is mandatory fasting from all grains on the 11th day of the waxing and waning moons. As well there are occasional expiatory activities such as candrayana which are fasts synchronised with the cycles of the moon and also kricchra which is extreme ascetic penance performed under very hot or very cold conditions and prajapatya and santapana. Such activities purifies an aspirant and prepares and qualifies them for devotion to the Supreme Lord. 9) arjavam is simplicity, straight forwardness to others in thought, word and deeds. 10) ahimsa is non-violence to all living entities by thought, word and deed. 11) satyam is truthfulness verily speaking what is true that is beneficial to all beings. 12) akrodah is freedom from anger due to absence of resentment for others. 13) tyagah is renunciation of whatever is opposed to atma-tattva or soul realisation. o 14) santih is tranquillity, keeping the senses peaceful and impervious to agitation. 15) apaisunam is aversion to fault finding and slandering others even if warranted. 16) daya is mercy, sympathy for life, empathy for the distress and misery of others. 17) aloluptvam is absence of greed for sense gratification. 18) mardavam is gentleness and humility which is appropriate for saintly association. 19) hrih is modesty, the feeling of shame at the thought of anything inappropriate. 20) acapalam is determination to remain firm against temptations presented to one. 21) tejas is radiance, luster. The illustrious proof of the efficacy of spiritual practice. 22) ksama is forgiveness. The absence of vengeful feelings against those harmed by. 23) dhritih is fortitude. The capacity for righteousness while enduring great duress. 24) saucam is cleanliness both internally and externally to be spiritually worthy. 25) adrohah is absence of envy, non-interference in the interests of others. 26) natimanita absence of false ego, lack of desire for honour and prestige. The divine qualities and nature are for those aspiring to activate their divinity following the time tested eternal, divine ordinances and injunctions as revealed in the Vedic scriptures by the Supreme Lord Krishna. Their virtues of these 26 qualities are revealed by following them and living them in this manner. The word abhijatasya refers to those who were born with the divine nature destined to follow the divine path and who are naturally in harmony with divinity.