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Bhagavad Gita Chapter 14 Verse 10

भगवद् गीता अध्याय 14 श्लोक 10

रजस्तमश्चाभिभूय सत्त्वं भवति भारत।
रजः सत्त्वं तमश्चैव तमः सत्त्वं रजस्तथा।।14.10।।

English Translation - Swami Gambirananda

14.10 O scion of the Bharata dynasty, sattva increases by subduing rajas and tamas, rajas by overpowering sattva and tamas, and tamas by dominating over sattva and rajas.

English Translation - Swami Sivananda

14.10 Now Sattva arises (prevails), O Arjuna, having overpowered Rajas and Tamas; nor Rajas, having overpowered Sattva and Tamas; and now Tamas, having overpowered Sattva and Rajas.

English Translation - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

14.10. O descendant of Bharata ! The Sattva increases by overpowering the Rajas and the Tamas; the Rajas [increases by overpowering] the Sattva and the Tamas; and the Tamas does likewise [by overpowering] the Sattva and the Rajas.

English Commentary - Swami Sivananda

14.10 रजः Rajas? तमः inertia? च and? अभिभूय having overpowered? सत्त्वम् Sattva? भवति arises? भारत O Arjuna? रजः Rajas? सत्त्वम् Sattva? तमः inertia? च and? एव even? तमः inertia? सत्त्वम् purity? रजः active force? तथा also.Commentary Just as winter has its sway when summer and autumn have gone? just as sleep has its sway when a man is neither dreaming nor waking? so also Sattva has its sway when Rajas and Tamas are suppressed and makes people say that they are happy. The Sadhana for increasing Sattva is given in the 17th and 18th chapters.Each ality acts in its own turn at different times. All the three alities cannot operate at one and the same time. When one ality asserts itself or prdominates by overpowering or suppressing the other two? it produces its own effect. Sattva produces knowledge and happiness Rajas action Tamas veiling of knowledge? inertia? error? indolence? sloth and sleep. When Sattva is in the ascendant in a man? he is endowed with discrimination. Sublime thoughts roll in his mind. He has pure understanding. His mind turns away from sensual pleasures and moves inward towards the Self.What is the characteristic mark by which you can know that a particular ality is predominant or is in the ascendant The answer is given in the following three verses.

English Translation of Sanskrit Commentary By Sri Shankaracharya's

14.10 O scion of the Bharata dynasty, sattva bhavati, increases, comes into being; abhibhuya, by subduing both rajas and tamas. When sattva increases, then, coming to its own, it produces its own effects-knowledge, happiness, etc. Similarly, when the ality of rajas increases by overpowering both sattva and tamas, then it produces its own effects-activity and hankering. When the ality called tamas increases by similarly dominating over sattva and rajas, it then produces its own effects-obscuring of knowledge, etc. When any ality preponderates, then what is its indication? This is being answered:

English Translation of Commentary - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

14.9-10 Sattvam etc. Rajah etc. Dominates fully i.e. sets [to work]. The Sattva flourishes by overpowering the Rajas and the Tamas. But, the Rajas [flourishes by overpowering] both the Sattva and the Tamas; and the Tamas [does so by overpowering] both the Sattva and the Rajas. That has been stated : The Strands augment by overpowering each other.

English Translation of Ramanuja's Sanskrit Commentary

14.10 Even though all the three Gunas of Sattva etc., are associated with the nature of the self conjoined with Prakrti in the form of body, yet owing to the dominance of previous Karmas and the differences in the food nourishing the body, Sattva etc., preponderate or are subdued by turn. Sometimes Sattva preponderates prevailing over Rajas and Tamas; sometimes Rajas preponderates prevailing over Tamas and Sattva, and sometimes Tamas preponderates prevailing over Rajas and Sattva. He teaches that this changing preponderance of the Gunas can be inferred from the knowledge of the effects produced by them.

Commentary - Chakravarthi Ji

With regards to their respective effects, how do the gunas arise? When rajas and tamas are eclipsed, sattva appears. It appears because these two become invisible. Thus, raja guna appears from the eclipse of sattva and tamas. Tamas appears from the eclipse of sattva and rajas.

Rudra Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

All the three gunas being sattva guna or mode of goodness, raja guna or mode of passiion and tama guna or mode of ignorance originate from past karma which are reactions to actions from previous lives whose results are known as adrishta. When sattva guna is dominant it overpowers the effects of rajas and tamas and in this way sattva binds the jiva or embodied being exclusively to its effects of happiness and pursuit of knowledge. When raja guna is dominant it overpowers sattva and tamas and binds the jiva to its effects of desire and activity and when tama guna is dominant it overpowers sattva and rajas and binds the jiva by its effects of inertia and indolence.

Brahma Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Shri Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Lord Krishna confirms the fact that the three gunas or modes of sattva or goodness, rajas or passion and tamas or nescience are the three qualities that exist within all jivas or embodied beings in the material existence. But owing to adrishta which is conditions imposed by the effects of past karma or reactions to actions and determined as well by the types of food that were chosen to eat in sustaining the physical body in the previous life. Based upon this assessment any of three gunas may be dominant or they may neutralise each other or they may be antagonistic to each other depending upon which mode is more present and dominant within a jiva. This being the reality it can be inferred by knowledge and discerned by witnessing the visible effects of the three gunas as manifested within any jiva.

Kumara Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Lord Krishna confirms the fact that the three gunas or modes of sattva or goodness, rajas or passion and tamas or nescience are the three qualities that exist within all jivas or embodied beings in the material existence. But owing to adrishta which is conditions imposed by the effects of past karma or reactions to actions and determined as well by the types of food that were chosen to eat in sustaining the physical body in the previous life. Based upon this assessment any of three gunas may be dominant or they may neutralise each other or they may be antagonistic to each other depending upon which mode is more present and dominant within a jiva. This being the reality it can be inferred by knowledge and discerned by witnessing the visible effects of the three gunas as manifested within any jiva.

Transliteration Bhagavad Gita 14.10

Rajastamashchaabhibhooya sattwam bhavati bhaarata; Rajah sattwam tamashchaiva tamah sattwam rajastathaa.

Word Meanings Bhagavad Gita 14.10

rajaḥ—mode of passion; tamaḥ—mode of ignorance; cha—and; abhibhūya—prevails; sattvam—mode of goodness; bhavati—becomes; bhārata—Arjun, the son of Bharat; rajaḥ—mode of passion; sattvam—mode of goodness; tamaḥ—mode of ignorance; cha—and; eva—indeed; tamaḥ—mode of ignorance; sattvam—mode of goodness; rajaḥ—mode of passion; tathā—also