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Bhagavad Gita Chapter 13 Verse 6

भगवद् गीता अध्याय 13 श्लोक 6

महाभूतान्यहङ्कारो बुद्धिरव्यक्तमेव च।
इन्द्रियाणि दशैकं च पञ्च चेन्द्रियगोचराः।।13.6।।

English Translation - Swami Gambirananda

13.6 The great elements, egoism, intellect and the Unmanifest itself; the ten organs and the one, and the five objects of the senses;

English Translation - Swami Sivananda

13.6 The great elements, egoism, intellect, and also the Unmanifested Nature, the ten senses and one (mind), and the five objects of the senses.

English Translation - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

13.6. The [five] great elements, the Egotism. The Intellect, the Unmanifest, and also the ten organs and the one (organ and the) five objects of the sense-organs;

English Commentary - Swami Sivananda

13.6 महाभूतानि the great elements? अहङ्कारः egoism? बुद्धिः intellect? अव्यक्तम् the unmanifested (MulaPrakriti)? एव even? च and? इन्द्रियाणि the senses? दश ten? एकम् one? च and? पञ्च five? च and? इन्द्रियगोचराः objects of the senses.Commentary The field and its modifications are described in this verse. The twentyfour principles of the Sankhya school of philosophy are mentioned here.Great elements Earth? water? fire? air and ether are so called because they pervade all modifications of matter. The elements here referred to are the subtle? not the gross ones.Egoism is the cause of the great elements. It is the selfarrogating principle. Intellect is the cause of egoism. The function of the intellect is determination. Buddhi is the faculty of determination. The cause of the intellect is the Unmanifested (which is the undifferentiated energy of the Lord). (Cf.VII.14 Daivi hyesha gunamayi mama maya duratyaya -- This divine illusion of Mine? caused by the alities? is difficult to cross over.) The above Nature is divided eightfold (Cf.VII.4).The ten senses are the five organs of knowledge (ears? skin? eyes? tongue and nose)? so called because they enable the mind to get knowledge of the external world? and the five organs of action (hands? feet? mouth? anus and the generative organ)? so called because they perform actions.The one This is the mind. This is the eleventh sense whose function is thinking and doubting (Sankalpa and Vikalpa).The five objects of the senses are sound? touch? form (colour)? taste and smell. These are the fivefol pastures of the senses.All the great elements? egoism? intellect? the senses and mind are all absorbed in the Unmanifested at the time of the cosmic dissolution.Mind is Maya. Mind is Avidya (ignorance). Mind is at the root of all activities. It gives strength to desires? fosters fear and builds castles in the air. It confers force on egoism and stimultates,aspirations. Every tendency has its origin in the mind. It augments passions? gives strength to hope and awakens the sense of duality. It increases ignorance and plunges the senses in the ocean of senseobjects. It creates distinctions and differences. It separates? divides and limits. It is a strong wall or an iron barrier that stands between the individual soul and the Absolute. It is this mind that has brought Brahman to the condition of the individual soul. It is the storehouse of error? cravings? doubt? delusion and ignorance. It is an everrevolving wheel that generates thoughts. It is a miraculous thoughtproducing machine. It creates at one moment. It destroys at the next moment.

English Translation of Sanskrit Commentary By Sri Shankaracharya's

13.6 Mahabhutani, the great elements: Those elements which are great owing to their pervasion of all midifications, and which are subtle. As for the gross elements, they will be spoken of by the word indriya-gocarah, objects of the senses. Ahankarah, egoism, which is the source of the great elements and consists of the idea of I. Buddhih, intellect, the source of egoism and consisting of the faculty of judgement; ca, and; its cause, the avyaktam eva, Unmanifest itself, the Undifferentiated, the power of God spoken of in, Maya of Mine৷৷.difficult to cross (7.14). The word eva (itself) is used for singling out Prakrti (Nature). The Prakrti divided eightfold [The undifferentiated (avyakta), mahat, egoism and the five uncompunded subtle elements] is this much alone. The word ca (and) is used for joining the various categories. The dasa, ten; indriyani, organs : The five, organs ear etc., which are called sense-organs since they produce perception, and the (other) five organs-organ of speech, hands, etc.-which are called motor-organs since they accomplish actions. They are ten. Ekam ca, and the one-which is that?-the mind, the eleventh, possessed of the power of thinking etc. (see fn. on p. 173). Ca, and; the panca, five; indriya-gacarah, objects of the senses-such objects as sound etc. The followers of the Sankhya call these which are such the twenty-four categories. Thereafter, the Lord now says that even those alities which the Vaisesikas speak of as the attributes of the sould are certainly the attributes of the field, but not of the Knower of the field:

English Translation of Commentary - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

13.6 See Comment under 13.7

English Translation of Ramanuja's Sanskrit Commentary

13.6 - 13.7 The great elements, the Ahankara, the Buddhi and the Avyakta are substances that originate the Ksetra. The great elements are the earth, water, fire, air and ether. The Ahankara here means Bhutadi (primeval element). The Buddhi is called Mahat; the Avyakta is known as the Prakrti. The ten senses and the one and the five objects of senses are principles depending on the Ksetra. The five sensorial organs are ear, skin, eye, tongue and nose. The five motor organs are speech, hands, feet, and the organs of excretion and reproduction. These are the ten senses. The Manas is the additional one moe. The objects of the senses are five - sound, touch, form, taste and smell. Desire, hatred, pleasure and pain, being the transformation of the Ksetra, are said to be the modifications of the Ksetra. Though desire, hatred, pleasure and pain are the alities of the self, yet they originate from the association of the self with the Ksetra. Sri Krsna will state that they are the attributes of the self; In the experience of pleasure and pain, the self is said to be the cause (13.20). The combination of elements serves as the support (Adhrti) of the intelligent self. As such, the word Adhrti means substratum. The combination of material elements has arisen as the substratum for the self to experience pleasure and pain, and for aciring worldly experiences and the final release. The combination of elements is formed by substances commencing from the Prakrti and ending with the earth; it is the basis of senses which are endowed with the modifications of the nature of desire, hatred, pleasure and pain. These form a Sanghata or an association of elements. It serves as the basis of the experience of pleasure and pain by the individual self. This is what is said of the Ksetra. This Ksetra has been explained briefly with its modifications and effects. Now certain alities, the effects of the Ksetra, worthy of being acired as being the means for securing the knowledge of the self, are enumerated.

Commentary - Chakravarthi Ji

In this verse the nature of the field is described. Mahabhutani refers to ether, air, fire, water and earth. Ahankara refers to false ego, the cause of the mahabhutas. Buddhi refers to mahat tattva, composed of vijnana, the cause of ahankara. Avyakta refers to prakrti, the cause of mahat tattva. Indriyani refers to the ten senses: eye, ear, nose, skin, tongue, hands, feet, genital, anus and voice. Eka refers to the mind. The five indriya-gocard are the sound, touch, form, taste and smell. The field is made of these twenty four elements. Sanghata is the body, evolving from the twenty four elements. Iccha, dvesa, sukha and duhkha are well known. Cetana is a mental function constituted of knowledge. Dhrti is perseverance. Iccha and other qualities mentioned here are qualities of the mind not the soul, and thus they are included in the field. These are representative of sankalpa and other qualities mentioned in the sruti(not being an exhaustive list of the qualities of the mind): kamah sankalpo vicikitsa sraddha dhrtir hrir dhir bhir ity etat sarvam mana eva Desire, determination, uncertainty, faith, lack of faith, perseverance, lack of perseverance, humility, intelligence, and fear are all products of the mind. Brhad Aranyaka Upanisad 1.5.3 By this list, the qualities of the field which was previously promised by the word yadrk in verse 3 have been shown. This field with its six transformations (savikara), such as birth and growth, has thus been briefly described (udahrtam).

Rudra Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The characteristics and components of the ksetra are being elucidated by Lord Krishna beginning with the five fundamental elements which are earth, water, fire, air and ether. The false ego, the intellect, the unmanifest element of existence, the five perceptual senses being the eye, ear, nose, tongue and sense of touch. The five objects of the perceptual senses being sight, sound, smell, taste and form The five senses of activity being the voice, the hands, the legs, the genitals and the anus. The internal sense being the mind. Desire, aversion, happiness, unhappiness, the body, the intuition, patience and the six material modifications being birth, sustenance, growth, maturity, declination and destruction. Thus the Supreme Lord Krishna has enumerated the 24 categories which comprise the field of activity known as the ksetra. The physical body is an aggregate of these 24 elements. Intelligence which is a cognitive function of the mind is imbued with patience and fortitude. Desire, aversion, etc. are merely effects of cognition and included as part of the ksetra as attributes solely of the mind and not of the atma or eternal soul. The qualities mentioned also include by implication other qualities of the mind as well such as reflection and introspection. Brihadaranyaka Upanisad I.V.III states: Desire, reflection, doubt, faith, lack of faith, patience, impatience, modesty, intelligence and fear are all products of the mind. In this way the qualities of the ksetra are introduced and enumerated by Lord Krishna. Thus the ksetra along with its modifications such as the perceptual senses, etc. has been described in brief and this concludes the topic regarding the ksetra.

Brahma Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Desire, repugnance, joy, misery, etc. are known as the modifications of the ksetra. The word cetana meaning awareness refers to the entire perceptual faculties of the mind. The word sanghata preceding it includes perception of the physical body and cetana refers to the total aggregate of mental facilities which includes modifications such as ego and patience.

Shri Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The maha-bhutani which are the fundamental elements of creation being earth, water, fire, air and ether along with the ahankara or false ego, the buddhi or intellect and the avyaktam the primordial root which in essence is prakriti or the material substratum pervading physical existence and from whom the fore mentioned emanate as the germinating foundations of the ksetra in different manifestations and modifications of an evolving process. The five perceptual senses being the eyes, ears, nose, tongue and touch corresponding respectively with their five objects being the visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory and tactual; along with the five senses of activity being the vocal, the prehensible the hands, the locomotive the legs, procreative the generative organs and the excretory organ for evacuation. The one known as the internal sense is the mind. Desire, aversion, joy and affliction are considered modifications of the ksetra as they are solely products of the mind influenced by moods and affections. The words sanghatas cetana dhrtih means the perceptual faculties of the mind and includes the physical body. The words catana dritih denotes adritah inferring adharah which means the basis, the medium for fundamental ingredients. The word sanghata meaning the physical body is the aggregate expression of the collocated ingredients that are utilised. The ultimate purpose is to utilise the physical body to interact harmoniously with the mind and intellect to realise the eternal principle inside the heart in the form of the atma or immortal soul and the path to the Supreme Lord. Otherwise one will misuse their precious human form of existence to procure material happiness on Earth while experiencing joy and grief in doing so and take another birth in usually a lower species of life; or to perform activities in an attempt to procure entrance into the heavenly planets to enjoy celestial delights as a demigod for an allotted time period but which may or may not guarantee success and one has to be born again; or to strive for moksa or liberation from the cycle of birth and death to achieve an impersonal beatitude but if failing in this is forced to take birth again in one of the 8,400,000 some species in the material existence as well. This is what is available in the ksetra. All of its characteristics and attributes are manifested out of prakriti the material substratum pervading physical existence and is the foundation of the mind and all the senses. It is the compound which gives rise to the change of temperament such as desire and aversion, happiness and misery and the medium by which the jiva or embdied being experiences pleasure, pain, joy and grief, etc. This concludes Lord Krishna concise exposition on the ksetra with its variations and modifications. Next the virtues and attributes that will enable one to obtain atma-tattva or knowledge of the immortal soul which is connected to the ksetrajna will be enumerated by Lord Krishna.

Kumara Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The maha-bhutani which are the fundamental elements of creation being earth, water, fire, air and ether along with the ahankara or false ego, the buddhi or intellect and the avyaktam the primordial root which in essence is prakriti or the material substratum pervading physical existence and from whom the fore mentioned emanate as the germinating foundations of the ksetra in different manifestations and modifications of an evolving process. The five perceptual senses being the eyes, ears, nose, tongue and touch corresponding respectively with their five objects being the visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory and tactual; along with the five senses of activity being the vocal, the prehensible the hands, the locomotive the legs, procreative the generative organs and the excretory organ for evacuation. The one known as the internal sense is the mind. Desire, aversion, joy and affliction are considered modifications of the ksetra as they are solely products of the mind influenced by moods and affections. The words sanghatas cetana dhrtih means the perceptual faculties of the mind and includes the physical body. The words catana dritih denotes adritah inferring adharah which means the basis, the medium for fundamental ingredients. The word sanghata meaning the physical body is the aggregate expression of the collocated ingredients that are utilised. The ultimate purpose is to utilise the physical body to interact harmoniously with the mind and intellect to realise the eternal principle inside the heart in the form of the atma or immortal soul and the path to the Supreme Lord. Otherwise one will misuse their precious human form of existence to procure material happiness on Earth while experiencing joy and grief in doing so and take another birth in usually a lower species of life; or to perform activities in an attempt to procure entrance into the heavenly planets to enjoy celestial delights as a demigod for an allotted time period but which may or may not guarantee success and one has to be born again; or to strive for moksa or liberation from the cycle of birth and death to achieve an impersonal beatitude but if failing in this is forced to take birth again in one of the 8,400,000 some species in the material existence as well. This is what is available in the ksetra. All of its characteristics and attributes are manifested out of prakriti the material substratum pervading physical existence and is the foundation of the mind and all the senses. It is the compound which gives rise to the change of temperament such as desire and aversion, happiness and misery and the medium by which the jiva or embdied being experiences pleasure, pain, joy and grief, etc. This concludes Lord Krishna concise exposition on the ksetra with its variations and modifications. Next the virtues and attributes that will enable one to obtain atma-tattva or knowledge of the immortal soul which is connected to the ksetrajna will be enumerated by Lord Krishna.

Transliteration Bhagavad Gita 13.6

Mahaabhootaanyahankaaro buddhiravyaktameva cha; Indriyaani dashaikam cha pancha chendriyagocharaah.

Word Meanings Bhagavad Gita 13.6

mahā-bhūtāni—the (five) great elements; ahankāraḥ—the ego; buddhiḥ—the intellect; avyaktam—the unmanifested primordial matter; eva—indeed; cha—and; indriyāṇi—the senses; daśha-ekam—eleven; cha—and; pañcha—five; cha—and; indriya-go-charāḥ—the (five) objects of the senses;