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Bhagavad Gita Chapter 13 Verse 4

भगवद् गीता अध्याय 13 श्लोक 4

तत्क्षेत्रं यच्च यादृक् च यद्विकारि यतश्च यत्।
स च यो यत्प्रभावश्च तत्समासेन मे श्रृणु।।13.4।।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी ( भगवद् गीता 13.4)

।।13.4।।वह क्षेत्र जो है? जैसा है? जिन विकारोंवाला है और जिससे जो पैदा हुआ है तथा वह क्षेत्रज्ञ भी जो है और जिस प्रभाववाला है? वह सब संक्षेपमें मेरेसे सुन।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी तेजोमयानंद

।।13.4।। इसलिये? वह क्षेत्र जो है और जैसा है तथा जिन विकारों वाला है? और जिस (कारण) से जो (कार्य) हुआ है तथा वह (क्षेत्रज्ञ) भी जो है और जिस प्रभाव वाला है? वह संक्षेप में मुझसे सुनो।।

हिंदी टीका - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी

।।13.4।। व्याख्या --   तत्क्षेत्रम् -- तत् शब्द दोका वाचक होता है -- पहले कहे हुए विषयका और दूरीका। इसी अध्यायके पहले श्लोकमें जिसको इदम् पदसे कहा गया है? उसीको यहाँ तत् पदसे कहा है। क्षेत्र सब देशमें नहीं है? सब कालमें नहीं है और अभी भी प्रतिक्षण अभावमें जा रहा है -- यह क्षेत्रकी (स्वयंसे) दूरी है।यच्च -- उस क्षेत्रका जो स्वरूप है? जिसका वर्णन इसी अध्यायके पाँचवें श्लोकमें हुआ है।यादृक् च -- उस क्षेत्रका जैसा स्वभाव है? जिसका वर्णन इसी अध्यायके छब्बीसवेंसत्ताईसवें श्लोकोंमें उसे उत्पन्न और नष्ट होनेवाला बताकर किया गया है।यद्विकारि -- यद्यपि प्रकृतिका कार्य होनेसे इसी अध्यायके पाँचवें श्लोकमें आये तेईस तत्त्वोंको भी विकार कहा गया है? तथापि यहाँ उपर्युक्त पदसे क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञके माने हुए सम्बन्धके कारण क्षेत्रमें उत्पन्न होनेवाले इच्छाद्वेषादि विकारोंको ही विकार कहा गया है? जिनका वर्णन छठे श्लोकमें हुआ है।यतश्च यत् -- यह क्षेत्र जिससे पैदा होता है अर्थात् प्रकृतिसे उत्पन्न होनेवाले सात विकार और तीन गुण? जिनका वर्णन इसी अध्यायके उन्नीसवें श्लोकके उत्तरार्धमें हुआ है।स च -- पहले श्लोकके उत्तरार्धमें जिस क्षेत्रज्ञका वर्णन हुआ है? उसी क्षेत्रज्ञका वाचक यहाँ सः पद है और उसीके विषयमें यहाँ सुननेके लिये कहा जा रहा है।यः -- इस क्षेत्रज्ञका जो स्वरूप है? जिसका वर्णन इसी अध्यायके बीसवें श्लोकके उत्तरार्धमें और बाईसवें श्लोकमें किया गया है।यत्प्रभावश्च -- वह क्षेत्रज्ञ जिस प्रभाववाला है जिसका वर्णन इसी अध्यायके इकतीसवेंसे तैंतीसवें श्लोकतक किया गया है।तत्समासेन मे श्रृणु -- यहाँ तत् पदके अन्तर्गत क्षेत्र और क्षेत्रज्ञ -- दोनोंको लेना चाहिये। तात्पर्य है कि वह क्षेत्र जो है? जैसा है? जिन विकारोंवाला और जिससे पैदा हुआ है -- इस तरह क्षेत्रके विषयमें चार बातें और वह क्षेत्रज्ञ जो है और जिस प्रभाववाला है -- इस तरह क्षेत्रज्ञके विषयमें दो बातें तू मेरेसे संक्षेपमें सुन।यद्यपि इस अध्यायके आरम्भमें पहले दो श्लोकोंमें क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञका सूत्ररूपसे वर्णन हुआ है? जिसको भगवान्ने,ज्ञान भी कहा है तथापि क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञके विभागका स्पष्टरूपसे विवेचन (विकारसहित क्षेत्र और निर्विकार क्षेत्रज्ञके स्वरूपका प्रभावसहित विवेचन) इस तीसरे श्लोकसे आरम्भ किया गया है। इसलिये भगवान् इसको सावधान होकर सुननेकी आज्ञा देते हैं।इस श्लोकमें भगवान्ने क्षेत्रके विषयमें तो चार बातें सुननेकी आज्ञा दी है? पर क्षेत्रज्ञके विषयमें केवल दो बातें -- स्वरूप और प्रभाव ही सुननेकी आज्ञा दी है। इससे यह शङ्का हो सकती है कि क्षेत्रका प्रभाव भी क्यों नहीं कहा गया और साथ ही क्षेत्रज्ञके स्वभाव? विकार और जिससे जो पैदा हुआ -- इन विषयोंपर भी क्यों नहीं कहा गया इसका समाधान यह है कि एक क्षण भी एक रूपमें स्थिर न रहनेवाले क्षेत्रका प्रभाव हो ही क्या सकता है प्रकृतिस्थ (संसारी) पुरुषके अन्तःकरणमें धनादि जड पदार्थोंका महत्त्व रहता है? इसीलिये उसको संसारमें क्षेत्रका (धनादि जड पदार्थोंका) प्रभाव दीखता है। वास्तवमें स्वतन्त्ररूपसे क्षेत्रका कुछ भी प्रभाव नहीं है। अतः उसके प्रभावका कोई वर्णन नहीं किया गया।क्षेत्रज्ञका स्वरूप उत्पत्तिविनाशरहित है? इसलिये उसका स्वभाव भी उत्पत्तिविनाशरहित है। अतः भगवान्ने उसके स्वभावका अलगसे वर्णन न करके स्वरूपके अन्तर्गत ही कर दिया। क्षेत्रके साथ अपना सम्बन्ध माननेके कारण ही क्षेत्रज्ञमें इच्छाद्वेषादि विकारोंकी प्रतीति होती है? अन्यथा क्षेत्रज्ञ (स्वरूपतः) सर्वथा निर्विकार ही है। अतः निर्विकार क्षेत्रज्ञके विकारोंका वर्णन सम्भव ही नहीं। क्षेत्रज्ञ अद्वितीय? अनादि और नित्य है। अतः इसके विषयमें कौन किससे पैदा हुआ -- यह प्रश्न ही नहीं बनता। सम्बन्ध --   पूर्वश्लोकमें जिसको संक्षेपसे सुननेके लिये कहा गया है? उसका विस्तारसे वर्णन कहाँ हुआ है -- इसको आगेके श्लोकमें बताते हैं।

हिंदी टीका - स्वामी चिन्मयानंद जी

।।13.4।। भगवान् श्रीकृष्ण न केवल क्षेत्र की वस्तुओं का उल्लेख ही करेंगे? वरन् क्षेत्र के गुण धर्म? उसके विकार तथा कौन से कारण से ऋ़ौन सा कार्य उत्पन्न हुआ है? इसका भी वर्णन करेंगे। उसी प्रकार? क्षेत्रज्ञ का स्वरूप तथा उपाधियों से सम्बद्ध उसके प्रभाव को भी इस अध्याय में बतायेंगे। ये सब? मुझसे संक्षेप में सुनो।अनन्त आत्मा के स्वरूप को दर्शाने वाले विशेषणों को पुन दोहराने मात्र से अथवा उस पर विशेष बल देकर कहने से एक निष्ठावान् साधक को कोई विशेष लाभ भी नहीं होता और न उसके विकास में कोई सहायता मिलती है। जिन कारणों से हमारे जीवन की समस्यायें उत्पन्न होती हैं उनकी ओर से दृष्टि फेर लेने का अर्थ है? समस्या को नहीं सुलझाना। हमारे आसपास का यह जगत्? जिसे हमने ही प्रेक्षित किया है? तथा वे ही प्रक्रियायें जिनके द्वारा हम कार्य करते हुये असंख्य विषयों? भावनाओं और विचारों की विविधता को देखते हैं इन सबका हमें सूक्ष्म निरीक्षण तथा अध्ययन करना चाहिये। इसकी उपेक्षा करने का अर्थ स्वयं को विशाल आवश्यक सारभूत ज्ञान से वंचित रखना है। यह अपनी ही प्रवंचना है।शत्रुओं के विरुद्ध युद्धनीति सम्बन्धी योजना बनाने के लिए शत्रुपक्ष की रणनीति का कमसेकम सामान्य ज्ञान होना आवश्यक होता है। इसी प्रकार? क्षेत्र से युद्ध करके उस पर विजय पाकर उसके बन्धनों से स्वयं को मुक्त करने के लिये यह जानना आवश्यक है कि क्षेत्र क्या है तथा परिस्थिति विशेष में ये उपाधियाँ किस प्रकार कार्य और व्यवहार करती हैं।इस प्रकार? शरीरशास्त्र? जीवशास्त्र? मनोविज्ञान तथा अन्य प्राकृतिक विज्ञान की शाखायें भी जीवन को समझने में अपना योगदान देती हैं। अध्यात्म का ज्ञानमार्ग समस्त लौकिक विज्ञानों का चरम बिन्दु है और उसकी पूर्तिस्वरूप है। इस बात की पुष्टि इसी तथ्य से होती है कि? युद्धभूमि पर भी अर्जुन को इस ज्ञान का उपदेश देते समय? भगवान् इस बात पर बल देने के लिए भूलते नहीं कि इस क्षेत्र का सम्पूर्ण ज्ञान होना महत्व की बात है। इसका हमें सूक्ष्म अध्ययन करना चाहिये।क्षेत्र और क्षेत्रज्ञ के याथात्म्य को देखने? अध्ययन करने और समझने में शिष्य की अभिरुचि उत्पन्न करने के लिए भगवान् इस विषय वस्तु की स्तुति करते हुये कहते हैं

English Translation - Swami Gambirananda

13.4 Hear from Me in brief about (all) that as to what that field is and how it is; what its changes are, and from what cause arises what effect; and who He is, and what His powers are.

English Translation - Swami Sivananda

13.4 What the field is and of what nature, what are its modifications and whence it is and also who He is and what His powers are hear all that from Me in brief.

English Translation - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

13.4. What that Field is and of what nature it is; why it modifies, whence and what; and who he (the Field-sensitizer) is; and of what nature He is; listen to [all] that from Me collectively.

English Commentary - Swami Sivananda

13.4 तत् that? क्षेत्रम् field? यत् which? च and? यादृक् what like? च and? यद्विकारि what its modifications? यतः whence? च and? यत् what? सः He? च and? यः who? यत्प्रभावः what His powers? च and? तत् that? समासेन in brief? मे from Me? श्रृणु hear.Commentary I will tell you? O Arjuna? what the field is? why the body is called the field? what are its modifications or changes in other words what transformations it undergoes? what are its properties? what effects arise in it from what causes? to whom it belongs? whether it is cultivated or whether it grows wild.That field refers to the field mentioned in verse 1.Who He is Who is that knower of the field What are His powers (Prabhavas are powers such as the power of seeing? hearing? etc.) which originate from the limiting adjuncts (such as the eys? the ears? etc.) Do thou hear My speech which describes succinctly the real nature of the field and the knower of the field in all these specific aspects.O Arjuna? I am ite sure that thou wilt clearly comprehend the truth on hearing My speech.The body is the field. The ten senses represent the ten bulls. The bulls work unceasingly day and night through the field of the objects of the senses. The mind is the supervisor. The individual soul is the tenant. The five vital airs (Pranas) are the five labourers. The Primordial Nature is the mistress of the field. This field is Her property. She Herself watches over the field vigilantly. She is endowed with the three alities. Rajas sows the seed Sattva guards it Tamas reaps the harvest. On the threshing floor or MahatTattva (the cosmic mind) with the help of the ox called time? She -- Primordial Nature -- thrashes out the corn. If the individual soul does evil actions? it sows the seeds of sin? manures with evil? reaps a crop of sin? and undergoes the pains of Samsara? viz.? birth? decay? old age? sickness? and the three kinds of afflictions. If it does virtuous actions it sows the good seeds of virtue and reaps a crop of happiness.Lord Krishna now speaks very highly in the following verse of the true nature of the field and the knower of the field in order to create interest in the hearer.

English Translation of Sanskrit Commentary By Sri Shankaracharya's

13.4 Srnu, hear, i.e., having heard, understand; me, from Me, from My utterance; samasena, in brief; about (all) tat, that-the true nature of the field and the Knower of the field, as they have been described; as to yat, what; tat, that-tat stands for that which has been indicated as This body (in verse 1); ksetram, field is, which has been referred to as this; ca, and; yadrk, how it is along with its own alities; yadvikari, what its changes are; ca, and; yatah, from what cause; arises yat, what effect (-arises is understood-); sah ca yah, and who He, the Knower of the field indicated above, is; ca, and; yat-prabhavah, what His powers are. Yat-probhavah is He who is possessed of the powers arising from the adjuncts. The word ca has been used (throughout) in the sense of and. For making the intellect of the hearer interested the Lord praises that true nature of the field and the Knower of the field which is intended to be taught:

English Translation of Commentary - Dr. S. Sankaranarayan

13.4 See Comment under 13.5

English Translation of Ramanuja's Sanskrit Commentary

13.4 What the Field is namely, what its substance is; what it is like, namely, what things depend on it; what its modifications are, namely, what its transformations are; what the purpose is for which it has been originated; what it is, namely, what its true nature is; who it is, namely, who the individual self is and what Its nature is like; what Its powers, are, namely, what powers It possesses. All this, briefly learn from Me.

Commentary - Chakravarthi Ji

Now the Lord begins to elaborate on what he has said previously in abbreviated form. Hear from me in brief of what the body consists (yac ca) – a conglomeration of five gross elements, prana, senses and other things; what qualities it exhibits (yadrk)- such as desire; what its transformations are (yad vikari)–being subject to changes either favorable or unfavorable; from what it arises (yatah)–from the combination of matter and soul; by what it is distinguished (yat)–by differences among various moving or non-moving bodies; and who (yah) is he (sa)–the knower of the field – the jiva and the paramatma. The neuter form singular yat and tat are used instead of the masculine, though jiva, paramatma and the field are referred to, by the rule of grammar napumsakam anapumsakennaikavac ca (Panini 1.2.69). If there is a group of items with the same base of various genders including neuter, the neuter gender can be used to indicate all of them. This operation is called eka sesa (single remainder).

Rudra Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Here prakriti or the material substratum pervading physical existence which has 24 categories consisting of the mind, ego, five organs of perception, the five senses, etc.is specifically meant by the word ksetra or the field of activity. Yet since the non-distinctiveness of matter as I and mine is evolved as such only in the physical body, in order to differentiate from it this body is called the ksetra. To clarify in further detail Lord Krishna proposes to explain what the ksetra referred to by Him is in itself such as inert, of the nature of its object, etc. What is it like such as possessed of qualities such as desire and aversion. What are its modifications such as which senses is it endowed with. How does it arise meaning how is it in conjunction with prakriti and the brahman. What is its form and how is it directed to be either sentient or insentient in just one of innumerably unlimited varieties of species. Also what is the ksetrajna or knower of the ksetra in reality and what power does it have by virtue of its transcendental and inconceivable majesty by the potency it is endowed with. All these things Lord Krishna will now explain in brief.

Brahma Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

What the yad viktri of the ksetra means what are its transformations and by what modifications is it affected. Yatas ca yat means by Him the Supreme Lord the ksetra has originated and that it is He alone who energized it. The words sa ca ya specifies the Supreme Lord also and indicates His form. Now begins the summation. The words yatas ca yat indicates that solely by the energy of the Supreme Lord all creation is energized. He is the sole energizer. Prerana means having similarity in thoughts. Sometimes even dialogue is called samvad similar talk. Since Lord Krishna energizes all creation He also energizes the thoughts of all and sometimes such thoughts manifest which are similar to His own. This is natural. So He is known as anusarini or anusmanta the ordainer of thoughts which have divine origins in Him. The ksetrajna is the atma or eternal soul and is upadrishta or the witness with supra-natural connecting abilities for thoughts and things divine which emanate from the Supreme Lord and induces this in those who seek self-realisation of the atma and attainment of the ultimate consciousness. Lord Krishna infers that this can be known is by its effect.

Shri Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Now Lord Krishna is more explicitly explaining details about the tat ksetram or field of activity. Its yadrik ca or its substantial nature regarding its use and function and its purpose. Also its yad vikari or transformations and modifications along with its yatas or from whence it came meaning its origin and how it was created and for whose use. Yat refers to its attributes and qualities. Also He is inferring that knowledge about the intrinsic nature of the ksetra-jna as the knower of the ksetra which is the atma or eternal soil will be revealed as well along with its inherent potencies which is confirmed by the word prabhavas ca meaning virtues, potency and powers. Lord Krishna will give a summary of all these things.

Kumara Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Now Lord Krishna is more explicitly explaining details about the tat ksetram or field of activity. Its yadrik ca or its substantial nature regarding its use and function and its purpose. Also its yad vikari or transformations and modifications along with its yatas or from whence it came meaning its origin and how it was created and for whose use. Yat refers to its attributes and qualities. Also He is inferring that knowledge about the intrinsic nature of the ksetra-jna as the knower of the ksetra which is the atma or eternal soil will be revealed as well along with its inherent potencies which is confirmed by the word prabhavas ca meaning virtues, potency and powers. Lord Krishna will give a summary of all these things.

Transliteration Bhagavad Gita 13.4

Tat kshetram yaccha yaadrik cha yadvikaari yatashcha yat; Sa cha yo yatprabhaavashcha tatsamaasena me shrinu.

Word Meanings Bhagavad Gita 13.4

tat—that; kṣhetram—field of activities; yat—what; cha—and; yādṛik—its nature; cha—and; yat-vikāri—how change takes place in it; yataḥ—from what; cha—also; yat—what; saḥ—he; cha—also; yaḥ—who; yat-prabhāvaḥ—what his powers are; cha—and; tat—that; samāsena—in summary; me—from me; śhṛiṇu—listen