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Bhagavad Gita Chapter 13 Verse 20

भगवद् गीता अध्याय 13 श्लोक 20

प्रकृतिं पुरुषं चैव विद्ध्यनादी उभावपि।
विकारांश्च गुणांश्चैव विद्धि प्रकृतिसंभवान्।।13.20।।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी ( भगवद् गीता 13.20)

।।13.20।।प्रकृति और पुरुष -- दोनोंको ही तुम अनादि समझो और विकारों तथा गुणोंको भी प्रकृतिसे ही उत्पन्न समझो। कार्य और करणके द्वारा होनेवाली क्रियाओंको उत्पन्न करनेमें प्रकृति हेतु कही जाती है और सुखदुःखोंके भोक्तापनमें पुरुष हेतु कहा जाता है।

Rudra Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Thus the ksetra or field of activity along with its qualities and attributes has been concisely described up to this point. Now Lord Krishna by affirming the beginingless nature of prakriti or the material substratum pervading physical existence and the Purusa or the Supreme Lord both are the cause of transmigratory existence. What are the ksetras modifications, from whence does it arise and what are its forms. Also what is the nature of the entity known as the ksetra-jna or knower of the field of activity and what are its powers and potencies. All these things are eruditely explained in this verse and the next four. If prakriti were to have a beginning then we would have to accept that there must be another prakriti as the cause and then another as that cause and another as that causes and on and on. Therefore Lord Krishna elucidates this point by declaring that both prakriti and the purusa are without beginning. Prakriti is a modification into the material of the Purusa which is a manifestation of the Supreme Lord. It should be understood that the evolution of the body, the senses, the gunas or modes of material nature of goodness, passion and ignorance and their modifications such as happiness, misery, delusion all arise from prakriti.

Brahma Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Before Lord Krishna explained in detail the questions posed in verse four concerning the characteristics and nature of the ksetra. Now He describes in brief the modifications of prakriti or the material substratum pervading material existence and purusa the supreme in the form of the atma or immortal soul. The modifications of prakriti are the three gunas or modes of goodness, passion and ignorance. At the time of universal dissolution whatever accumulation is remaining from prakriti a small part of that will be from these gunas. In the Madhuchanda section it has been mentioned that this small portion of accumulation will constitute action as well as inaction. As desires are modifications of the jiva or embodied being the gunas are modifications of prakriti. Even though prakriti is the source of the gunas it is uninfluenced by them as they are in seed form and ready to burst into sprout once they enter the material manifestation. They do not come into existence like transient desires but are potentially established in the act of dissolution. The entire material creation which cyclically manifests and dissolves has inherent within it traces of the potentiality of recreation programmed into its atomic substratum. Thus all phenomena in manifestation and dissolution is influenced by the gunas and reabsorbed by its potentiality back into the matrix of existence exactly the way it was previously. Now begins the summation. The separation of the words prakritim purusancaiva differentiates the animate and sentient purusa and its immortal soul from the inanimate and insentient prakriti. The modifications such as desire and attraction along with the attributes of goodness, passion and ignorance being different are mentioned separately although both arise solely from prakriti. The purusa which exemplifies the Supreme Lord is completely independent of prakriti and thus is exclusively referred to as the witness, the monitor, the ordainer, etc.

Shri Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Here Lord Krishna explains that from the beginning of time purusa or the immortal soul and prakriti the material substratum pervading physical existence have been existing united together. The word vikarams means modifications and transformations this denotes non-spiritual material attributes and passions. The word gunas or three modes of material nature being sattva or goodness with its virtues, rajas or passion with its desires and tamas or nescience with its ignorance are all by products of prakriti. Virtuous qualities such as reverence and humility are situated in sattva and effectuate moksa or liberation from material existence. The qualities of passion with their desires and attachments are situated in rajas and effectuates bondage to material existence. The qualities of ignorance with sense gratification as the goal of existence is situated in tamas and effectuates degeneration into less evolved species next life. Purusa uniting with prakriti has been perpetuating since the beginning of time and expresses itself as a ksetra or field of activity which is a physical body. The jiva or embodied being influenced by the modifications of rajas and tamas in the form of desire and attachment, attraction and aversion, shrouds the atma or immortal soul and keeps it in bondage. Contrarily the jiva being influenced by the modifications of sattva in the form of the 20 super excellent attributes of spiritual endowment given in verses 8 to 12 headed by reverence and humility constitutes the cause of the atma attaining moksa.

Kumara Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Here Lord Krishna explains that from the beginning of time purusa or the immortal soul and prakriti the material substratum pervading physical existence have been existing united together. The word vikarams means modifications and transformations this denotes non-spiritual material attributes and passions. The word gunas or three modes of material nature being sattva or goodness with its virtues, rajas or passion with its desires and tamas or nescience with its ignorance are all by products of prakriti. Virtuous qualities such as reverence and humility are situated in sattva and effectuate moksa or liberation from material existence. The qualities of passion with their desires and attachments are situated in rajas and effectuates bondage to material existence. The qualities of ignorance with sense gratification as the goal of existence is situated in tamas and effectuates degeneration into less evolved species next life. Purusa uniting with prakriti has been perpetuating since the beginning of time and expresses itself as a ksetra or field of activity which is a physical body. The jiva or embodied being influenced by the modifications of rajas and tamas in the form of desire and attachment, attraction and aversion, shrouds the atma or immortal soul and keeps it in bondage. Contrarily the jiva being influenced by the modifications of sattva in the form of the 20 super excellent attributes of spiritual endowment given in verses 8 to 12 headed by reverence and humility constitutes the cause of the atma attaining moksa.