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Bhagavad Gita Chapter 13 Verse 18

भगवद् गीता अध्याय 13 श्लोक 18

ज्योतिषामपि तज्ज्योतिस्तमसः परमुच्यते।
ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं ज्ञानगम्यं हृदि सर्वस्य विष्ठितम्।।13.18।।

हिंदी अनुवाद - स्वामी रामसुख दास जी ( भगवद् गीता 13.18)

।।13.18।।वह परमात्मा सम्पूर्ण ज्योतियोंका भी ज्योति और अज्ञानसे अत्यन्त परे कहा गया है। वह ज्ञानस्वरूप? जाननेयोग्य? ज्ञान(साधनसमुदाय) से प्राप्त करनेयोग्य और सबके हृदयमें विराजमान है।

Rudra Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

The Supreme Lord Krishna known as Parabrahma the source of the brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence, is the light of all lights, the illuminator of even the sun and the stars. He is shining, resplendently effulgent all things shine from Him, by His light all creation is full of light. Therefore Parabrahma is intouched by darkness and beyond all nescience untouched by ignorance. The Svetasvatara Upanisad III.VII. beginning veda hametam purusam meaning: The Supreme Lord shines more brilliantly then the sun and by realising Him only one attains moksa or liberation there is no other way to accomplish this. It is this knowledge that is to manifest in the functions of the intellect regarding the 20 superlative virtues given in verses 8 to 12. It is also knowable in the form of sound by OM the primordial sound frequency of the Supreme Lord. It is also accessible through spiritual practices and easily attainable by bhakti or exclusive loving devotion to the Supreme Lord. The discovery of the atma or immortal soul within the etheric heart is being emphasised by acquiring knowledge and performing appropriately for self- realisation.

Brahma Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Since the Supreme Lord Krishna is achieved by experiencing spiritual knowledge, He is understood to be the goal of all knowledge. Know the atma or immortal soul by experiencing the atma. As the Supreme Lord is the bestower of the atma and the atma is only knowable through Him then He is the most worthy object of knowledge. If the Supreme Lord is knowable by other means then the words He spoke earlier in verse 13 jneyam yat tat meaning all that which is worth knowing would make this verse repetitive. Now He affirms here the means to achieve what He revealed as the goal in verse 13 negating any contradiction. The Supreme Lord knows Himself by His Self alone. His knowing is not dependent on any external source outside of Himself. In special cases He is able to be known by others as it is possible to know Him by His desire and also by realization of the atma. But only by His grace can this manifest and without His grace knowledge of Him can never manifest. The Supreme Lord is self illuminated, He is self contented and He is equal towards all. Therefore as He is the foremost of all, He is the object of attainment for all and all jivas or embodied beings should seek His grace for only by His grace can He be known.

Shri Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Lights are those found in the sun, the stars, fire, gems, etc. The light of these lights denotes that which illuminates all these or that by which they are perceived denoting the light of consciousness by which all luminaries such as the sun and the stars are seen to shine. As for human made lights such as lamps, torches and the rest, they only dispel the darkness intervening between the sense of sight and its object and their illuminating power is limited to the sense perception of sight. But there is no limitation with the light and sight of the atma once it has been realised. The words tamasah param means beyond darkness referring to the darkness of tamas or ignorance designating the subtle but limited conditions of prakriti or the material substratum pervading physical existence; but the atma or immortal soul being eternal is transcendental to any conditions or limitations. The words jnanam jneyam means knowledge worthy of being known comprehensible by the intellect and characterised by consciousness. The words jnana gamyam means wisdom accessible through knowledge or that wisdom gained from embodying and living the 20 virtues given in verses 8 through 12 beginning with amanitvam or reverence. These exalted virtues which constitute spiritual knowledge are the means to achieve the wisdom of the atma. As the atma is situated within the heart of all sentient beings, the Supreme Lord Krishna known as Parabrahma is hrdi sarvasy dhisthitam situated in the heart of all sentient beings.

Kumara Vaishnava Sampradaya - Commentary

Lights are those found in the sun, the stars, fire, gems, etc. The light of these lights denotes that which illuminates all these or that by which they are perceived denoting the light of consciousness by which all luminaries such as the sun and the stars are seen to shine. As for human made lights such as lamps, torches and the rest, they only dispel the darkness intervening between the sense of sight and its object and their illuminating power is limited to the sense perception of sight. But there is no limitation with the light and sight of the atma once it has been realised. The words tamasah param means beyond darkness referring to the darkness of tamas or ignorance designating the subtle but limited conditions of prakriti or the material substratum pervading physical existence; but the atma or immortal soul being eternal is transcendental to any conditions or limitations. The words jnanam jneyam means knowledge worthy of being known comprehensible by the intellect and characterised by consciousness. The words jnana gamyam means wisdom accessible through knowledge or that wisdom gained from embodying and living the 20 virtues given in verses 8 through 12 beginning with amanitvam or reverence. These exalted virtues which constitute spiritual knowledge are the means to achieve the wisdom of the atma. As the atma is situated within the heart of all sentient beings, the Supreme Lord Krishna known as Parabrahma is hrdi sarvasy dhisthitam situated in the heart of all sentient beings.