सङ्करो नरकायैव कुलघ्नानां कुलस्य च।
पतन्ति पितरो ह्येषां लुप्तपिण्डोदकक्रियाः।।1.42।।
1.42 And the intermingling in the family leads the ruiners of the family verily into hell. The forefathers of these fall down (into hell) because of being deprived of the offerings of rice-balls and water.
1.42. Confusion of castes leads to hell the slayers of the family, for their forefathers fall, deprived of the offerings of rice-ball and water (libations).
1.42. The intermixture leads the family-ruiners and the family to nothing but the hell; for, their ancestors (their individual souls) fall down [in hell], being deprived of the rites of offering rice-balls and water [intended to them].
1.42 सङ्करः confusion of castes? नरकाय for the hell? एव also? कुलघ्नानाम् of the slayers of the family?कुलस्य of the family? च and? पतन्ति fall? पितरः the forefathers? हि verily? एषां their? लुप्तपिण्डोदकक्रियाः deprived of the offerings of ricall and water.No Commentary.
1.42 Sri Sankaracharya did not comment on this sloka. The commentary starts from 2.10.
1.35 1.44 Nihatya etc. upto anususruma. Sin alone is the agent in the act of slaying these desperadoes. Therefore here the idea is this : These ememies of ours have been slain, i.e., have been take possession of, by sin. Sin would come to us also after slaying them. Sin in this context is the disregard, on account of greed etc., to the injurious conseences like the ruination of the family and the like. That is why Arjuna makes a specific mention of the [ruin of the] family etc., and of its duties in the passage How by slaying my own kinsmen etc. The act of slaying, undertaken with an individualizing idea about its result, and with a particularizing idea about the person to be slain, is a great sin. To say this very thing precisely and to indicate the intensity of his own agony, Arjuna says only to himself [see next sloka]:
1.26 - 1.47 Arjuna said - Sanjaya said Sanjaya continued: The high-minded Arjuna, extremely kind, deeply friendly, and supremely righteous, having brothers like himself, though repeatedly deceived by the treacherous attempts of your people like burning in the lac-house etc., and therefore fit to be killed by him with the help of the Supreme Person, nevertheless said, I will not fight. He felt weak, overcome as he was by his love and extreme compassion for his relatives. He was also filled with fear, not knowing what was righteous and what unrighteous. His mind was tortured by grief, because of the thought of future separation from his relations. So he threw away his bow and arrow and sat on the chariot as if to fast to death.
No commentary by Sri Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakur
The sinfulness referred to is being concluded in this verse beginning with: From these sins etc. The traditions of the caste or tribe and the family are destroyed, lost, forgotten and disregarded. This also includes the four asramas or prescribed orders of life being: brahmacarya or celibate student life, grihasta or married house-holder life, vanaprastha or preperation for spiritual life and sannyasi or total renunciation from material life and complete attachment to spiritual life.
Madhvacarya has no commentary so we present Baladeva Vidyabhusanas. Now the conclusion of the sins that have been previouly deleniated before are being described. Jati-dharmah refers to the duties of the ksatriyas and others. Kula-dharmas refers to the traditional practices observed by a particular family. Utsadayate means when these are eradicated. The use of the word ca meaning also indicates that asrama-dharma which is the rules of righteousness governing the relationship between brahmana the spiritual order, ksatriya the warrior order, vaisya the mercantile order and sudra the worker class are included here as well.
There is no commentary for this verse.
In the previous verse the effects of the intermixture of castes as described in the Vedic scriptures regarding the ancestors has been determined. Now Arjuna describes the misery experienced for those who are responsible for causing this intermixture of castes beginning with dosair etaih. Due to these evils the essential duties prescribed in the Vedic scriptures for the four castes which are the authorised and proven means leading humanity to the highest good and which are faithfully instructed by holy sages and spiritual masters are all forsaken.
Sankaro narakaayaiva kulaghnaanaam kulasya cha; Patanti pitaro hyeshaam luptapindodakakriyaah.
saṅkaraḥ—unwanted children; narakāya—hellish; eva—indeed; kula-ghnānām—for those who destroy the family; kulasya—of the family; cha—also; patanti—fall; pitaraḥ—ancestors; hi—verily; eṣhām—their; lupta—deprived of; piṇḍodaka-kriyāḥ—performances of sacrificial offerings