येषामर्थे काङ्क्षितं नो राज्यं भोगाः सुखानि च।
त इमेऽवस्थिता युद्धे प्राणांस्त्यक्त्वा धनानि च।।1.33।।
।।1.33।।जिनके लिये हमारी राज्य? भोग और सुखकी इच्छा है? वे ही ये सब अपने प्राणोंकी और धनकी आशाका त्याग करके युद्धमें खड़े हैं।
।।1.33।।हमें जिनके लिये राज्य भोग और सुखादि की इच्छा है वे ही लोग धन और जीवन की आशा को त्यागकर युद्ध में खड़े हैं।
।।1.33।। व्याख्या येषामर्थे काङ्क्षितं नो राज्यं भोगाः सुखानि च हम राज्य सुख भोग आदि जो कुछ चाहते हैं उनको अपने व्यक्तिगत सुखके लिये नहीं चाहते प्रत्युत इन कुटुम्बियों प्रेमियों मित्रों आदिके लिये ही चाहते हैं। आचार्यों पिताओं पितामहों पुत्रों आदिको सुखआराम पहुँचे इनकी सेवा हो जाय ये प्रसन्न रहें इसके लिये ही हम युद्ध करके राज्य लेना चाहते हैं भोगसामग्री इकट्ठी करना चाहते हैं। त इमेऽवस्थिता युद्धे प्राणांस्त्यक्त्वा धनानि च पर वे ही ये सबकेसब अपने प्राणोंकी और धनकी आशाको छोड़कर युद्ध करनेके लिये हमारे सामने इस रणभूमिमें खड़े हैं। इन्होंने ऐसा विचार कर लिया है कि हमें न प्राणोंका मोह है और न धनकी तृष्णा है हम मर बेशक जायँ पर युद्धसे नहीं हटेंगे। अगर ये सब मर ही जायँगे हमें राज्य किसके लिये चाहिये सुख किसके लिये चाहिये धन किसके लिये चाहिये अर्थात् इन सबकी इच्छा हम किसके लिये करें प्राणांस्त्यक्त्वा धनानि च का तात्पर्य है कि वे प्राणोंकी और धनकी आशाका त्याग करके खड़े हैं अर्थात् हम जीवित रहेंगे और हमें धन मिलेगा इस इच्छाको छोड़कर वे खड़े हैं। अगर उनमें प्राणोंकी और धनकी इच्छा होती तो वे मरनेके लिये युद्धमें क्यों खड़े होते अतः यहाँ प्राण और धनका त्याग करनेका तात्पर्य उनकी आशाका त्याग करनेमें ही है। सम्बन्ध जिनके लिये हम राज्य भोग और सुख चाहते हैं वे लोग कौन हैं इसका वर्णन अर्जुन आगेके दो श्लोकोंमें करते हैं।
।।1.33।। No commentary.
1.32 1.34 O Govinda! What need do we have of a kingdom, or what (need) of enjoyments and livelihood? Those for whom kingdom, enjoyments and pleasures ae desired by us, viz teachers, uncles, fathers-in-law, grandsons, brothers-in-law as also relatives-those very ones stand arrayed for battle risking their lives and wealth.
1.33. Those for whose sake we desire kingdom, enjoyments and pleasures, stand here in battle, having renounced life and wealth.
1.33. [These are our] teachers, fathers, sons and also paternal grandfathers, maternal uncles, fathers-in-law, sons sons, wives brothers, and (other) relatives.
1.33 येषाम् of whose? अर्थे sake? काङ्क्षितम् (is) desired? नः by us? राज्यम् kingdom? भोगाः enjoyment? सुखानि pleasures? च and? ते they? इमे these? अवस्थिताः stand? युद्धे in battle? प्राणान् life? त्यक्त्वा having abandoned? धनानि wealth? च and.No Commentary.
1.33 Sri Sankaracharya did not comment on this sloka. The commentary starts from 2.10.
1.30 1.34 Na ca sreyah, etc., upto mahikrte. Those who are wrongly conceived as object of slaying, with the individualizing idea that these are my teachers etc.8 would necessarily generate sin. Similarly, the act of slaying even of those deserving to be slain in the battle-if undertaken with the idea that This battle is to be fought for the apparent results like pleasures, happiness etc.- then it generates sin necessarily. This idea lurks in the objection [of Arjuna]. That is why a reply is going to be given [by Bhagavat] as You must undertake actions simply as your own duty, and not with an individualizing idea.
1.26 - 1.47 Arjuna said - Sanjaya said Sanjaya continued: The high-minded Arjuna, extremely kind, deeply friendly, and supremely righteous, having brothers like himself, though repeatedly deceived by the treacherous attempts of your people like burning in the lac-house etc., and therefore fit to be killed by him with the help of the Supreme Person, nevertheless said, I will not fight. He felt weak, overcome as he was by his love and extreme compassion for his relatives. He was also filled with fear, not knowing what was righteous and what unrighteous. His mind was tortured by grief, because of the thought of future separation from his relations. So he threw away his bow and arrow and sat on the chariot as if to fast to death.
No Commentary by Sri Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakur
Arjuna says moreover, I see no good etc. That he does not see any benefit from slaying family members opposed in battle. It may be argued to him that by fighting them it will lead to victory; but he has already said that he doesnt desire victory. This is being expanded in verse 32 beginning with kim tu rajyena up to the end of verse 33. They for whose sake we deisre sovereignty are assembled here to fight giving up life and wealth, meaning undergoing such sacrifice. Therefore of what use will sovereignty be to us? This is the understanding for verses 31-34.
Madhvacarya has no commentary so we present Baladeva Vidyabhusanas. By Arjuna addressing Lord Krishna as Govinda expresses that since Lord Krishna is the knower of all the functions of the senses, Lord Krishna is also the knower of his mind. The reason for not desiring the kingdom etc. are given in the second half of verse 32 beginning: yesam arthe. One can desire a kingdom for the happiness of ones kinsman even at the cost of ones own life; but in this battle when the destruction of ones kin is certain it is a fruitless desire to engage in battle. If it is put forth that although Arjuna out of compassion might not wish to slay his enemies; but it is certain that his enemies will surely slay him to keep the kingdom free from thorns. To answer this Arjuna is saying even if they intend to slay him he will not slay them. He says: I do not desire the rulership of the three worlds let alone this tract of land called Earth. If it is argued that Arjuna could slay only the sons of Dhritarastra who caused the Pandavas so much troubles and leave all the others warriors alive then to answer this Arjuna is saying: what pleasure is there for us the Pandavas to kill the sons of Dhritarastra? In expectation of temporary, earthly pleasures, fratricide is not in any way an appropriate action and will only insure eternal damnation to hell. By Arjuna addressing Lord Krishna as Janardana which means He who always naturally protects His devotees; that since He has appeared for removing the sins from this world, then He can just slay all these sinners Himself and since Lord Krishna is the Supreme Lord there is no question of Him incurring any sinful reaction for causing their deaths.
There is no commentary for this verse.
It could be put forth that even if there is no reward in the heavenly planets there would still be royal luxuries and kingly enjoyments in this world for the slayer. To refute this supposition in this verse Arjuna declares what use are these? The explanation of Arjuna addressing Lord Krishna by the vocative Govinda indicates that since the Lord is the possessor of eternal existence, consciousness and bliss, Arjuna is imploring that the Lord should satiate him with this bliss. In the word Govinda, go stands for the senses and vinda stands for He who attracts and directs the senses. So Arjuna feeling great despair contemplating the prospect of immense slaughter as a consequence of war is requesting Lord Krishna to properly direct his senses for his ultimate benefit. If it were to be submitted that even if Arjuna, being the son of Pandu and Kunti had no desire for royal luxuries and kingly enjoyments, for the sake of his relatives such desires are appropriate. This is neutralised by this verse which stating that all those relatives for whose sake these desires would be appropriate are on the battlefield ready for war. Therefore in this context Arjuna has no need to fight. It may be argued that even if Arjuna thinks of them as relatives, if he does not slay them, they will certainly slay him. So Arjuna should slay them all and rule over the entire kingdom. To refute this Arjuna states that he never desires to slay them, even if they wish to slay him. Arjuna addressing Lord Krishna with the vocative Madhusudana is giving reference to Lord Krishna terminating the existence of a demon name Madhu in a previous time. The name is used to give credence to Arjunas position by illustrating as an example that demons are to be exterminated and not relatives. Arjuna exclaims here that even for dominion of all the worlds he would not wish to slay the sons of Dhritarastra, let alone for a kingdom on the earth. By addressing Lord Krishna with the vocative Janardana meaning He who destroys the ignorance of His devotees, Arjuna is supplicating Lord Krishna to destroy his ignorance as well.
Yeshaam arthe kaangkshitam no raajyam bhogaah sukhaani cha; Ta ime’vasthitaa yuddhe praanaamstyaktwaa dhanaani cha.
na—nor; kāṅkṣhe—do I desire; vijayam—victory; kṛiṣhṇa—Krishna; na—nor; cha—as well; rājyam—kingdom; sukhāni—happiness; cha—also; kim—what; naḥ—to us; rājyena—by kingdom; govinda—Krishna, he who gives pleasure to the senses, he who is fond of cows; kim—what?; bhogaiḥ—pleasures; jīvitena—life; vā—or; yeṣhām—for whose; arthe—sake; kāṅkṣhitam—coveted for; naḥ—by us; rājyam—kingdom; bhogāḥ—pleasures; sukhāni—happiness; cha—also; te—they; ime—these; avasthitāḥ—situated; yuddhe—for battle; prāṇān—lives; tyaktvā—giving up; dhanāni—wealth; cha—also